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Book Review Sensors. Vol. 8. Micro- and Nanosensor TechnologyTrends in Sensor Markets. Edited by H. Meixner and R. Jones. (Series Sensors. A Comprehensive Survey). Series editors W. Gpel J. Hesse and J. N

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BOOKS
In the first of the chapters on column
chromatography, the reader who expects
to learn something about ion exchange
will be disappointed. The authors of this
chapter, Sheehan and Fitzgerald, limit
their discussion mainly to the preparation
of a DE-cellulose exchange medium, and
d o not refer to more recent materials.
There is no mention of variables such as
column dimensions, capacities, gradients,
etc.. which are so important when planning purification strategies. These are
only discussed in the final chapter, which
again illustrates the book’s lack of a systematic structure. However, notwithstanding these criticisms, the collection includes some very useful contributions,
such as the chapters introducing the reader to the extraction of proteins from different types of tissues. Another chapter
worth mentioning here is that by Bill
Neville on reverse phase chromatography
of proteins. The three chapters by Kay
Ohlendieck o n the extraction and purification of membrane proteins and the removal of detergents also certainly belong
among the better examples, although it
might have been better to combine these
topics in a single chapter. However, the
selected chapters mentioned here are
again unnecessarily extended by including
detailed descriptions of enzyme assay
methods. The detailed description of the
isolation of eggs from the sea-urchin and
of the preparation of artificial sea-water is
of limited interest to a broad readership,
and a different example would have been
more appropriate here. It would have
been useful to include an article on the
use of Triton X 114 for the separation
of peripheral and integral membrane
proteins.
The reader who hopes to find new materials or methods in this book will be disappointed. In many cases the information
given is one-sided. as in the chapter on
isoelectric focussing by Reiner Westermeier. This author is constrained by his
admiration for a wellknown Swedish instrument manufacturer, and consequently
fails to mention alternative methods of
isoelectric focussing such as the Bio-Rad
Rotofor cell or the high-resolution freeflow method (Octopus, Dr. Weber). The
editor too is quite open about including
an advertisement for the above-mentioned firm, and the last chapter even includes price information about some of
the products. Here, though. the competitors are at least mentioned by name.
Finally there is the question of which
readership this book is intended for. In
my view it seems unsuitable for newcomers to the field, especially with regard to
column chromatography. Although it
A
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~ Ch~oi
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Ed. End. 1996. ZT. No.20
contains sufficient information for these
readers, they would need to hunt through
the various chapters to bring it together,
which is a difficult task without cross-references. The book also appears not to
have been intended as a reference source
for experienced protein chemists, as it
does not cover new techniques and materials. This group is in any case already well
served by the standard works cited in
many of the chapters, such as Methods in
Enzyymolog,~,or by the compact and informative handbooks in the Practical Approach series.
Sabine Wo2f
Institut fur Biochemie
der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt
Darmstadt (Germany)
Sensors. Vol. 8. Micro- and Nanosensor Technology/Trends in Sensor Markets. Edited by H. Meixner and R .
Jones. (Series: Sensors. A Comprehensive Survey. Series editors: U.:
Gopel, J. Hesse and J. N . Zemel. VCH
Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/VCH
Publishers, New York, 1995. 565 pp.,
hardcover DM 410.00.-ISBN
3527-26774-3
The final volume of this well-known
work of reference has at last appeared.
The publishers’ original plans were revised so that the series could be extended
to take into account the most recent
changes in sensors research.
In the last few years research in this
field has undergone some fundamental
changes of direction. The main causes for
this were the rapid growth of knowledge
in three-dimensional microprocessing techniques (micromachining of silicon, and
the LIGA technique), major advances in
experimental methods for studying physical processes o n the nanometer scale
(STM, AFM, near-field spectroscopy),
and the ability to synthesize nanostructured materials of various functionalities.
This brought on the one hand new possibilities for system integration (microsystem techniques), and on the other hand
the ability to control objects with dimensions in the nanometer range (nanotechnology). Also researchers in this field
have become more keenly aware of needs
in the market for sensors. In the new climate with regard to investment in research and development one sees a definite trend for companies to treat high-tech
know-how as an essential prerequisite for
strengthening their market position.
