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Book Review Sources and Applications of Ultraviolet Radiation. By R. Phillips

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ing is generally described in brief, there are seven chapters
in which the most important methods of investigating reaction mechanisms are described with brief treatments of
their limitations and areas of application: isotopic labeling, chirality and stereochemistry, kinetics, isotope effects,
acid-base catalysis, the interpretation of activation parameters including the elements of thermochemistry and
bringing in linear free enthalpy relationships, methods of
detecting reactive intermediates. Then follows a chapter
which describes the combined application of these techniques with the aid of examples of investigations taken
from recent literature. An appendix explains a range of
mathematical techniques for the analysis of kinetics and
symmetry problems; then follow tables of Benson group
increments.
Almost all recent methods u p to and including picosecond spectroscopy and laser methods are described briefly
and in a way that is easily followed u p and critically discussed upon the basis of a few chosen examples from the
literature. An overemphasis on pericyclic reactions can be
detected in the choice of examples, but account is also
taken of classical fields, such as solvolysis and arene chemistry, while radical chemistry is dealt with too briefly. Unfortunately, little account is taken of the German literature.
Topics which are omitted from the examples are steric effects including the force field method, the Curtin-Hammett
principle, the interrelationships between selectivity and
reactivity, and, finally, the isoselective relationship.
Is it necessary to know the treasure house of methods
for studying reaction mechanisms in the era of preparative
chemistry which we are now experiencing? In my opinion
yes! It was the development of “physical organic chemistry” over the last 30 years that first made possible the new
breakthroughs in preparative chemistry. It is only quantitative investigation methods that make possible the purposeful optimization of synthesis.
It is in this sense that the present book, which can only
be criticized on the basis of a somewhat one-sided choice
of examples, is thoroughly to be recommended. A German
translation is to be desired.
Christoph Riichavdt [NB 674 IE]
Chemisches Laboratorium
Universitat Freiburg (FRG)
Sources and Applications of Ultraviolet Radiation. By R .
Phillips, Academic Press, New York 1983, xvi, 434 pp.,
bound, $ 60.00.--ISBN 0- 12-553880-4
Normally, a book review begins with a short description
of the contents. It seems more appropriate in the case of
this book to start with the story of its origins. The author
candidly admits in his foreword that his original intention
was to write a monograph concerning (A) “Photopolymerization of Organic Surface Coatings” with emphasis on the
chemical aspects. However, it soon became clear to him
that there was already sufficient review literature covering
this field and he thought it more useful and original to emphasize (B) “Sources of Radiation Suitable for Photopolymerization”. Then that seemed to him to be too restricted
and he became fascinated by the idea of writing a book entitled (C) “Radiation Sources in Applied Photochemistry”.
But this was also too specialized for him (or his publisher)
and thus he came to the very general and sales-promoting
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title (D) “Sources and Applications of Ultraviolet Radiation”.
The illogical construction of this book and its repetitions, shortcomings, and errors have two basic causes.
Firstly, the various texts that had already been written
ought to have been rewritten on going from (A) through
(B) and (C) to (D). However, the author made it easy for
himself and simply added sections or subsections to what
had already been written. Secondly, in the course of the
transition from (A) to (D) the author concerned himself
with fields in which he was no longer competent. The
eleven friendly helpers who checked the parts of the original manuscript and whom the author thanks in his foreword have probably avoided the worst. This help is evident
in the text because of competently and fluently written
passages, which pleasantly distinguish themselves from the
often clumsy, imprecise or simply false formulations of the
author.
One would actually expect in a book entitled “Sources
and Applications of Ultraviolet Radiation” firstly to learn
something about sources of UV light and afterwards something about their applications. The first chapter (37 pp.,
274 refs.), however, is concerned with “Applications of Ultraviolet Radiation”. It is not surprising that the applications furthest from the interests of the author consist in
practice of pure enumeration, that many concepts are employed which are only explained in later chapters and that
it is very seldom mentioned which U V source was employed.
The main purpose of Chapter 2 (“The Nature of Light”,
10 pp., 2 refs.) is to introduce some concepts from atomic
spectroscopy, which are required later for the discussion of
gas discharge lamps.
