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Book Review Real-Lexikon der Medizin (Encyclopedia of Medicine). 6 volumes in a loose-leaf system. Edited by G.Thiele and H.Walter

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dichloride, to a melt of at least one excess aromatic diamine,
e.g. m-phenylenediamine, at a high temperature. After the
reaction, the product is dissolved in a conventional solvent
for aromatic polyamides, such as dimethylacetamide or
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone,at least one aromatic dicarboxylic
acid halide, e.g. isophthaloyl chloride, is added to this
solution between 0 and -2O”C, and the mixture is polycondensed to completion at this temperature to obtain a
high molecular weight product. [DOS 2062774; Farbwerke Hoechst AG, FrankfurtlMain-Hochst]
[PR 58 IE-0]
The cis isomer of disadium epoxysuccinate (I) can take the
place of sodium tripolyphosphate, which has until now been
extensively used as a builder in detergents and cleaning
mixtures, but which should no longer be used because of
its adverse effect on bodies of water. Since (I j contains no
O/LiH-CooNa
'CH- COON^
(1)
plant nutrients such as phosphorus or nitrogen, unlike
polyphosphate, it has no eutrophic effect on fresh-water
flora, and in particular it does not lead to excessive growth
of algae. The natural development of the fauna and flora of
the water bodies is not disturbed by ( I ) , so that the detergents present in washing agents can be biologically degraded. 20-45 wt.% of the detergent mixture consists of
alkaline sodium salts, of which 40-85 wt.% preferably
consists of (1). The full action of (1j is achieved in washing
baths at pH 9. (I) has sufficient thermal stability for use
at normal washing temperatures. Its prime cost is very
little above the cost of tripolyphosphate. ( I ) is prepared
by epoxidation of maleic acid with 30% H 2 0 2at 60°C in
aqueous solution in the presence of sodium tungstate.
[DOS 2160908 ; Produits Chimiques Pechiney-SaintGobain, Paris]
[PR 81 IE-V]
To prepare Ndisubstituted glycines, amino alcohof such
as triethanolamine are oxidized with 0, in the presence
of Pt, possibly on a catalyst support and possibly in the
presence of a solvent at 25-1 10°C. The glycines obtained
in this way are used for organic syntheses, as textile auxiliaries, and particularly as builders for detergents. [DOS
2103724; Chemische Werke Hub, Marl]
[PR 110 IE-B]
BOOK REVIEWS
Elektronenanlagerung-Massenspektrographie organkcher
Substanzen (Electron Addition Mass Spectrography of
Organic Substances). By M. von Ardenne, K . Steinfelder,
and R. Tummler. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-HeidelbergNew York 1971. 1st ed., viii, 403 pp., 109 figs., stitched
DM 68,.
The present book sums up several years’ work by the
authors in the development and application of electron
addition (EA) mass spectrography in the Manfred von
Ardenne Research Institute, Dresden.
The fundamentals of the method are presented in the
first part of the book, and are followed by a description
of the equipment and general questions of sample preparation, measuring technique, and evaluation of the spectra.
After a discussion of the ionization mechanisms, there
is a short comparison of the EA mass spectra of negative
and positive ions.
In the second part of the book, after dealing with a number
of possible applications, mainly in the chemistry of natural
products, the authors present a clear description of the
classes of substances that have been investigated so far
and of the decomposition rules that have been explained.
The book ends with extensive tables containing the EA
mass-spectroscopic data known at present.
The book should be equally valuable to the advanced
chemist and to the specialist in the field of mass spectrometry. As an additional method, EA mass spectrography
will undoubtedly find much more frequent use in analytical
chemistry in the future for the solution of special problems,
514
despite the need for larger samples than in electron bombardment mass spectrometry.
Gerd Remberg [NB 136 IE]
Real-Lexikon der Medizim (Encyclopedia of Medicine). 6
volumes in a loose-leaf system. Edited by G. Thiele
and H . Walter. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Miinchen. Vol.
3 (F-Hyperl) 1969/70, ii, 804 pp., 140.- DM. Vol. 4
(Hypern-Melusinidae) 1971/72, viii, 802 pp., numerous
figures and tables, 160.- DM.
Two thirds of the
have now been completed.
They show that the work is not only important for doctors,
but will be of use also (and perhaps especially) to those
who have a sort of scientific point of contact with medicine
on the chemical side. Its content is lexical in the best
sensd, i. e. for each concept one not only finds a definition,
but also learns something about the factors that make
the object in question or the associated phenomenon
important in medicine. In some cases, however, the necessary concisenessof expression leads to impenetrable brevity,
which makes the explanation understandable only to those
who are already fundamentally in possession of the information, but which may nevertheless serve as an indication
to the novice that he still has something to learn here
(as under the keyword “gamma globulins”). A literature
reference to open the door to further studies would have
been useful in this connection, but perhaps this is too
[‘I
Cf. Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 8, 222 (1969).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
Val. I2 (1973) No. 6
much to ask. There are interesting things to be learnt
in this book, e. g . that “ammonium carbonicum” (why
not ammonium carbonate?) is also known as “Geistersalz”,
or that 2,6-lupetidine is not described in medical (or rather
pharmaceutical) circles as 2,6dimethylpiperidine, but is
known by the grander-sounding name “nanofinum”. This
is not necessarily the editors’ fault, but at the same time
it does not contribute much to a mutual understanding
between different scientific disciplines. However, the chemist will welcome the clear and detailed schemes of important metabolic processes. On the whole, we have here
a work that is outstanding for the care with which it
has been edited, and that will tie of great value to its
owner (not least because of the inclusion of English and
French equivalents of numerous keywords).
