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Book Review Recent Analytical Developments in the Petroleum Industry. Edited by D. R. Hodges

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of formaldehyde in the presence of dialkyl sulfoxides or N,Ndialkylsubstituted amides and a small amount of a strong
baseat 20--40°C. [DOS 2327961 ; Riitgerswerke AG, Frankfurt]
[PR 273 IE-D]
Z(Difluoromethylthio)benmthiamles (1 ), which are obtained
from benzothiazole-2-thiols and difluorohalomethanes, are
potent acaricides that can be used both against spinning mites
and against ticks. Compounds (2) and (3) are specifically
R’
(1)
(2). x
(3). X
= NO,
= OCH,
mentioned. In ( l ) , R’, RZ, and R3 denote hydrogen, alkyl,
halogen, trifluoromethyl, phenyl, alkoxy, phenoxy, or nitro.
[DOS 2 334356; Farbwerke Hoechst AG, Frankfurt/M.]
[PR 274 IE-S]
BOOK REVIEWS
Low-Energy Electrons and Surface Chemistry. Monographs
in Modern Chemistry 4. By G . Ertl and J . Kiippers. Verlag
Chemie, GmbH, Weinheim 1974. 1st Edit., x, 251 pp., 152
figs., 3 tables, bound, DM 98,-.
The authors’ objective for this monograph was to provide
the non-expert with a readily understandable introduction
to the most important methods used in the chemistry and
physics of solid surfaces. This objective has been excellently
achieved, within the limitations that the auth&s imposed
on themselves, but the book may also prove useful to experts,
particularly because of the detailed literature references added
to each chapter. The limitations mentioned result in a preference for practical applications, with omission of a detailed
presentation of the theoretical fundamentals and the omission
of-also important-methods of investigation in which slow
electrons d o not take part (e.g. SIMS, ion back-scattering,
RHEED). The latter is a disadvantage.
The main emphasis of the book is in the 60 pages that
make up Chapter 9 (Low-Energy Electron Diffraction =
LEED). This is preceded by chapters on the methods that
are usually termed “supplementary techniques”, among which
Chapter 2 concerning the important topic of Auger electron
spectroscopy occupies the largest space (33 pages). Secondaryelectron, photoelectron, and X-ray excitation spectroscopy
(APS) and the problems of the work function are treated
more tersely. Field-emission and ion-neutralization spectroscopy, and also phonon effects on surfaces, are treated only
very briefly,
Chapter 11 (the last) which deals, unfortunately rather too
shortly, with the application of methods previously discussed
to problems of adsorption is particularly impressive. This
makes it clear that only a suitable combination of many
different techniques, if possible in the same UHV apparatus,
is at present able to provide tenable statements about a d s o r p
tion processes on crystal surfaces. One gets the impression
that some of the individual problems discussed in Chapter
11 should have been treated in more detail in special chapters.
O n the other hand, the brief presentation is advantageous
for an introductory text, and the interested reader can find
moredetailed information in the extensive literature references.
K . MoIiCre [NB 259 IE]
Natural Products Chemistry. Vol. 1. Edited by K. Nakanishi,
7: Goto, S. Itb, S. Natori, and S. Nozoe. Kodansha Ltd.,
Tokyo/Academic Press, Inc. New York-London 1974. 1st
Edit., 562 pp., bound $ 32.50.
The chemistry of natural products has undergone a renaissance in recent years, though unfortunately not in Germany.
The intention of the well known Japanese publishers was
504
that this, the first of two volumes planned to cover natural
products chemistry, should fill a gap between textbooks of
organic chemistry and special presentations of more restricted
fields of natural products chemistry. The introductory chapters
on the classification of natural products and on physicochemical data are followed by four chapters on mono- and sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sester-, tri-, and higher terpenoids, and
steroids. The emphasis of the presentation is on a wealth
of clearly arranged formulas that permit rapid orientation
in the subject. The brief accompanying text contains information on structure elucidation, syntheses, reactions, and biosynthesis as well as data on origin and physiological action.
In respect of biosynthesis, however, little is included about
work on the enzymic aspects. Physicochemical data are given
for each compound including the position of the most important proton-resonance peaks.
The book contains an enormous amount of information,
special consideration being given to the newer literature up
to 1973. Classical work on structure determination is reported
only in the steroid chapter. This textbook could be a most
valuable source of information to the natural products chemist,
but it is also suitable for the preparation of lectures to students
and symposia, since the structural formulas are so arranged
that they can be used directly for the preparation of diapositives. Furthermore, the chemist active in other fields can
certainly be stimulated by the many synthetic methods
illustrated. The second volume is awaited impatiently, but
it is not too early to wish the book a wide readership.
