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Book Review Spectroscopy in Inorganic Chemistry. Vol.1. Edited by C. N. R. Rao and J. Ferraro

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and indeed their superconductivity is also the most intensively studied property of the other alloys discussed in this
volume. Nb,Al melt samples have jump temperatures between 17.3 and 18.5”K. The extensively studied alloys of
niobium with titanium belong to the class of “hard”
superconductors, which correspond to the type I11 superconductors and can conduct high current densities without
loss even in strong fields. However, these are also of interest
because of their mechanical properties and because of the
high chemical resistance of the niobium-rich alloys. A very
similar class of materials, both in their superconductivity
and in their mechanical properties, are the alloys of niobium
and zirconium. Finally, considerable space is devoted to
the descriptions of the binary Nb-Sn and Nb-V alloys. Niobium and lead are not miscible either in the molten state
or in the solid state.
The literature has been evaluated up to and in some cases
beyond mid-I970 for this volume.
System No. 46: Tin, Part B. The Element. Principal editor:
Gerhard Kirschstein. 1971. vi, xix, 423 pp., 130 figures.
Balacron DM 513.-.
Whereas Part A described the history and occurrence of
tin, Part B deals with the element itself. Short introductory
chapters on the position of the element in the periodic
system and its atomic weight are followed by a longer
chapter on its industrial production, which also includes
the purification of crude tin and data on purity testing.
Tables give figures for the world production up to 1968
and the tin consumption for various purposes in the USA.
Thenext chapter deals withcolloidal solutions and aerosols.
Considerable space is devoted to the description of the
preparation, separation, and enrichment of tin isotopes, of
which 10 stable and 15 radioactive ones are known at
present. The properties of the atom and of the atom-ions
are discussed in detail. The formation of Sn, molecules on
evaporation of tin from a Knudsen cell is of theoretical
interest. 120 pages are devoted to the crystallographic,
mechanical, thermal, electrical, magnetic, and optical
properties, and 96 pages to the electrochemical behavior,
which is of great practical importance for the plating
industry and has accordingly been very thoroughly investigated. The last large chapters in the volume describe
the chemical behavior of the metal and of its ions. Little
space is taken up by a chapter on the physiological behavior of tin and its compounds, which would have been
better headed “Toxicity” in accordance with the marginal
notes in English, particularly since there is a section entitled
“Antidotes”.The data on methods of detection, determination, and separation in the last chapter are largely confined
to a list of references to secondary literature. A table gives
the most sensitive reactions of Sn.
The volume contains a number of linguistic shortcomings
with regard to chemical terminology, e.g. the statement on
p. 1 that: “Sn” oxydiert leicht zu Sn’”.” Terms such as
“unedles Normalpotential” (p. 397), “Ammoniumhydroxidlosung” (p. 365), and “sulfidierung” (p.354) also prove disturbing. It is incorrect to state that a-tin is known as tin
plague (p. 130). On the contrary, tin plague is the conversion
of white p-tin into gray a-tin, since “pimples” formed from
gray tin at isolated points on white tin have an “infectious”
action on the surrounding areas. In the section on the
transition from p-tin into a-tin (p. 131) or in connection
with the preparation of gray tin (p. 37), it is interesting to
note that no reference is made to pink salt, (NH,),[SnCl,],
which is mentioned in all the textbooks as an accelerator
of the transition.
The incorrect formula NH,CNS has been copied from the
original literature, instead of NH,SCN, for ammonium
thiocyanate (p. 51).
The literature has been evaluated up to the end of 1969,
and more recent publications are also included in some
Ekkehard Fluck [NB 89 IE]
Episome (Episomes). By A . M. Campbell. Moderne Biowissenschaften, Vol. 1. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1971,
1st Edit., 203 pp., numerous illustrations, bound,
DM ca.32.-.
