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Book Review Stabilisierung und Alterung von Plastwerkstoffen. (Stabilization and Aging of Plastics). Vol. 1. Stabilisierung und Stabilisatoren von Plastwerkstoffen (Stabilization and Stabilizers for Plastics). By K. Thinius

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chemical dosimetry, specific energy losses of charged particles, elementary processes, formation and reactions of
excited molecules, free radicals, and carbons, the technique
of pulse radiolysis and its use, and electrons and ions in
solids. In addition to these chapters, which are concerned
with the fundamentals of radiation chemistry, the application
of radiation in a number of fringe fields is also discussed.
Topics represented include chemical aspects of radiation
biology, the action of radiation on polymeric systems, and
industrial radiation chemistry.
It is obviously not easy t o present these many facets in a n
easily understood manner in a book of 400 pages. However,
this enterprise has been successful for two reasons. First, the
book is intended mainly for students and learners, including
chemists, physicists, biologists, and physicians who wish to
acquire a knowledge of the fundamentals and the present
state of radiation chemistry. The book does not aim to
replace textbooks by means of the many special chapters
that it contains. This has made it possible t o keep the various
chapters short and concise, and this has greatly benefitted
understandability and educational requirements. Another
factor that undoubtedly helps in this respect is the fact that
the book is made up from lectures that have been in use over
a long period at the Berliner Technische Universitat. Secondly, the authors have gone to some trouble to ensure
clarity and simplicity. This has made it possible for the
reader to obtain a rapid grasp of radiation chemistry, though
this is generally regarded as a difficult field. Further assistance
is provided by the references that are added to each chapter,
and which are consequently arranged in a clear manner.
The reader is also led up to the latest position of knowledge
in this field and introduced to the problems on which research
is currently being carried out. A great help to those who
wish to learn about radiation-chemical methods will be the
mathematical and experimental problems given at the end of
most chapters, which are taken directly from radiationchemical practice.
On the whole this book, when judged in relation to its aims,
is very successful. It can be recommended to anyone who
wishes t o gain an insight into modern radiation chemistry
and its problems.
Dietrich Schulte-Frohlinde [NB 874 IE]
Stabilisierung und Alterung von Plastwerkstoffen. (Stabilization and Aging of Plastics). Vol. 1. Stabilisierung und
Stabilisatoren von Plastwerkstoffen (Stabilization and
Stabilizers for Plastics). By K . Thinius. Verlag Chemie
GmbH, Weinheim Bergstr. 1969. 1st Edit., 720 pp., 80 figures, 58 tables, linen D M 84.-.
The systematic review of literature o n the stabilization of
plastics started only a few years ago, and involves the difficult
tasks of critically examining a practically endless and constantly growing mass of empirical results, deriving general
rules that can be applied in practice, and explaining the
observed effects as consistently as possible. The present book
is particularly remarkable in that it is based on work carried
out by the author over decades, and thus provides a valuable presentation of the results of research by a n outstanding
authority o n the problem of the stability of plastics.
The book is divided into eight chapters, which differ considerably in size. The first chapter explains the concepts
stability, stabilization, stabilizers, and aging. The second
chapter is rather vaguely entitled “Measures for the stabilization of plastics”, and deals with the modification of
the intrinsic stability of the polymeric raw material by
impurities in the starting materials, by the production process
(only in the case of nitrocellulose), and by the isolation
process. Stabilization by chemical modification, e . g . the
blockage of end groups, which is important in polyacetal
technology, is also discussed here. Details of geat practical
interest are to be found in the third chapter (“Interrelations
between the stability of the plastic and the parameters of its
542
processing to form a molding composition”). The fourth
chapter, again under a very general title “Stabilizers for
plastics and their efficiency”, provides information about the
mode of addition of stabilizers to plastics and a collection of
methods for testing their efficiencies. This collection is very
detailed with respect to thermal and thermooxidative aging,
and is particularly recommended to those who are interested
in testing techniques.
