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Book Review Standard Methods of Clinical Chemistry Vol 6. By R. P

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Modem Electrochemistry. An Introduction to an Interdisciblinary Area. Vol. 1.By J . O M . Bockris and A . K . N .
Reddy. Macdonald Technical and Scientific, London
and Plenum Press, New York 1970. 1 st edit., lx, 622 pp.,
245 figures, 119 tables, $19.50.
tage. It provides a detailed introduction into the present
state of knowledge on ims in liquids.
It is the authors’ declared intention that this book should
provide readers from many different disciplines with as
complete as possible an introduction to present-day electrochemistry. In order to achieve these ambitious aims, they
have based their approach upon a series of key ideas :clarity
is striven for even at the cost of brevity; frequent repetitions
thus have to be accepted. Each individual section begins at
a simple level and works its way up to the current viewpoint. The background knowledge required for comprehension is given in full. The presentation should be modern in
form and content ;out-of-date concepts are therefore eliminated. Each phenomenon is discussed on the basis of only
one theory, and that is the one which appears to reproduce
the facts most consistently. For the sake of clarity the book
is kept to the style of a lecture, which in the last analysis is
what it is (rather in the sense of “The Feynman Lectures on
Modem Electrochemistry. An Introduction to an Interdisciplinary Area. Vol. 2. By J . O M . Bockris and A. K . N .
Reddy. Macdonald Technical and Scientific, London
and Plenum Press, New York 1970. 1st edit., lxi, 810 pp.,
446 figures, 83 tables, $22.50.
The literature references are limited to fundamental original
work (about 300) and more advanced monographs and
review articles (about 150) from recent years, generally up
to 1968. Each block of references, arranged in chronological
order, comes at the end of the appropriate subsection, which
is usually about 25 pages long. Unfortunately, there is no
explicit reference to them in the text. The search for papers
on a given topic would have been considerably simplified
if their titles had also been given, or if specific reference had
been made to them at the appropriate points. The mathematical derivations, which can break up the flow of a text,
are also separated off as appendices to the corresponding
chapters (11 in all in the two volumes). Each volume contains a detailed contents list and there is a subject index
(with about 2500 entries) for the two volumes. There is no
author index, nor is there a list of symbols used. The work
contains some 800 illustrations, in the form of line diagrams,
figures, and schematic representations. Numerical material
is summarized in about 200 tables.
Hermann “ohr
[NB 998a IE]
Volume 2 of this large-scale textbook on electrochemistry
is devoted to “electrodics”, i. e. the phenomena in the boundary layer between electronic and ionic conductors. Since
the character of the overall work was described in the review
of the first volume, the present review will be concerned
mainly with volume 2.
The first of the five chapters is concerned with electrified
interfaces. The fundamental concepts of electrodics are
critically discussed. In reading this it becomes very clear
how little we still know about double layers on solid
metals (in contrast with mercury). Here there are also sections on double layers on semiconductors, electrokinetics,
and colloid chemical phenomena. The next two chapters
deal with electrode reactions; the first with charge-transfer
kinetics, the second with mechanisms. Next a selection of
specific types of electrode reactions are described : electrocatalysis, metal electrocrystallization, hydrogen and
oxygen evolution. In the final chapter on systems of technological interest, corrosion and related phenomena, electrochemical energy conversion (fuel cells), and storage
devices (accumulators and cells) are discussed in detail.
This volume, too, can be used by itself. The arrangement of
the field of electrodics is mainly governed by teaching considerations. However, despite the pleasing overall impression, I cannot overlook one or two defects. Experimental
methods of investigation are certainly mentioned, but any
critical discussion-which one might well expect in a book
of this scope-is missing. In the tables and diagrams there
are no indications of the experimental or theoretical routes
by which the data are obtained. In many of these cases even
a literature reference would have helped. There are also
several minor errors, such as incorrect signs in equations
(e.g. in (7.40)to (7.46))or a reference to a non-existent appendix (A 7.2); however, these shortcomings are no worse than
one might expect to find in a first edition.
