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Book Review Solid State Chemistry. Synthesis Structure and Properties of Selected Oxides and Sulfides. By A. Wold and K

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BOOKS
captions. columns should be identified
more precisely, and one should avoid
trade names: stationary phases must be
specified by their chemical composition
and not by the particular manufacturer’s
fantasy name. Also the format of the references given in the book does not conform to the Chemical Abstracts usage.
These shortcomings, especially the missing chapters, restrict the book’s general
usefulness, particularly because its general
title implies that it provides a unified discussion of analytical SFC and SFE. However, within this limitation the book presents a wealth of useful information. The
chapters are well written and represent
good summaries of the topics treated.
Thus, everyone who is interested in SFC
and SFE will find something valuable
in it.
Leslie S. Ettre
Department of Chemical Engineering
Yale University, New Haven, C T (USA)
Chemical Vapor Deposition. Principles and Applications. Edited by
M . L. Hitchman and K. E Jensen.
Academic Press, L o n d o n , 1993.
677 pp., hardcover E 75.00.-ISBN
0-12-349670-5
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), as a
method for preparing thin solid films, has
undergone intensive development during
the last twenty years, and is now of major
importance in a wide variety of technological applications, for example in microelectronics, optoelectronics, energy technology, and the reduction of friction and
wear. There has long been a need for a
book treating the many different aspects
of this method, which is of fundamental
importance in surface coating technology.
The book reviewed here fills this gap admirably, and has been written to meet the
needs of readers from a variety of disciplines. The editors have brought together
thirteen recognized experts in their individual fields to prepare ten chapters that deal
with different aspects of this complex subject, and can be read independently of
each other.
Chapter 1 outlines the historical development of the method and its main chardcteristics. The accompanying bibliography
provides an introduction to the extensive
literature on CVD, and is remarkably comprehensive. Chapter 2, “Fundamentals of
Chemical Vapor Deposition”, explains
the interdependence between chemical kinetics, reaction mechanism, and the fluid
dynamics of the reaction system in relation to the growth of the deposited film.
Angivi. C ’ h c i n . Inr. Ed. Engl. 1994. 33, N o . 13
Current ideas regarding the mathematical
modeling of CVD processes are discussed,
together with likely future developments.
Chapter 3 contains a highly informative
review of modern diagnostic methods for
CVD processes, including techniques such
as flow imaging, spatially resolved temperature measurements, and analysis of
the composition of the gas phase. This is
followed in Chapter4 by a very useful and
comprehensive discussion of low-pressure
CVD, illustrated by the outstanding example of polycrystalline silicon. Potential
applications to other systems such as dielectrics and to metals such as tungsten,
aluminum, and copper for VLSI (very
large scale integration) metal deposition
are also discussed. Chapter 5 is concerned
with silicon epitaxy, describing not only
conventional methods but also new trends,
for example the development of new semiconductor components such as Si:Ge heterobipolar transistors with a band-gap
chosen to suit the application. Chapter 6
is the longest in the book, and addresses
the problems of the gas phase epitaxy of
111jv materials prepared from organometallic molecules. The treatment is a
concise but updated sequel to recent
monographs on this topic (M. Razeghi,
The MOCVD Challenge, Hilger, London,
1989; G. B. Stringfellow, Organometallic
Vapor-Phase Epitaxy, Academic Press,
London, 1989). The next two chapters are
concerned with variants of the CVD
method that are not (purely) thermal in
nature, plasma-CVD and photo-CVD.