The principal chapter of the book, which comprises more
than 70 % ofits volume, is the fifth chapter (“The effectiveness
of the various groups of stabilizers”). All types ofstabilizers
are described here, together with investigations on their
effectiveness, the stabilizers being arranged according to
their chemical constitution, which experience has shown to
be the most suitable basis for classification. In the description
of thestabilizers, in addition to a relatively complete coverage
of patent and journal literature, the author devotes considerable space to his own results, some of which are of great
importance. Special mention should be made of the extensive studies o n the stabilization of PVC. Unfortunately, too
little emphasis is placed o n the stabilizer systems that are
important in modern industrial practice, the specific importance of which cannot be guessed by the reader from the
comprehensive material. Thus the great importance of the
benzotriazole UV absorbers and their structural variants
reported by Geigy is allotted too little space, apart from the
mention of Tinuvin P (though the structural formula given is
wrong, and the text might give the impression that it resulted
from the work of Japanese authors). The same is true of the
phenol esters of carboxylic acids, which currently hold a
considerable share of the market in commercial antioxidants
for polyolefins. On the other hand, from the space given to
the stabilization of polyolefins with amines, the reader might
be led to wrongly assume that this is currently of considerable
industrial importance. In a field as closely linked with practice as this, more attention should have been paid to the
additives that have proved themselves in industry and that
are commercially available.
In the sixth chapter the author discusses “Theoretical views
and experimental results on the mechanism of action of
stabilizers’’, dealing separately with purely thermal degradation, thermooxidative degradation, photooxidative degradation, and synergism. In view of the far-reaching, more or less
speculative theories on degradation and stabilization mechanisms, particularly in the fields of autoxidation processes and
the decomposition of PVC, this chapter has been kept
relatively short. The mechanisms are mainly indicated
qualitatively, and reaction formulas are usually not given;
kinetic equations are totally avoided. However, this is not a
disadvantage, if one considers the very arbitrary character of
most current theories of stabilization and the fact that their
prognostic value is small. Certain fundamental physicochemical concepts, such as the criteria of autocatalytic
reactions, the stability period, and the critical stabilizer
concentration, should however have been defined clearly at a
suitable point.
The seventh chapter is devoted to the “Analysis of stabilizers”. This chapter is too short to present more than very
general considerations, together with brief notes o n the
methods for a few selected analyses, with references to the
originalliterature. The discussion of the “Toxicity of stabilizers” in the eight chapter is thorough and careful. The ninth
part of the book, which is headed “Index”, is an alphabetic
index of keywords. This is the only index in the book, apart
from the list of contents. The absence of a general bibliography or author index is regrettable. Since the references
are scattered throughout the book, i t is practically impossible
to obtain information about a given publication or patent
without considerable search. The references to literature
and patents attached to each sub-chapter, which can only be
found from the text, cover the journal literature up to 1965,
and in a few cases up to 1966, and patent applications up to
about 1963, again with occasional exceptions of more recent
date. Literature from the German Democratic Republic and
Eastern European countries is generally covered up to later
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. J Vol. 9 (1970)
1 No.
7
dates. The references are accurate, but more care should have
been taken in spelling the authors’ names.
On the whole, the book will be a n excellent source of knowledge for the reader who is particularly interested in obtaining
a general picture of the field, and will provide him with a
good knowledge of the fundamental relationships and of the
author’s results. The practical worker, on the other hand,
will have difficulty in finding information on methods of
stabilizing a given plastic or o n a processing or application
problem. A short chapter showing the present position with
regard to the stabilization of certain types of plastics, with
reference to particular technical requirements, would greatly
enhance the usefulness of a book of this type.
The presentation is excellent.
Joachirn Voigt
[NB 875 IE]
Chemische und biologische Laboratorien. Planung-Bau-Einrichtung (Chemical and Biological Laboratories. PlanningBuilding-Equipment). By W. Schramm. Verlag Chemie
GmbH., Weinheim/Bergstr,-1969. 3rd Edit., 412 pp., 1200
figures, linen DM 98.-.
This standard work, which is important because of its
comprehensive details and examples of plans for the construction of chemical and biological laboratories that have
already been executed, has been out of print for several
years, and is now available in a fully revised and enlarged
3rd edition[ll.
The arrangement of the subject matter follows the same
successful pattern as earlier editions, but a great improvement results from the use of the decimal classification system.
The material in the 20 chapters is based on the latest experience and technical developments in laboratory construction. Some of these chapters are considerably longer than in
the 2nd edition, and a number of topics also appear in the
book for the first time; in particular, these are Part 2 “General
planning principles”, Part 3 , “Principles of the dimensioning
and furnishing of laboratory rooms and buildings”, and
Part 4 “Guide to space requirements and floor layout in
laboratories” Reference is made in Chapter 2 to the questions
of flexibility, prefabrication, execution by general contractors, and the formulation and programming of the problem
and of the design principles, which i s essential for planning
ahead.