Hans Grisebach [NB 272 IE]
Recent Analytical Developments in the Petroleum Industry.
Edited by D. R. Hodges. Applied Science Publishers Ltd.,
Barking 1974. 1st Edit., IX, 337 pp., 109 figs., 56 tables,
bound, E 10.-.
This volume contains the text of lectures given at a symposium organized by the Institute of Petroleum in London,
together with the relevant discussions. There are 19 contributions, opened by A. S. Curry who reports on the progress
in analytical chemistry during the last 10-20 years. Subsequent chapters of the book are devoted to special methods
of analysis of hydrocarbons and additives; each of these
chapters gives a critical review and a comparison with similar
methods and marks out the limits and possibilities; critical
remarks at the discussions, often kept very short, round off
each theme.
J. P. Coates compares the possibilities of IR spectroscopy
and laster Raman spectroscopy. The section by D. E. Hillmun,
7: J . Paul, and D. G. Cobbold is devoted to the determination
of corrosion inhibitor Hitec E 515 in aircraft fuel by gel
Anyrw. Chrni. inrc,rrtur. E d i f . 1 Vol. 14 (19751
1 No. 7
permeation chromatography. E. R . Allard and P. H . D.
Matthews describe selective detectors for the determination
of organically bound nitrogen by gas chromatography. Coulson’s conductometric detector is shown to be particularly
useful; its selectivity for nitrogenous compounds is lo6: 1
against hydrocarbons; and sulfur-, chlorine- and phosphoruscontaining compounds d o not interfere. N . G. MacTaggart
and P. Glaysher show how boiling curves for curde petroleums
can be determined by gas chromatography; the need for
internal standards to provide accurate results is particularly
emphasized.
The next chapter is devoted t o the determination of additives
in the usual machine oils by thin-layer chromatography and
densitometry. A. J . W Brook, J . E. Davies, and B. M . J .
King give experimental directions for various typ& of additives
(sulfonate, phosphate, and esters of organic acids). C . B. Grump
and A. Lynes outline the application of ion-exchange resins
to the analysis of petroleum products; particular attention
is directed at combination of anionic and cationic exchangers
es of determination by means of liquid chromatography. K. Marron then described the determination
of the proportion of saturated hydrocarbons in Ellesmere-Port
oil after separation on silica gel from the refractive indices
of the fractions; the contents of aromatics are determined
by UV spectroscopy and taken into account as corrections.
W R . McLean describes a microwave plasma detector that
allows the elemental composition of gaschromatographically
obtained fractions to be assessed by spectroscopy. The chapter
by F. A . Killer contains a method for microcoulometric determination of sulfur in “sub-ppm amounts. J . F. P . Lush reports
the possible applications of atomic absorption to the determination of trace elements in the petroleum industry. Possible
applications of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy are described
by E. W Williams.
A BP-ARL-Solfa monitor for the determination of the total
sulfur content of petroleum fractions and residual oils by
means of a nondispersive X-ray fluorescence method is described by C . F. Gamage and W H . Topham; the reproducibility
between two measurements with this apparatus is 0.02 %,
and the long-term accuracy is 0.03 to 0.05 % for sulfur contents
between 1.O and 5.0 %. Classification of mass spectra by statistical methods is the concern of A. G. Baker, M . Camp, E.
Huntington, W 7: Pike, and M . A. Shaw. G . B. Levy and
D. M . Seltzer describe a method for coulometric determination
of moisture, and R . W Hooks describes the determination
of the total basicity number (mg of KOH, which are equivalent
to the amount of mineral acid neutralized by 1 g of the oil);
the latter author proposes addition of filtration through cellulose acetate filters of defined porosity for titration by perchloric
acid in acetic acid (IP 276) when dealing with oils containing
oil-insoluble residues. A. G. Butlin and A . Lynes describe
the characterization of dialkyl dithiophosphates; after fission
of the zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate by hydrogen iodide the
dialkyl sulfides and the alkyl iodides are determined by gas
chromatography. Trace analysis of vanadium down to the
ppB region is discussed by J . N . Wilson and C . Z . Marczewski;
the vanadium is obtained for spectrophotometry as a ternary
complex with PAR-sephiramine (pyridyl-azo-resorcinol,
zephiramin = -benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride).
A rapid method for spectrophotometricdeterminationof phosphorus in lubricating oils is described by S. 7: Holding and
J . Rowson.