Chapter 3 (“Photochemistry and Photopolymerization”,
50 pp., 205 refs.) corresponds to the originally planned
monograph (A). The subsection 3.1.4.3 (“The Jablonski Diagram”) provides a whole range of examples of clumsy or
false formulations. The keyword “UV curing” provides an
example of unnecessary repetition and illogical ordering.
It already appears in many places in Chapter 1 and in the
titles of subsections 1.6.1, 1.6.1.10 and 1.6.11 and then it
reappears in subsections 3.4.4 and 3.5. The explanation of
what is understood by “cure”, however, is first to be found
i n the layt and obviously subsequently added section of
Chapter 3 (3.6 “The Concept and Measure of Cure”).
Chapters 4 (“Radiometry”, 45 pp., 154 refs.), 5 (“Incandescent Sources”, 8 pp., 2 refs.) and 6 (“Gas Discharges”,
14 pp., 14 refs.) lead then to the main portion of the book:
Chapter 7 (“The Low Pressure Mercury Lamp”, 19 pp., 62
refs.), 8 (‘The Medium Pressure Mercury Lamp”, 66 pp.,
53 refs.), 9 (“Metal Halide Lamps”, 16 pp., 71 refs.), 10
(“Electrodeless Lamps”, 16 pp., 16 refs.) and 11 (“Xenon
Lamps”, 33 pp., 91 refs.). Of these, chapter 8 is the most
important because it includes results of the author’s own
investigations. Considerable knowhow is to be expected of
the author here. But, once again one must cast doubts
upon his competence, when on page 208 in connection
with
the
Richardson-Dushmann
equation
J = A T 2 e x p ( - e(v’kT) for thermal electron emission, it is
stated “. .. where ... e is the electronic charge (1.60 x 10
e.s.u.), (I is the work function ... with units of electron
volts, k is Boltzmann’s constant (1.372 x 10” J K - . ..” I t is
almost a work of art to introduce an error into each of the
three definitions! On page 239 of the same chapter the author reveals that he has no notion of optical spectroscopy.
He maintains that the dispersion of a grating monochromator is independent of the wavelength and that the asym~
’’
’
Anyew. Cliem. Int. Ed. Erxql. 24 11985) N o . 9
metry of the lines of an Hg spectrum recorded at low resolution is caused by pressure broadening of the lines (instead of being caused by the curvature of the image of the
monochromator entry slit in the plane of the exit slit).
Chapters 12 (“Lasers”, 19 pp., 120 refs.) and 13 (“Miscellaneous Sources”, 9 pp., 23 refs.) are probably intended
to justify the general title of the book. The inconsequence
of the author in chapter 12 is quite remarkable, for he
writes a relatively large amount on an infrared laser (CO?
laser), but is satisfied in the case of the argon and krypton
ion laser with the statement that both lasers can lase at various wavelengths in the UV and visible range. Chapter 13
is typical of the style of this book. Here sunlight, the deuterium lamp, synchrotron radiation and the high pressure
mercury lamp all come together under the title “Miscellaneous”.
Chapter 14, (“Ultraviolet Irradiators”, 36 pp., 80 refs.)
contains alongside 80 literature references a list of 58
chosen journal articles (with titles) concerning the design
(or construction) and analysis of photochemical reactors.
Finally chapter IS (17 pp., 72 refs.) treats “Hazards of Ultraviolet Radiation”.
It can be seen from these critical remarks and the contents of the book that this book-in contrast to the very
generally formulated title-is only directed at a very limited circle of readers. This is clearly expressed by the author in the first sentence of his foreword: “This book has
been written primarily for the benefit of those who have a
responsibility for, or an interest in, the design, construction, purchase or operation of the “hardware” associated
with applied photochemistry”. The book is uselesswhether as textbook or as reference source-for everyone
else and particularly for those who work in the field of
photophysics.
Finally it may be useful for the reader to know that there
are two very good older books with similar titles. (I) “Ultraviolet Radiation” by L. R . Koller (Wiley, New York
1965, 3 12 pp.) and (11) “Ultraviolette Strahlen” edited by J .