With the aid of instructive drawings, the author deals with
suitable dimensions for the laboratory, widths of passages,
furnishing schemes of single and large rooms, and laboratory
boxes. A noteworthy feature is a table giving the room, and
bench dimensions of 50 laboratory buildings for predominantly chemical and biological fields of specialization;
because of the numerous examples, this makes it easier both
for the owner of the building and for the planner to visualize
the space requirements.
The guiding values given in the fourth chapter for space
requirements and outlay also provide pointers and possibilities of comparison for the assessment of designs.
In later sections, the advantages and disadvantages of the
various types of buildings (low buildings and multistorey
buildings are critically weighed). A distinction is drawn in the
construction of buildings between conventional and industrialized building methods; as is shown by the photographs and drawings, increasing use is being made of prefabricated constructions in laboratory buildings.
AS might be expected o n grounds of importance in the
laboratory, the book devotes considerable space to Chapter 7
“Technical supply equipment and installations”. In addition
to the two basic pipe arrangements, e . g . vertical and horizontal installation systems, good summaries are given for the
first time of the possible combinations for the arrangement
of the entire supply systems; the problems of drying, aeration
The chapters o n “Laboratory rooms”, “Subsidiary rooms”,
and “Animal rooms” have also been revised in the present
edition, and contain a n abundance of information, recommendations, and hints for arrangement, installation, and
fitting; the information on climatic conditions for research
animals, the space required by the animals, and cage dimensions and axis dimensions of animal rooms is extremely
useful to the designer. The “open system” and the “closed
system” described for SPF plants for animal rooms also
provide useful hints for the less common special stalls.
Another new inclusion is Chapter 19 “Greenhouses”
The example part is greatly enlarged; it shows many laboratory buildings for a wide range of specialized fields and tasks.
The new examples are all of buildings erected since 1960,
and are therefore very up-to-date. The fact that they are
confined lo Central European installations is n o disadvantage
t o the designer.
The present 3rd edition has not only been revised and
enlarged by more than 60 pages as compared with the last
edition, but has also been given a new, clear, and pleasing
make-up. In this volume the author has provided a good,
comprehensive source of advice on questions of laboratory
construction. The interested reader should use and consider
the copious factual information and the many suggestions
and examples in this book as valuable aids in his future
planning.
Oskar Gruneis
INB 872 IE]
Coordination Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solutions. By V. Gutrnann. Springer-Verlag, Vienna-New York 1968. 1st Edit.,
viii, 174 pp., 10 figures, bound DM 48.-.
The present book is remarkable in two respects. 1. It was
written in English by an Austrian. Though some linguistic
weaknesses must be taken into account, it is pleasing to find
English gaining ground as a language for chemical communication in the German-speaking countries. 2. It classifies a
large number of non-aqueous solvents (mainly covalent
oxides, halides, oxide halides, and organic solvents containing functional groups, and less comprehensively the
“water-like”, ionizing solvents) and their chemistry purely
on the basis of coordination chemistry, instead of according
t o the usual approach.
The discussion is based on the Lewis acid (acceptor)-base
(donor) concept (Chapter I). Donor solvents (which preferentially solvate cations) and acceptor solvents (which
preferentially solvate anions) are distinguished, and each of
these types is divided into aprotic and protonic solvents
(Chapter TI). The Brensted concept is also used for the
protonic solvents; in general, however, the acid-base reaction
is regarded only as part of the coordination chemistry, which
is classified by the Lewis theory. The donor strength of an
aprotic solvent is measured by the donor number D N (Chapter II), which is defined as the negative enthalpy of formation of SbCISsDonor in dichloroethane.
The acceptor solvents discussed are the hydrogen halides,
HCN, HzS04, HNO3, H3PO4, HSO3F, HS03C1, HPOZF2,
[ l ] Cf. Angew. Chem. 74, 334 (1962).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. Vol. 9 (1970)
and deaeration, and air conditioning of laboratories are also
discussed in detail.
The questions of sound and vibration damping, protection
against corrosion and acids, safety appliances, fire prevention, and protection against radiation, which are usually
treated very cursorily, are discussed in great detail in Chapters 8 to 10.
The consumption figures, connected loads, and isochronism
factors, which are important for the determination of the
power requirements, are summarized in another chapter,
making more accurate cakulation o f the requirements possible.
The discussions on the wide and many-layered field of
laboratory fittings make it easier for the reader to judge and
select from the designs that are currently available.
/ No. 7
543
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