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Book Review Reallexikon der Medizin und ihrer Grenzgebiete (Encyclopedia of Medicine and Related Fields) Vol. II Cargile Membrane to E-cell. Edited by G. Thiele and H. Walter

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The regularity of the electronic work function for metal
electrodes in electrolyte solutions on irradiation with U V
light (A = 365 nm) has been investigated by Y . V. PIeskov and
2. A . Rotenberg. In concentrated solutions of electrolyte, the
photocurrent I is related to the electrode potential rp over a
wide range according to the equation
where A is a constant. The threshold potential 90amounts to
-0.31 f 0.03 V measured against the saturated calomel
electrode, a value that is independent of the nature of the
electrode metal (Hg, Pb, TI/Hg, In/Hg were investigated).
The electronic work function for mercury (at zero charge
potential) in the electrolytes is 3.26 eV. In dilute electrolyte
solutions, in which the potential drop from the electrode to
the bulk of the solution extends over a fairly large distance,
a current-voltage curve analogous to eq. (1) is obtained if 'p is
replaced by q - # l ; $1 denotes the potential at a distance of
one ionic radius from the electrode surface, which can be
determined by a model calculation. Measurement of the
photocurrent and evaluation according to eq. (1) permits
determination of the zero charge of metals in electrolyte
solutions. / J. electroanalyt. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem.
20, 1 (1969) / -HZ.
[Rd 978 IE]
Reactions of N,N-bis(trifluoromethyl)hydroxylarnine ( I ) with
sulfur and nitrogen halides in the presence of CsF have been
examined by J . A. Lott, D . P. Babb, K . E. Pullen, and J . M .
Shreeve. New compounds of the type (CF3)2NOX, which are
stable at 20 "C, were isolated and characterized by their IR,
N M R , andmass spectra. [(CF3)2N0]2S02 and (CF3)2NOS02F
are formed from [ I Jand S02F2 in the molar ratio 2:1 and 1:I
respectively, [(CF&N0]2SO and (CF3)2NOS(O)F from ( I )
and SOFz in the molar ratio 7:3 and 3:5 respectively, and
[(CF&N0]2S and [(CF3)2N0]2S2 from ( I ) and SC12 and
S2C12 respectively. The unstable compound (CF3)zNONFz is
formed in the corresponding reaction of (1) with NF2CI. /
Inorg. Chem. 7, 2593 (1968) / -BI.
[Rd 979 IE]
retention time and the greater dipole moment being recognized as the cis form. cis- and trans-(3) can be oxidized stereospecifically with perbenzoic acid to cis- and trans-2,7-dimethyl-2,7-diphenyl-l-oxa-2,7-disilacycloheptane,
respectively. 1,2-Difluoro-1.2-dimethyl-1,2-disilacyclohexane,which is
formed with NH4HF2 from cis,trans-(3), cis-(3), or trans-(3)
in concentrated sulfuric acid, i s always obtained in the cistrans ratio of 1: % 1.9. Addition of ethanol to solutions of the
fluoro compounds in hexane or benzene can also give rise to
cis-trans isomerization, which is reported to proceed via a
compound containing pentacoordinated silicon. / Chem.
Commun. 1969, 73 / -Kr.
[Rd 981 IE]
Potassium 2-germaacetate ( I ) has been obtained by P . M.
Kirznesof and W. L. Jolly on reaction of germylpotassium
with carbon dioxide in melting 1,2-dimethoxyethane as a
white salt-like substance that is relatively stable in aqueous
solution at room temperature. The structure of its anion is
deduced to be analogous to that of acetate from the IR and
U V spectra of ( I ) and from the course of its hydrolysis
(water, 2 days at 85 "C), according to
GeH3C02
+ H20
+ GeH4
+
HC03
Acidification of a n aqueous solution of ( I ) affords a solution
of 2-germaacetic acid (PK = 3.5), which decomposes with a
half-reaction time of ca. 30 min at pH = 2 to CO as well as
non-stoichiometric amounts of GeH4 and an insoluble orange
solid containing G e and H. / Inorg. Chem. 7, 2574 (1968) /
-B1.