The aspects covered, each in an appropriate degree of detail, are the physico-chemical fundamentals, experimental techniques, reactor design, and modeling,
with up-to-date examples of particular
applications (dielectrics, metals, semiconductors, diamond) which provide good illustrations of the advantages of the methods (e.g., low process temperatures,
selective deposition). Whereas most of the
book is concerned with the physico-chemical processes involved in film deposition,
Chapter 9 gives an interesting insight into
electronic and optical characterization
methods that are directly related to the
electrical properties of electronic devices
produced by CVD (e.g., optical reflection
and transmission measurements, vibrational spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, determination of
current-voltage characteristics, photoconductivity measurements, and capacitance spectroscopy). These methods are
especially applicable to amorphous uSi:H and cl-Si,N,-, films prepared by
plasma-CVD. The main emphasis here is
on the problems of characterizing defect
structures. To conclude the book, ChapVCH Verlugsgesellschu/l mhH, 0-694.51 Weinheim,1994
ter 10 deals with applications of CVD to
the reduction of friction and wear, and
with the special structural problems posed
by thick CVD films, such as roughness
and adhesion.
Starting from well-established CVD
processes and applications, the book gives
a very good account of the current state of
knowledge, and also discusses the most
recent development trends. The many
literature references, extending up to
about 1991, are arranged according to the
individual chapters, thus affording a very
good basis for further reading on special
topics. The subject index too is excellent.
The structure of the book results in a certain amount of overlapping on several of
the topics. For example, ideas concerning
the modeling of CVD processes are perhaps repeated more often than necessary.
Altogether, however, the book is carefully
written and nicely produced. It can be recommended not only for everyone working
in the field of chemical vapor deposition,
but also unreservedly for interested readers from other related disciplines and newcomers to the subject.
Roland A. Fixher
Anorganisch-chemisches Institut
der Technischen Universitiit Miinchen
Garching (FRG)
Solid State Chemistry. Synthesis,
Structure, and Properties of Selected
Oxides and Sulfides. By A . Wold and
K. Dwight. Chapman and Hall, New
York, 1993. 245 pp., hardcover
$19.95.-ISBN 0-412-03621-5
How is it possible to compress the subject matter of a textbook designed for a
one-semester course on solid state chemistry into less than 250 pages, even though
these are closely printed? That is the feat
that has been attempted by the authors of
this book. It consists of a very superficial
general part covering the structure, characterization, and properties of solids, followed by a highly subjective selection of
topics which is strongly biased towards
the special research interests of the two
authors. In the course of this, some important aspects of the mental toolkit needed
for solid state chemistry are abbreviated
almost beyond recognition (e.g., spectroscopic methods are given one page, X-ray
diffraction three pages), or are omitted
completely (e.g., the sphere packing principle, fattice energy, defect chemistry). As
is already indicated by the book’s subtitle,
the second part is concerned with a special
class of solid compounds, namely some
selected transition metal oxides and sul05 70-0833!94/1313- 1403 S 10.00 i .25!0
1403
BOOKS
fides. The authors justify this very personal choice of subject matter close to their
own research interests by claiming that
only in this way is it possible to include
experimental results that are highly reproducible. The examples discussed in the
book cannot represent more than a very
tiny segment of the large and fascinating
subject of solid state chemistry. In principle the inclusion of a chapter on preparative methods before the specialized part
of the book is a good feature, but even
here some important aspects are cut down
to an unacceptable extent (flux methods
are given seven lines, chemical transport
one page, and high-pressure syntheses half
a page). Without any introduction to the
structural aspects or their geometrical basis, the following chapter goes straight into a description of the monoxides of transition metals. The first structural diagram
in the book shows the crystal structure of
CuO. Following the trend set by the general part of the book, where a lengthy
chapter is devoted to the electronic properties of semiconductors, the book places
particular emphasis throughout on transition metal oxide semiconductors. Even
here, however, much space is wasted by
reproducing numerous conductivity curves
for the compounds concerned, sometimes
filling the whole page and conveying little
information. There is, of course. a mention at the end of the oxides chapter of the
modern ceramic cuprate superconductors. The final chapter is devoted to transition metal sulfides. As in the oxides
chapter. there are many large, and not
particularly well drawn, crystal structure
diagrams showing the basic structural
types. The electronic properties of the
compounds under discussion are explained
by means of energy band schemes, usually
greatly simplified. As in other textbooks
on solid state chemistry, there are exercise
problems at the end of each chapter (with
answers at the end of the book), and also
lists of original publications, some of
which are quite extensive. Here, instead of
listing, for example, over 150 references to
original papers on ternary and higher tran-
1404
(’
sition metal oxides, it would have been
much more useful to give a limited selection of relevant review articles and textbooks.