A review of episomes and related topics (section headings :
historical introduction, temperate bacteriophages, transfer
agents, bacterial plasmids, and partial diploidy) is followed by a presentation of experimental results (mode of
chromosomal attachment, mechanism of chromosomal
attachment, mechanism of detachment, abnormal detachment, and the formation of transducing phages, immunity
and its genetic control, autonomous replication, joining
and separation of ends, polylysogeny). The book ends
with a general examination of the definition of the episome
and a chapter on episomes as model systems, in which an
attempt is made to apply the results obtained with the
episome-bacterial chromosome system to the situation
prevailing in the case of eukaryotic chromosomes and to
fit them in the general biological framework.
The particdarly well known h phage is used extensively
as an example. The operative organization of the h genome
and the regulation mechanisms that allow integration of
the phage genome into the bacterial genome can also serve
as a model for regulation in higher cells. Tumor viruses,
whose genomes are attached to the chromosomes of
eukaryotic organisms [ H . M. Temin, Sci. Amer. 226, no. 1,
p. 24 (1972)l and the possibility of curing genetically
defective human cells in uitro with the aid of transducing
phages [C. R. Merril, M. R. Geier, and J . C . Petricciani,
Nature 233, 398 (1971)l show that the episome concept
described here is not restricted to bacteria. The attachment
of viral chromosomes to bacterial chromosomes by simple
exchange may be regarded as a model for the crossing-over
in meiosis,but could also indicate a way in which an increase
of DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes could have come
about through evolution. The attachment of concatemeres
formed in the replication of viral DNA could have contributed to the DNA redundancy so typical of the eukaryotes. In view of these many aspects, the readership of this
book should not be restricted to those interested in microbial genetics.
The monograph was originally published in English by
Harper & Row in 1969. Some recent findings have been
incorporated by E. Geissler, the editor of the present series,
in the form of footnotes and figures. This translation is
most welcome, if often somewhat too literal.
Giinter Obe [NB 90 IE]
Spectroscopy in Inorganic Chemistry. Vol. 1. Edited by
C . N . R. Rao and J . Ferraro. Academic Press, New
York-London 1970. 1st Edit., xii. 410 pp., numerous
illustr., bound, $19.50.
A very wide variety of spectroscopic methods have in
recent years found increasing importance in structural
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Vol. 12 (1973) 1 NO.1
investigations. This has led the editors to present a collection of articles designed to give the inorganic chemist an
understanding of modem spectroscopic methods and to
provide him with some ideas about the application of these
methods to his own particular problems. In the light of this
avowed aim, it is understandable that practically every
one of the nine contributions begins with a detailed introduction to the experimental and theoretical principles of
the methods. Descriptions of special applications follow,
some of them selected from the individual authors’ work.
The treatment is not always comprehensive, which is
scarcely surprising in view of the size of the book. One
exception is the article by Ballhausen concerning the spectroscopy of ionic crystals, in which one problem encountered in this area is examined in a highly interesting manner.
Many a chemist will find this article quite difficult reading.
The present work will be found useful by anyone wishing
to acquaint himself with the principles and range of
application of the methods discussed. The extensive literature cited provides the reader with easy access to the original
work. The specialist in this field will not find much in the
way of new information.
H.-G. Kuball
[NB 91 IE]
Molecular Acoustics. By A . J.Matheson. John Wiley &Sons
Ltd., New York-London 1971, 1st Edit., xvi, 290 pp.,
numerous figures and tables, bound E 5.50.
Very detailed information on the interaction between
molecules in the gas phase, in liquids, in solids, and in high
polymers can be obtained from investigations on the propagation of high-frequency sound waves. In addition to
questions of energy transfer in gases and liquids Matheson’s
book deals especially with problems that are of interest to
the chemist, such as the determination of energy barriers
in molecules exhibiting internal rotation, as well as viscoelastic properties of dilute and concentrated solutions of
polymers, including the rotational isomerization of polymers and the helix-coil transitions in polypeptides. The investigations in solution, such as the association of ions by
ultrasonic waves, are also discussed. A short chapter is
devoted to the propagation of sound waves in solids, including semiconductors and ferromagnetics, and the influence of dislocations on the damping of sound waves.
of a nucleus with strong radio-frequency pulses of short
duration, followed by Fourier transformations of the resulting time-dependent free induction signal, i.e. pulse
Fourier transform (PFT) NMR spectroscopy. The PFT
method is faster and more sensitive than the CW technique.