The contributions can be recommended as useful for specialist in the analysis of petroleum products. It would have
been useful to have a section of individual and group analyses
and a critical consideration of the data obtained by these
analyses and their industrial applications.
Hermann Kienitz [NB 269 IE]
Aiiguiv. Chriii. iiireriiul.
Edir. J Val. 14 1197.5) 1 No. 7
Handbook of Naturally Occurring Compounds, Vol. I: Acetogenins, Shikimates, and Carbohydrates. By 7: K . Decor?
and A . I . Scott. Academic Press, New York 1975. XI, 644
pp., bound, $ 32.00.
The World of Quantum Chemistry. Proceedings of the First
International Congress of Quantum Chemistry, Menton/
France 1973. Edited by R . Daudel and B. Pullmun. D.
Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht 1974. XIV, 31 6 pp., bound,
Dfl. 100.Molecular and Quantum Pharmacology. Edited by E. D. Bergmann and B. Pullman. Vol. 7 of the series “The Jerusalem
Symposia on Quantum Chemistry and Biochemistry”. D.
Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht 1974. VII, 591 pp., bound,
Dfl. 135.Proteinase Inhibitors. Proceedings of the 2nd International
Research Conference on Proteinase Inhibitors held at
Grosse Ledder bei Koln, 16.-20. October 1973. Edited
by H . Fritz, H . Tschesche, L . J . Green, and E. Truscheit.
Bayer-Symposium V. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1974. XVI,
751 pp., bound, DM 128.-.
Ionic Diffusion in Oxide Glasses. By G . H . Frischat. From
the series “Diffusion and Defect Monograph Series“. Edited
by Y Adda, A . D. LeClaire, L. M . Slijkin, and F. H . Wohlbier.
Trans Tech Publications, Clausthal 1975. 200 pp.. bound,
$ 17.50.
Technische Chemie. Eine Einfiihrung in die Chemische Reaktionstechnik. By E. Fitzer and W Fritz. Springer-Verlag,
Berlin 1975. XIII, 552 pp., stitched, D M 44Silicate Science. Vol. VI : Silicate Structure and Dispersoid
Systems. By W Eitel. Academic Press, New York 1975.
XVIII, 819 pp., bound, $ 59.50.
Gas-Phase Electron Diffraction. By A . Haaland, L . Vilkow,
L. S. Khaikin, A. Yokozeki, and S. H . Bauer. Vol. 53 of
the series “Topics in Current Chemistry-Fortschritte der
chemischen Forschung”. Edited by F. Boschke. SpringerVerlag, Berlin 1975. IV, 119 pp., bound, DM 42.Triplet States I. By A . Devaquet, W G. Dauben, G. Lodder,
J . Ipaktschi, A. H . Maki, and J . A . Zuclich. Vol. 54 of
the series “Topics in Current Chemistry-Fortschritte
der
chemischen Forschung”. Edited by F. Boschke. SpringerVerlag, Berlin 1975. IV, 163 pp., bound, D M 68.
Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. By M. von Dehn.
Vol. 30 of the series “taschentext”. Verlag Chemie/Physik
Verlag, Weinheim 1975. VIII, 197 pp., stitched, DM 28.80
Handbook of Metal Ligand Heats and Related Thermodynamic
Quantities. By J . J . Christensen, D. J . Eatough, and R .
M . Izatt. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York 1975. 2. improved
and enlarged edit., VII, 495 pp., bound, $ 25.00.
505
Low-Dimensional Cooperative Phenomena. The Possibility of
High-Temperature Superconductivity. Edited by H . .J.
Kellrr. From Series B (Physics)of the series “Nato Advanced
Study Series” of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division.
Plenum Press. New York 1975. VIII, 350 pp.. bound,
S 30.10.
Chemical and Biochemical Reactivity. Proceedings of an
International Symposium held in Jerusalem, 9.-13. April
1973. Edited by E. D. Bergmann. Vol. VI of the series “The
Jerusalem Symposia on Quantum Chemistry and Biochemistry”. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem 1974. VIII, 578 pp., bound, $3900.
Gmelins Handbuch der Anhrganischen Chemie. System Nr.
46: Zinn. Part C 3: Verbindungen mit Alkali- und Erdalkalimetallen. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg 1975. VIII, XX, 206
pp., bound, DM 361.-.
Membranes in Separations. By S.-7: Hwang and K . Kammermeyer. Vol. 7 of the series “Techniques of Chemistry”. Edited
by A. Weissberger. John Wiley & Sons, London 1975. XXII,
558 pp., bound, f 17.50.
Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. By L. Bretherick.
Butterworths, London 1975. XX, 976 pp., bound, f 20.00.
Colloque ‘Inlet national sur I’Analyse par Activation de Tres
Faibles Quantites d’Elements-International Colloquium on
ActivationAnalysis of Very Low Amounts of Elements (2.-6.
October 1972 at C.E.N. Saclay/France). Akadkmiai Kiad6,
Budapest 1975. VIII, 390 pp., bound, DM 216.80.
Qhantum Mechanics for Organic Chemists. By H . E. Zimmermann. Academic Press, New York 1975. X. 215 pp.. bound,
$ 16.50.
Dynamic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Edited
by L. M . Jackman and F . A. Cotton. Academic Press, New
York 1975. XIV, 660 pp.. bound, $ 48.00.
Foundations of Ultra-Centrifugal Analysis. By H . Fujita. Vol.
42 of the series “Chemical Analysis”. Edited by P. J . Elving
and J . D. Winejordnrr. John Wiley & Sqns, New York
1975. XVIII, 459 pp., bound, f 11.40.
Carbenes, Vol. 11. Edited by R. A. Moss and M . Jones, Jr.
From the series “Reactive Intermediates in Organic Chemistry”. Edited by G. A. Olah. John Wiley & Sons, New York
1975. XIII, 373 pp., bound, f 12.00.
The Infrared Spectra of Complex Molecules, Vol. 1. By L.
J . Bellarny. Chapman and Hall, London 1973. 3rd Edit.
XIX, 433 pp.. bound, f 8.00.
Einfuhrung in die Physikalische Chemie. By H . Labharr. From
the series “Hochschultext”. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1975.
Teil 1 : Chemische Thermodynamik. XII, 167 pp., stitched,
DM 16.--; Teil 3: Molekulstatistik. XI, 126 pp., stitched,
DM 14.--; Teil 4: Molekulbau. X, 171 pp., stitched, DM
16.-; Teil 5 : Molekiilspektroskopie. X, 138 pp., stitched,
DM 14.-.
Handbook of Organosilicon Compounds. Advances since 1961.
Vol. 1. Edited by 1.: Bazanr, M . Horak, V: Chvaloosky, and
J . Schrarnl. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 1975. 761 pp.,
bound. $75.00.
Explosivstoffe. By R. Meyer. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1975.
4th improved Edit., 327 pp., stitched, DM 66. Comparative Biochemistry, Molecular Evolution (Continued).
Vol. 29. Part B of the series “Comprehensive Biochemistry“.
Edited by M . Florkin and E . H. Srotz. Elsevier Publishing
Company, Amsterdam 1975. XII, 284 pp., bound, Dfl. 75.00.
Vem Wasser, Band 44.Published by “Die Fachgruppe Wasserchemie in der Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker”. Responsible for text: W Husmann. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1975.
323, A94 pp.. bound, DM 88.--.
Mathematik fur Naturwissenschaftler und Ingenieure. Band
2: Lineare Algebra, Vektoranalysis, Differentialgleichungen.
By A . Jeffrey. Verlag Chemie Weinhcinr 1975. VIII, 378
pp., stitched, DM 39.Supplements to the 2nd Edition of Rodds Chemistry of Carbon
Compounds. Edited by M . F. Ansell. Supplement to Vol.
1 : Aliphatic Compounds. Part A : Hydrocarbons, Halogen
Derivatives; Part B: Monohydric Alcohols, their Ethers
and Esters, Sulphur Analogues, Nitrogen Derivatives,
Organometallic Compounds. Elsevier Scientific Publishing
Company, Amsterdam 1975. XVI, 268 pp., bound, Dfl.
110.00.
Handbook of Enzyme Biotechnology. Edited by A. Wiseman.
Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester/Halsted Press, a Division
ofJohn Wiley &Sons, New York 1975. XII, 275 pp., bound,
f 15.00.
Advances in Chromatography, Vol. 12. Edited by J . C . Giddings,
E. Grushka, R. A. Keller, and J . Cazes. Marcel Dekker,
Inc., New York 1975 XIV, 278 pp.. bound, $22.75.
International Review of Science. Inorganic Chemistry Series
Two. Vol. 10: Solid State Chemistry. Consultant Editor:
H. J . Ernrl6us. Volume Editor: L. E. J . Roberts. Butterworths, London/University Park Press, Baltimore 1975. 264
pp.. bound, f 13.45.
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506
A q u w . Chem. iiitlwrut. Edit.
1 Vol. 14 ( I Y 7 5 ) J No. 7
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