This volume is divided into two parts:
Chapters 1 - 11 covering micro- and nano-
C VCH L4rlu~sre~ellschufi
mhH. 0-69451 Wernheim. 1996
technologies, and Chapters 12- 18 covering the markets for sensors.
Chapter 1 is a general introduction t o
the topics covered in this volume. Chapter
2 contains an overview of the three main
types of microsystem technologies, namely the “beside-IC” type (hybrid design),
“in-IC” (integrated design), and “aboveIC” (design as a multilayer structure).
This includes descriptions of some of the
technological solutions that have resulted,
such as pressure sensors and acceleration
sensors (examples of “beside-IC” technology), and an electromagnetic actuator (an
example of an “in-IC” design). The technologies are considered from two standpoints: firstly the needs of the market, and
secondly the essential factors that contribute to the successful development of
innovative microsystems.
Chapter 3 describes the design and production of microsystems within the area
of integrated technologies. i.e., using only
industrial IC methods, with or without
additional IC-compatible production
stages that are specific to the sensor concerned. In particular the chapter describes
CMOS sensors for measuring humidity,
magnetic fields, and electric fields.
Chapter 4 deals with the production of
microsystems using the LIGA technique
and several other technologies that d o not
belong to conventional microelectronics.
The examples chosen to illustrate the
LIGA method include microspectrometers and acceleration sensors. Other examples are a micropump manufactured
by thermoplastic compression molding
and an electrochemical microanalytical
system. From this article it becomes clear
that there is a distinction between microsystem technologies and microelectronic technologies. Production methods
that can be used to make miniaturized
sensors and control devices belong to microsystem technology.
The subject matter of Chapter 5 overlaps to some extent with the chapter on
mass-sensitive detectors that appeared in
Volume 2. In the present chapter the main
emphasis is on the design of SAW structures, and the use of these in security passes for controlling access by a non-contact
interrogator.
Chapter 6 discusses problems arising in
the manufacture of miniaturized gas sensors for use at high temperatures, and possible ways of overcoming these. There is a
particularly high demand for such sensors
in the automobile industry. The main difficulty is that existing sensors have too
short a useful life. The chapter describes
attempts to overcome this problem by the
use of new materials and by improving the
mode of operation of such sensors. Chap0570-083319613520-2405$ 1 5 00 + 2.510
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ters 7 and 8 review the latest developments
in the area of integrated optics and fiberoptic sensors.
The following three chapters are devoted to the basic concepts in the fields of
nanostructured materials (Ch. 9), nanotechnologies (Ch. 1 I), and molecular electronics (Ch. 10). Chapter 9 emphasizes
the innovative possibilities arising from
the latest developments in nanostructured
materials. However, the subject is treated
too briefly here, covering only a few aspects of the synthesis of the materials and
the production of thin films. There are no
examples of applications of such materials
in sensors. In Chapter 10 special attention
is given to the importance of understanding the molecular and atomic processes
for developing high-performance chemical sensors. Some prime examples are gas
sensors based on inorganic films in which
charge transfer occurs by a variety of
mechanisms, other types of gas sensors
depending on host -guest interactions,
and the principles of function and recognition in biosensors using enzymes, antibodies, and cellular membranes. There is
also a short description of the principles
of molecuIar electronics and bioelectronics, and the use of pattern-recognition algorithms in chemical sensor technology.
Chapter 11 presents a rather speculative
subject-nanosensors. According to the
definition given here for an nanosensor, it
must have one of the following properties
at nanoscale: sensitivity, surface area at
which the interaction occurs or characteristic dimensions. The examples described
are displacement sensors working in the
nanometer and picometer ranges, forcemeasuring sensors based on the STM
principle, optical near-field nanosensors,
and Hall effect nanosensors. Apart from
the optical sensors all these structures
are produced by micromachining of silicon.
The purpose of the second part of this
volume is to disseminate reliable information about the market for sensors. The
analysis of the market for innovative sensors and microsystems is arranged under
the following six key areas: aerospace industry (Ch. 13); industrial process control
(Ch. 14); medical and clinical applications
(Ch. 15); environment (Ch. 16); automobile industry (Ch. 17); production engineering and quality control (Ch. 18). The
authors of this report describe basic requirements for measurements, and technical and commercial limitations that are
specific to each of the fields discussed.