[Rd 980 IE]
12.22)(2,7)Phenanthrenophanetriene [2J has been synthesized
by W. Jenny and R . Paioni from hexahydrophenanthrenophane ( I ) and N-bromosuccinimide; the reaction first affords a hexabromo derivative that is subsequently debrominated with zinc. The deep yellow compound (2),which i s very
1,2-DimethyI- 1,2- diphenyl- 1,2-disilacyclohexane has been
prepared by K . Tamao, M. Ishikawa, and M. Kumada from
compound ( I ) and the Grignard reagent (2) (yield 75 %); the
same authors resolved the compound into its stereoisomers
by fractional distillation or preparative gas chromatography.
They also succeeded in synthesizing the analogous 1,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) compound, the isomer having the shorter
(3)
difficultly soluble in nearly all the common solvents, does not
melt below 500 OC, and turns red above 300 "C. Its structure
was proved by the mass spectrum [molecular ion at m/e 606
(39OoC)] and the NMR spectrum (in AsC13). On further
heating a peak appears in the mass spectrum a t m/e 600,
which could indicate dehydrogenation to [12]coronaphthene. / Chimia 23, 41 (1969) / -Kr.
[Rd 982 IE]
BOOK REVIEWS
Reallexikon der Medizin und ihrer Grenzgebiete (Encyclopedia of Medicine and Related Fields) Vol. 11: Cargile
Membrane to E-cell. Edited by G. Thiele and H . Walter.
Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich 1968, 1st Edit., 805 pp.,
loose-leaf binding with plastic covers, D M 140.-.
The second volume of this encyclopedia has appeared surprisingly soon after the firstrll, and it too makes a n excellent
impression. The most important terminology found in
222
medical and related literature have been compiled and interpreted with great expertise and certainly with great industry.
The illustrations aid in understanding the text, in particular
those of the more complicated chemical structures. If one
may form a conclusion about the entire work on the basis
of the chemical, biochemical, and physicochemical entries,
[l] Angew. Chem. 81, 43 (1968); Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
8, 87 (1969).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. I Vol. 8 [ 1969) / No. 3
the verdict is very favorable. Few inaccuracies of expression
are found, and the editors seem to have succeeded in avoiding
obvious errors t o the extent that thorough random sampling
did not reveal any mistakes. It is a pity that in the case of
chemical terms antiquated spelling (z and k instead of c) and
nomenclature more common in pharmacy has been included,
instead of adhering strictly t o the style used in the standard
works of the German chemical literature. However, it must
be emphasized that this is an encyclopedia for students of
medicine though chemists active in the areas bordering the
medical sciences will find much useful information, not available elsewhere in such a precise and handy form.
H. Griinewald [NB 773 IE]
Das Fischer Lexikon Chemie (The Fischer Encyclopedia Chemistry) A-2. Edited by H . Kelker, F. Kluges, R.
Schwarz, and U. Wannagat. S. Fischer-Verlag, Frankfurt
1968. New edition, 400 pp., 46 figures, bound. D M 4.80.
The “Chemistry” volume of the Fischer Encyclopedia, which
first appeared in 1961 and of which 125000 copies have since
been sold, has now been published in a new edition. Many of
the entries have been brought u p t o date, others have been
revised or included for the first time, and nearly everywhere
it has been necessary t o include recent developments. The
editors have done this thoroughly and skilfully and the new
edition deserves if anything even greater success than the
first.
Comparatively few key-words are given (42 altogether), but
each represents an article covering several pages and imparting the relevant information in textbook-like manner.
The attraction of the volume lies in the fact that the alphabetical arrangement of the entries gives rise to an unconventional structure, differing from the usual textbook; it
allows related material to be kept together, and frequently
leads t o unfamiliar aspects.
A point worth making is that the index should also have been
seen and corrected by the authors. This procedure was
evidently not followed in the case of the present volume, as is
shown by the numerous misprints which have no place in a
book of this kind.
Anyone who likes to have his chemistry near him t o read on
the train, in the waiting room, or at his desk, will be delighted
with this volume.
H . Grunewald W B 774 IE]
ABC Biologie (The ABC of Biology). Edited by G. Dietrich
and F. W. Stocker. Verlag Harri Deutsch, FrankfurtZurich. N o date given. 920 pp. 14 color plates. Plastic
binding, D M 49.80.