To summarize, one cannot really recommend this book to a large readership as an
accompaniment to lecture courses. The
main criticisms are that the choice of topics
is very subjective and unrepresentative,
that important concepts and facts are
sometimes treated very superficially, and
that the diagrams and the text layout are
rather unattractive. The book will not succeed in awakening an enthusiasm for the
fascinating subject of solid state chemistry
in readers approaching it for the first time
(including students).
Wolfgang Schnick
Laboratorium fur Anorganische Chemie
der Universitlt Bayreuth (FRG)
Sulphones in Organic Synthesis. (Tetrahedron Organic Chemistry Series,
Vol. 10.) By N . S. Simpkins. Pergamon, Oxford, 1993. 381 pp., paperback & 30.00, hardcover E 55.00.ISBN 0-08-040284-4
(paperback),
0-08-040283-6 (hardcover)
The use of sulfones in organic synthesis
has become much more important during
the last twenty years. Their synthetic potential now rivals that of the carbonyl
group in versatility. This monograph by
N. S. Simpkins focuses attention on the
synthetic aspects of SO, compounds.
which have the important advantage of
being easily obtainable. The book consists
of nine chapters, and the literature coverage extends in general up to the end of
1990, including also some important original publications up to the end of 1991. A
brief introduction to the chemistry of sulfones (4 pp.) is followed by a chapter of
94 pages on the preparation of sulfones
(e.g., alkylaryl, dialkyl, vinyl and other
unsaturated and functionalized sulfones),
each class being treated in accordance
VCH I.i~rlugJjiesrll.schufr
m h H , 0-69451 Weinheim, 1YY4
with its relative importance. The next
chapter (82 pp.) deals comprehensively
with sulfoiiyl carbanions, describing their
formation, structures, stereochemistry,
and wide variety of reactions. This is followed by chapters on addition reactions
of unsaturated sulfones (25 pp.). rearrangements of sulfones (1 9 pp.), the cycloaddition chemistry of unsaturated sulfones (26 pp.), and the formation of CC
double bonds by sulfone elimination
(35 pp.). The book ends with chapters on
the chemistry of cyclic sulfones (43 pp.)
and desulfonation reactions (38 pp.).
The author’s method of classifying the
now very broad subject of sulfones and
their chemistry according to compound
type and reaction type has turned out successfully. He has included not only wellestablished routine syntheses using sulfones but also others that are less well
known and have only recently been developed; all of these are described in detail.
In the discussion of the palladium-catalyzed synthesis of allylsulfones (Ch. 2) the
author has omitted to mention the work
of Y. Tamaru et al. (J. Chern. Soc. Chem.
Cornrnun. 1978, 367) and of U . M .
Dzemilev et al. ( Z h . Org. Khirn. 1978, 14.
2223 ; see also J. Orgunornet. Chem. 1993,
455,1-27). In his introduction the author
explains that the book’s main purpose is
to emphasize and illustrate the growing
importance of sulfones in organic synthesis; this aim has certainly been achieved.
In particular the many clearly set out reaction schemes make it easy for the reader to
understand the reactions described and
the related factual information.
The monograph gives a good account
of the current state of knowledge regarding sulfones in organic synthesis, and
forms an important addition to the relevant review articles in “Houben-Weyl”
and “Patai”. It is essential to all departmental libraries involved in any way with
organic synthesis.
Eberhard Wenschuh
Fachbereich Chemie
der Humboldt-Universitat
Berlin (FRG)
0570-0R33/94/1313-1404 3 10.00+ .25;0
Angeu. Chem. I n t . Ed. Engl. 1994. 33, No. 13
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