They also give information about the size
of the market and the commercial significance of already existing products, the requirements for new types of products in
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the area of sensors, and potential new
markets.
The book as a whole is set out in a clear
and systematic style, and has a comprehensive index. It can be recommended for
all scientists and technologists who are
looking for a systematic overview of the
current state of sensor and microsystem
technology, despite the risk that a book
dealing with such a rapidly developing
area of research may quickly become outdated. University and technical college
students of sensor and microsystem technologies should also have access to this
work, at least through a library.
Alexandre Choulga
Institut fur Chemo- und Biosensorik e. V.
Munster (Germany)
Metal Complexes in Aqueous Solution. By A . E. Martell and R . D . Hancock. (Series: Modern Inorganic
Chemistry. Series editor: J. P. Fucklev, J r . ) . Plenum, New York, 1996.
253 pp., hardcover $59.00.-ISBN 0306-45248-0
The two authors of this book have been
engaged in research in coordination
chemistry for many years and have contributed greatly to the subject. They have
done much detailed work on the determination of thermodynamic quantities for
metal complexes and the interpretation of
such data in relation to steric and electronic effects in metal-ligand interactions. These studies form the subject of
the book reviewed here.
An introduction, which includes a brief
historical survey and a concise summary
of the most important physicochemical
quantities relating to metal ions, is followed by three chapters in which the thermodynamic aspects of metal-ligand interactions are discussed in detail. Taking a
representative selection of monodentate
ligands as illustrative examples, the authors describe the essential characteristics
of complex formation, first in the gas
phase then in aqueous solution. The increased stabifity with multidentate ligands
(chelate effect) and with macrocycles
(macrocyclic effect) is explained by conformational considerations based on
molecular mechanics calculations. In particular, the authors show that some commonly accepted ideas, such as the explanation of the chelate effect purely in terms
of entropy, or the assumption that the selectivity of macrocyclic ligands can be predicted from the diameter of the molecular
cavity, are incorrect or at least oversimplified. The second part of the book presents
Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 0-69451 Wemherm, 1996
some topical examples from biology and
medicine, such as chelate therapy, contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, and radiopharmaceutical applications. The authors give a survey of the
various ligands that are currently used,
and present some ideas for the design of
new tailored ligands. The book ends with
a short description of experimental methods for determining stability constants.
Each chapter contains a detailed list of
references to original publications, although with a definite emphasis on the
authors’ own work.
In view of the great importance of metal
complexes in present-day medicine, biology, and environmental chemistry, the appearance of an authoritative work on the
subject by two recognized experts is very
welcome. Nevertheless, the wide-embracing title of the book leads one to expect
more than the authors have included here.
For example, reversible electron transfer
processes play an important role in the
chemistry of transition metal complexes
(e.g., one need only think about the respiratory chain), and yet there is nothing at
all here on redox reactions (with regard,
for example, to the question of how the
ligand shell affects the redox potential).
Again, there is no discussion of hydrolytic
polymerisation. One very important reaction pattern exhibited by metal complexes
is the formation of polynuclear aggregates
with 0x0 or hydroxo bridging, and should
at least have been given a mention (for
example, in the summary of possible types
of reactions on pp. 221 -222). The kinetics of ligand substitution are touched on
only briefly in the introduction, and the
authors do not take the opportunity to go
into more detail later. One searches in
vain for important keywords such as
“frans effect” and “base catalysis”. The
discussion of experimental methods concentrates mainly on potentiometric techniques [including passages in Sections 7.4
to 7.7 that are mostly taken word-forword from the book Determination and
Use of Stability Constants, by A. E.
Martell and R. J. Motekaitis (VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1988)l. Other methods
such as NMR and ESR are mentioned
briefly but are not explained in more detail.
Most of the (inevitable) printing errors
are of a kind that do not interfere significantly with one’s understanding. However, there are some regrettable mistakes,
for example in the legend and labeling of
Figure 2.19. In Sections 5.5 to 5.9 there
are problems with the numbering system
used for the ligands, as the numbers in the
text do not agree with those in the graphics. Water ligands should be denoted by
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