This volume is welcome, even if one does not agree that
biology is daily “penetrating deeper into social life” (foreword). It attempts t o provide something like a synthesis of
biology, physiology, botany, and zoology, and in this it is
eminently successful. For a biochemist in particular, the concepts of biology that derive from the observation of the entire
organism are not always completely clear, and accurate definitions of the terms are often needed. The encyclopedia
covers about 6000 entries. The numerous illustrations in the
text and longer articles containing comprehensive and comparative explanations of particularly important entries are of
special value.
The information is in general reliable, but it does not always
reflect the latest developments in the field (e.g. insulin), either
in style or in content. There are occasional errors (e.g.
hv = Planck‘s constant), and the “germanized” spelling, which
makes looking up references unnecessarily difficult, is
regrettable. All this does not, however, detract from the value
of this volume. The chemist who wants t o check up o n the
meaning of biological concepts would be well advised t o have
this work in his private library.
ff. Grunewald [NB 775 IE]
Angew. Chem. internal. Edit. J V d . 8 (1969) No. 3
Appretur der Textilien. Mechanische und chemische Technologic der Ausriistung (Textile finishing. Mechanical and
chemical finishing technology) by W. Bernard. SpringerVerlag. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 7967. 2nd revised
Edit., viii, 406 pp.. 403 figures, DM 78.-.
In the eight years that have elapsed since the publication of
the first edition, there have been many changes in textile
finishing. Not only have new cotton finishing processes
(particularly for high-grade finishing) been introduced, but
processes have also been developed in the synthetics field,
such as antistatic treatment, hydrophilic treatment, and the
fixing of synthetic or mixed fibers. It was also necessary t o
consider technical innovations in connection with finishing
aids into account.
The first chapter of the book describes mechanical finishing
operations, dealing on the one hand with new methods and
on the other with new machinery. The second part is concerned with chemical finishing. In addition to the usual stiffening,
weighting, and filling processes, the chemicals required in
their execution are also discussed. This is followed by modern
finishes such as antistatic treatment, chemical finishing for
wool textiles, oil-repellent and dirt-repellent finishing, and
high-grade finishing. In describing the processes the author
emphasizes the practical application, and spends no more
time on chemical aspects than is necessary.
The book is well arranged and contains excellent illustrations,
so that it is fairly easy for the reader t o gain a picture of the
range of finishing processes and machinery.
At the end of the book there is a very useful list of suppliers
of finishing machinery and finishing agents and a comprehensive subject index. The book is a valuable aid not only for
the practical textile worker but also for all those whose
professional training requires a knowledge of textile finishing.
H . Ruth
[NB 781 IE]
Lehrbuch der Pharmakognosie. Auf phytochemischer Grundlage v e x t b o o k of pharmacognosy. On a phytochemical
basis). By E. Steinegger and R . Hansel. Springer-Verlag,
Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1968.2nd Edit., xii, 531 pp..
numerous figures and tables, D M 78.-.
This book, which first appeared five years ago as “Lehrbuch
der allgemeinen Pharmakognosie”, is a “comparative, descriptive plant biochemistry” in which attention is centered on
medicinal plants, their active principles, and their use. The
main part of the book, which deals with the various drugs, is
accordingly arranged largely o n a phytochemical basis. This
is particularly true of the following chapters: “Plant acids a s
main active principles” ( 5 pp.), “Carbohydrate drugs”
(43 pp.), “Glycoside drugs” (104 pp.), “Tannin drugs”
(10 pp.), “Proteins and enzymes” (17 pp.), and with certain
limitations also “Fats, oils, and other lipids” (22 pp.). Occasionally, when it seems more appropriate t o the authors for
didactic reasons, an alternative classification system is used.
Thus the chapter on “Alkaloid drugs” (93 pp.) is arranged
more in accordance with botanical principles, while the chapters on “Ethereal oils, resins, and balsams” (79 pp.) and o n
drugs whose active principles are unknown (49 pp.) are arranged in accordance with therapeutic principles. A special
chapter is devoted t o “Drugs from microorganisms” (32 pp.).
This layout is largely retained from the first edition, though
the various sections have been very carefully revised and updated almost throughout.
Each chapter is preceded by a survey of the group of substances in question. The botanical origins and extraction of
the various drugs, their contents, and their special properties,
physiological action, and therapeutic importance are discussed in detail.
The reduction of the number of pages from 595 t o 531 is
mainly due to trimming in the general section, in which
special chapters devoted to drug morphology and t o systematic, genetic, and physiological problems of pharmacobotany in the first edition have been omitted from the
223
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