Helmut Griinewald [NB 130 IE]
Handbuchdes kathodischen Korrosionsschutzes [Handbook
of Cathodic Corrosion Protection]. By W u. Baeckmann
and W Schwenk. Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim/
Bergstr. 1971, 1st ed., xxii, 422 pp., 204 figs., 53 tables,
cloth DM 140.-.
Mainly in connection with the growing use of underground
pipelines for petroleum and petroleum products, water,
and natural gas and the steadily expanding use of underground cable systems, cathodic corrosion prevention has
developed into a branch on a par with protection by
surface coatings etc. More than in any other branch of
corrosion prevention, precise knowledge of the electrochemical principles is essential to success here, since currents
and potentials are used to intervene in the corrosion process; the effects can be determined much more accurately
than e.g. those of a process that takes place over a long
period, such as the diffusion of electrolytes.
The present book presents, for the first time in German,
a comprehensive treatment of the entire field of cathodic
and anodic corrosion protection, and the mathematical
formulas collected in the Appendix show the importance
of the calculations. Since no calculation is possible without
the results of measurements, a chapter on general measuring techniques is included; the problems of measurement
must be considered at the planning stage, and repeated
check measurements are also necessary later.
The range of problems that can be solved with the aid
of cathodic protection will be appreciated even from the
following incomplete I$ of objects that can be successfully
protected :pipelines, storage tanks, telephone cables, power
cables, ships, steel constructions in sea water, and underground plants, and also the protection of specific objects
such as hot-water systems and cold-water systems. The
possibility of calculation also allows a fairly accurate estimate of costs (installation costs, operating current costs,
maintenance costs, anode consumption, etc.).
The book, which represents the sum total of existing knowledge, should remain the standard work for a long time.
Finally, a survey of correct terminology is presented; a
side effect may be that this will be used by other authors
in the future. Despite its high price, it is to be hoped
that this book will reach the widest possible circle of
readers.
Herbert Puschmann [NB 152 IE]
G m e b Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie (Gmelin’s
Handbook of Inorganic Chemistry). Published by the
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
1 Vol. 12 (1973) No. 6
Gmelin-Institut fur anorganische Chemie und Grenzgebiete in der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Forderung
der Wissenschaften under the direction of Margot
Becke-Goehring. Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim/
Bergstr. 8th fully revised Edition.
System No. 49: Niobium, Part B 3. Oxoniobates (excluding
alkali metal niobates). Editor : Herbert Lehl. Compiled by
Hartmut Bergmann. 1971. vi, xxii, 330 pp., 205 figures,
Balacron DM 411.-.
The third volume of Part B, which was started in 1970[’],
deals with oxoniobates, from those of the alkaline earth
metals to those of vanadium. The importance of this class
of compounds can be. seen from the mere size of the volume,
which covers the literature up to 1970. This is due to the
special electrical and optical properties of the oxoniobates
which are playing an increasingly important role both in
industry and in science. Polycrystalline preparations are
often prepared by heat treatment of oxide mixtures or of
simultaneously precipitated oxide hydrates and of mixtures
of the carbonates or oxalates, as well as by heating niobium
with metal oxides or by oxidation of niobium alloys. The
equilibrium diagrams of the systems have been very
thoroughly investigated in many cases with the aid ofX-ray
and thermoanalytical methods. Many products of the
systems discussed have found practical use, examples
being the “PZT piezoceramics”. These consist of
Pb(Zr,Ti)O, modified with Nb,O, and other oxides,
and have advantages in respect of temperature resistance
and aging resistance over the BaTiO, piezoceramics in
electromechanical transducers. The volume contains very
many figures showing equilibrium diagrams, lattice structures, and temperature dependence of dielectric constants,
elastic coefficients, piezoelectric constants, and other
parameters of ceramic preparations. The last section of the
volume, “Defmition and General Literature”, would
have been better placed at the beginning, though it is
referred to there, together with the remark that the alkali
metal niobates are discussed in “Niobium” volume B4,
which is to be published in 1972, and will complete System
No. 49.
System No. 47: Lead, Part BI. The element (excluding
electrochemical behavior). Principal editor : Anna BohneNeuber. 1972. vi, xx, 497 pp., 87 figures, Balacron DM 596.-.
Whereas Part C of System No. 47 (Lead), which was
published in 1969-197Ir2’, dealt with the metallurgy,
alloys, and compounds of lead, the present first volume of
Part B is concerned with the element. The second volume
will be devoted to the electrochemistry of lead.
The present volume first describes the abundance,
preparation, enrichment, separation, and properties of the
numerous lead isotopes. As a result of accurate atomic
weight determinations, it has recently become necessary,
as for many other elements, to limit the accuracy formerly
aimed at and claimed for the atomic weight, since the
fluctuations of the isotope abundances, which are considerable even for ordinary lead, are much greater still for
the naturally occurring radiogenic leads. The most recent
value for the atomic weight of lead on the “C scale is
207.2. After a short chapter on the properties of the
nuclides (nuclide masses, nuclear moments, excitation,
decay), the properties of the atom and of the atom-ions
(both the free atom-ions and the Pbz+ ions in crystals and
solutions) are described. Pb3+ ions exist in crystals.
Considerable space is devoted to the description of the
crystallographic properties of lead, which also deals with
515
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