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Book Review Recent Progress in Microcalorimetry. By E. Calvet and H. Prat edited and translated from the French by H. A

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of the fundamentals of the subject matter dealt with in the
subsequent sections. Thereafter, selection rules, the calcuiation ofstructural vibrations, and theinfrared dichroism ofhigh
polymers are discussed in detail. Here some knowledge of the
fundamentals is assumed, and only references to standard
textbooks on this subject are given. The list of references at
the end of each chapter and in the appendix is remarkably
comprehensive, but only goes up to the beginning of 1961.
The section on the analytical applications of infrared spectroscopy to high polymers is unfortunately restricted to 12
pages and deals with relatively trivial examples; it is therefore
not up to the standards of the other chapters. Extension of
this part would be desirable. The parts of spectra used as
illustrations are occasionally unsatisfactory because of poor
measurement technique and reproduction.
Special praise must be given to the complete and comprehensive manner in which the calculation of the normal vibrations
of linear high polymers is derived from theory and illustrated
with examples. To those intending to d o work in this field the
book can be recommended.
H. Giinzler
[NB 3361194 IE]
Recent Progress in Microcalorimetry. By E. Culvet and H . Prnt,
edited and translated from the French by H. A . Skinner.
Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-New York-Paris 1963.
1st Edit., XI1 + 178 pp, numerous illustrs., linen E3.0.0
(about 88.25).
This book is a revised transcription and partly mere translation into English of the volumes “MicrocalorimCtrie; Applications physico-chimiques et biologiques”, Masson Ed.,
Paris 1956, and “Rtcents Progrks en MicrocalorimBtrie”,
Dunod Ed., Paris 1958. It is divided into three parts:
1 .apparatus and microcalorimetric methods,2.physico-chemical applications, and 3. biological applications.
Part 1 gives a terse description of the principle and construction of differential calorimeters of the Tian-Calvet type. The
theory of the gain and loss of heat in calorimeters, the methods
for determining the constants which occur in the equations for
thermal equilibrium, and the evaluation of the thermovoltages registered are lucidly described. In explaining the construction of the calorimeter and its accessories, particular
attention is paid to details which make the calorimeter a
precision instrument. - In the second part of the book, a host
of examples of applications are given: measurements of specific heats, thermal conductivities, heats of mixing, heats of
reaction, e f c . with samples weighing only a few milligrams.
The high sensitivity and precision of the calorimeter are particularly striking in studies of absorption kinetics. - The third
part of the book deals with applications in zoology and
botany; here the thermogenesis of insects and of germinating
seeds are worthy of mention.
The book is a kind of progress report from the Institute of
Microcalorimetry and Thermogenesis in Marseilles (France)
which propagates the use of the microcalorimetric methods,
but it will be of service to anyone interested in the construction and use or improvement of calorimeters of any type.
H. Schreiber
[NB 3191177 IE]
Computation of Molecular Formulas for Mass Spectrometry.
By J. Lederberg. Holden-Day Series in Physical Techniques
in Chemistry. Edited by C. Djerussi. Holden-Day, Inc.,
San Francisco-London-Amsterdam 1964. 1st Edit., VII +
69 pp.. paperback, S 4.25.
High resolution mass spectrometry can be used to determine
the masses of ions with molecular weights of up to about
1000 with a n accuracy of a few thousandths of a mass unit.
This permits to cut down to relatively few the many molecular
formulae which can be assigned to an ion whose molecular
weight is not known with such precision. However, for this
purpose, all the molecular formulae differing in a thousandths
of a mass unit, which are possible for a whole mass number,
must be tabulated. As the molecular weight increases, the
540
number of the molecular formulae also increases, and thus
the size of the tables becomes larger and larger. Lederberg
has found an amazingly simple method of limiting the tables
to 48 pages by taking recourse to a few mathematical operations, which can be mastered in a few minutes. Consequently,
his book becomes an indispensible tool in all laboratories in
which organic compounds are investigated with highresolution mass spectrometers. This verdict of the reviewer
is not at all modified by the fact that the example used for
demonstration on p. 8 is rather unfortunate: a structural
formula is derived for the compound C I H ~ ~ Nwhich
O~
contains two pentavalent carbon atoms, and in which one
carbon atom is missing.
G . Spireller [NB 346/203 IE]
Gas Analysis by Gas Chromatography. By P. G. Jeffery and
F. J. Kipping. International Series of Monographs o n
Analytical Chemistry, Volume 17. Edited by R . Bekher and
L. Gordon. Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-EdinburghNew York-Paris-Frankfurt 1964. 1st Edit., XI + 216 pp.,
68 figures, 1 1 tables, linen E3.10.0 (about $10.00).
Because it is so difficult to survey the literature on gas chromatography, every monograph covering some specialized
section of this field is to be welcomed. However, a monograph
on gas analysis using gas chromatography should fit the specific needs of gas analysis alone and keep any discussion of the
well known fundamentals of gas chromotagraphy as short as
possible. This is not the case in all parts of this book. On the
other hand, a comparison of the value of gas chromatography
with that of other physical and chemical methods of gas analysis would have been useful.
The book is doubtlessly useful for the gas analyst because of
the large number of practical examples; nevertheless it can be
recommended only with some reservations:
The treatment given to methodical questions is often neither
thorough nor critical ( e . g . calibration procedures, sample
injection). The discussion of instrumentation does not d o
enough justice to commercially available apparatus and overlooks special set-ups such as multicolumn chromatographs,
apparatus for reaction gas chromatography, rtr. There are
no numerical data given for the response factors of the mcst
important gases in detectors such as heat conductivitycellsand
flame ionization detectors, and comparative data for the properties of the various detectors such as sensitivity, linear
dynamic range, dead volume, etc. are lacking as well. Too
much space is allocated to argon detectors.
G. S c h o m b i q
[NB 3371195 1EJ
Nucleophilic Substitution at a Saturated Carbon Atom. By
C. A . Bunfon.Volume 1 of the Series: Reaction Mechanisms
in Organic Chemistry. Edited by E. D . Hughes. Elsevier
Publishing Co., Amsterdam-London-New York 1963. 1st
Edit., X + 172 pp., 4 figs. 9 tables, linen DM 22.50 (about
5 5.75).
It is a commonplace statement to remark that the flood of
chemical publications - even on a limited topic - has
nowadays become almost unsurveyable for the individual.
The consequent necessity of procuring information through
review articles has led t o the ever increasing appearance of
specialized series within recent years, so that the publication
of a n e w series of monographs can be justified only by excellent presentation of the subject matter.
The series on mechanisms in organic chemistry initiated in
1963 has made a promising start with this first volume, which
deals with substitutions at satura!ed carbon atoms. The book
is divided into six chapters; three of these deal with the
fundamental phenomena, structural effects, and the stereochemistry of substitutions, while the other three (about onethird of the book) deal with solvent, salt, and catalytic
effects. Here the reader finds all the significant results, and
despite the straightforwardness and lucidity of the discussion,
at least attention is called to controversial interpretations.
The book is therefore not only suitable as a n introduction to
Angew. Chem. internut. Edit.
1 Vol. 4 (1965) 1 No. 6
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