These advantages, supported by the development of commercially available PFT-NMR spectrometers, have helped
to open up PFT-NMR spectroscopy. The present monograph takes this into account and fills a gap in the introductory NMR literature.
Fundamental concepts such as nuclear energy states, relaxation, nuclear precession, and free induction are explained accurately and concisely. Vector calculation is
briefly reviewed to allow a better understanding of nuclear
magnetic processes. Two sections dealing mainly with
equipment present an outline of instrumental requirements
regarding the spectrometer, pulse unit, and computer. The
authors describe relaxation mechanisms and refocusing
and spin echo methods for the measurement of relaxation
times. They thus stress the growing importance of relaxation times as structural parameters alongside chemical
shifts and coupling constants. Topics touched upon in
two special sections include nuclear nutation and spin
echo experiments as well as possibilities for the use of the
pulse technique to follow diffusion, exchange, and molecular dynamic processes.
102 sources are cited for further reading on methods. The
absence of a section on pulsed homonuclear and heteronuclear double resonance, which can now be carried out
as a routine method, is hardly surprising in view of the
planned restriction of the book to about 100 pages,
particularly since introductory monographs on nuclear
magnetic double resonance already exist. The book is
systematically organized and clearly and skillfully written,
and should therefore present no difficulty even to the less
experienced reader.
Eberhard Breitmaier
[NB 93 IE]
Stereochemistry of Carbohydrates. By J. F. Stoddarr.
Wiley-Interscience,New York 1971.1st Edit., xi, 249 pp.,
numerous illustrations, bound, f 7.00.
Theory and Methods. By 7: C. Farrar and E. D. Becker.
Academic Press, New York-London 1971.1st Edit., 115
pp., bound $ 7.50.
This is a splendid book, and one for which we have been
waiting a long time. It should fmd general acclaim not
only among carbohydrate chemists but also among all
those interested in questions of stereochemistry. Carbohydrate chemistry has contributed a great deal-for
instance in the field of conformational analysis-that is
important for all chemists working in organic chemistry
and biochemistry, and it is therefore most pleasing that a
systematic review of this field has at last appeared. Most
chemists are unaware of the wealth of material in the form
of excellent model substances that carbohydrate chemistry
has to offer for the study of stereochemical and mechanistic
problems. The present book should considerably facilitate
access to material that can sometimes be quite tricky.
For example, it is worth recalling that the problem of the
anomeric effect was discussed for years among carbohydrate chemists before it became familiar to all chemists
as a phenomenon generally encountered in heterocycles.
Two basic recording techniques are now available to the
NMR spectroscopist. One is the normal continuous scanning of the Larmor frequency range of a nucleus, i.e. continuous wave (CW) NMR spectroscopy, and the other is
the simultaneous excitation of all the Larmor frequencies
The book provides a clear survey of all the most important
aspects of stereochemistry. It is divided into five chapters,
an introduction being followed by a discussion of the
problems of constitution and configuration, conformation,
physical methods, and isomerism. The book is written in
The author deals briefly with the experimenta1 methods
used for the measurement of the velocity, dispersion, and
absorption of sound. The fundamental theoretical views
are presented in an easily understandable manner.
The book can be particularly recommended to those who
wish a general picture of the possibilities offered by the
investigation of the propagation and absorption of sound
for the treatment of various chemical problems.
H. Gg. Wagner [NB 92 IE]
Pulse and Fourier Transform NMR. Introduction to
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. J Vol. 12 (1973) J N o . 1
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