Kiefer (de Gruyter, Berlin 1977, 661 pp.). Both books were
known to the author of the book that has been reviewed,
but they have obviously only served him as a model for his
choice of title. The application of UV radiation is described in (11) by means of examples; it is thus very suitable for use as a textbook.
Bernhard Nickel [NB 680 IE]
Max-Planck-Institut fur
Biophysikalische Chemie, Gottingen (FRG)
Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Vol. 2. Samples, Reagents,
Assessment of Results. Edited by U . Bergmeyer. J . Bergrneyer, and M . Grassl. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1984.
xvi, 539 pp., bound, D M 215.00 (when ordering all ten
volumes).- ISBN 3-527-26040-4 (complete work)
Publication of Bergmeyer’s 3rd edition of “Methods of
Enzymatic Analysis” proceeds with volume 2 which marks
the transition to practice from the theory presented in volume I.‘*] Volume 2 “covers the three steps in obtaining results from laboratory: the pre-analytical phase, the postanalytical phase, and the analysis itself.” This objective is
achieved in a straightforward and concise manner.
The first chapter in volume 2 deals with specimens and
samples. The first section describes preparation and pro[ * ] C I Anyev
Clirm
1111
Ed Enql 23 (1984) 171
Anqrw. (%em l r i r ELI Enyl. 24 (1985) No. 9
cessing methods for samples in clinical laboratory
sciences, food chemistry, cosmetics and pharmacy. The
next section discusses cell and tissue disintegration and includes methods for animal tissues, subcellular fractionation, microorganisms and plant tissues. The third section
describes and compares methods for protein determination. Throughout this chapter, factors which influence and
interfere with these various methods are described, as well
as ways to avoid potential pitfalls.
Reagents for enzymatic analysis are the focus of the second chapter. This chapter includes a section discussing the
handling of reagents (nomenclature, quality requirements,
storage and stability), and diagnostic kits. The compendium of reagents for enzymatic analysis found in the previous edition has been expanded and is included in this
section; assays and characteristics of 143 enzymes and I19
coenzymes, metabolites and reagents are now described. A
new addition is a section including descriptions and characteristics of standard reference materials for biochemistry.
The third chapter is titled “Evaluation of Experimental
Results.” The first section in this chapter discusses transformation of experimental data into results, end-point determinations, non-linear reaction curves, use of standard
curves, standard substances and their terminology and definitions. Equations useful for calculating metabolite concentrations and enzyme activities from photometry, radiometry and related techniques are included along with
specific illustrative examples. A second section covers the
topic of quality control. After a discussion of errors, precision and accuracy, the principles of quality control and its
applications in clinical chemistry are described. A subsection on the use of statistics in quality control covers basic
concepts, evaluation of results, and curve fitting.
This volume concludes with a useful appendix with lists
of symbols, quantities, units and constants; chemical and
biochemical abbreviations; NAD(P)H absorption coefficients: numbering and classification of enzymes; and a table of atomic weights. This volume should find daily use in
the biochemical laboratory as a handbook of both methods
and data.
George M. Whitesides [NB 676 IE]
Harvard University, Cambridge (USA)
Einfiihrung in die Pharmazeutische Chemie. 2nd completely
revised edition. By 0 . - E . Schultz and J . J . Schneckenburger. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1984. xv, 510 pp.,
bound, DM 68.00.-ISBN 3-527-26098-6
At the moment, pharmaceutical chemistry is undergoing
a change into medicinal chemistry. In this process the
main emphasis is moving from the chemical via the biochemical into the medical field. Whether this is an advantage for the subject of pharmaceutical chemistry and the
education of pharmacists really remains to be seen. This
book places the medicament with its synthesis, properties
and analysis in the forefront again. The compounds are
summarized according to their pharmacological properties, but described from a chemical point of view. This system is occasionally abandoned, if this is practically forced
by chemical analogy; thus the antitussive normethadone is
treated alongside methadone which is an analgesic. This is
acceptable because there is a cross-reference under the antitussives. The individual substances are specified under
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