Apart from a brief introduction to the subject as a whole,
the shorter volume 1 is concerned with ions in liquids. This
topic is called “ionics”, in contrast to “electrodics” which
is the subject of volume 2. First of all the ion-solvent interaction is dealt with, initially without and then with reference
to structure. Here the central position is occupied by the
ion-dipole and the ion-quadrupole interaction. Further
subsections are concerned with the solvation number, the
dielectric constant, and the effect of dissolved non-electrolytes. The next chapter is on ion-ion interactions. The Debye-Huckel theory is critically examined, and the influence
of the solvent on the activity coefficients is studied; ion
associations, the quasilattice treatment of concentrated
electrolyte solutions, and experimental methods are also
discussed. The subsequent chapter on ion transport relates
principally to aqueous solutions. Separate chapters are
concerned with protons in solution and with melts, in which
simple models oriented toward the lattice or the gas are
discussed and transport phenomena and mixed phases are
dealt with.
Standard Methods of Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 6. By R. P.
MacDona/d. Academic Press, New York-London 1970,
1st ed., xiv, 281 pp., bound, $14.50.
There is no difficulty in using this volume independently
of volume 2, which, considering the high price, is an advan-
Six volumes of Standard Methods of Clinical Chemistry
have now appeared since 1953 under the auspices of the
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Vol. I I (1972) / N o . I
The two-volume work taken as a whole is a modern, comprehensive textbook on electrochemistry. Since it is written
clearly, in detail, and at an elementary level, it is fairly easy
to read. To this extent it may be described as an “Introduction”. But who, other thap an enthusiast, could be expected
to read a work of some fifteen hundred pages? The very size
of the work prevents it from fulfilling its function of really
acting as an introduction.
Herrnann Gdhr [NB 998 b IE]
American Association of Clinical Chemists. The aim has
been the same throughout the series, namely to provide a
critical collection of the scattered methods used in clinical
chemistry, and this aim has been achieved. In appearance,
these volumes remind one of two other series: Organic
Synthesis and Methods of Enzymology. The sixth volume,
which has just been published, is just as much of a standard
work as the previous ones, and belongs on the shelves of
any library where this subject is covered at all.
The sixth volume gives a wide variety of methods, determinations, and general topics of interest to clinical chemists,
examples being the handling of toxicological problems in
the laboratory, the subject of standardizing enzyme activity
determinations, and proposals for the nomenclature of
quantities and units used in clinical chemistry. The discussion of these very topical questions with such clarity is of
great value. It is sufficient to think how much diagnostic
information may be lost if we do not soon accept rules for
the standardization of enzyme activity determinations. Of
course, the difficulties of reaching international agreements
are well known.
One hesitates to accept as standard laboratory methods
some of the determinations proposed here, for example
Bubson’s color reaction for the GOT activity (p. 149). It is
true that this method needs only simple equipment, and for
this reason it may be discussed here, but it uses an unstable
reference substance, oxalacetate. Another example is the
triglyceride determination (p. 215), which comprises no
fewer than twelve steps and is therefore certainly unsuitable as a standard method for routine use. A better
method was devised for this purpose by Eggstein in 1966.
The interference by dextran-type plasma extenders is not
taken into account in the description of the o-toluidineglacial acetic acid method for the determination of blood
sugar (p. 1591, although it can give erroneously positive
results with all its consequences, as is well known.
All this, however, does not detract from the fact that this
volume too offers very useful analytical methods (e.g. for
the determination of hemoglobin in the plasma; cf. p. 107)
that can be used in large routine laboratories and in research laboratories. Even the “Notes” in small print offer
much technical help in laboratory work. The subject index
on eight pages is sufficiently extensive to permit anything
to be found quickly and easily.
Wahlefeld [NB 1 IE]
Autoradiographie (Autoradiography). By H . A . Fischer and
G . Werner. Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin 1970. 1st
edit., ix, 214 pp., 93 figures, 14 tables, bound, DM 42.-.
Autoradiographic methods have been successfully used in
almost every field of science. The collection of people concerned with this technique is therefore a heterogeneous
one, and up to now there has been no comprehensive and
complete presentation in German of the theoretical and
practical fundamentals of this wide-ranging topic. The
present book should fill this gap. The authors intend it
primarily as a guideline for those interested in the method
and as an introduction for those who are unfamiliar with
autoradiographic techniques.
After a short explanation of the physical foundations and
the method of labeling with radioactive isotopes, there is
a survey of the autoradiography of macroscopic, microscopic, and electron-microscopic objects ; this section con68
tains a wealth of practical examples from a wide range of
applications. To name but a few: studies of metals, applications to chemical and biochemical analysis, biology (autoradiography of whole animals, etc.), criminological investigations, mass transport in earth samples, and many others.
The techniques of operating with stripping film and “liquid”
emulsions are discussed, together with their advantages
and limitations. One section is specially devoted to the very
important and difficult topic of the autoradiography of
dislocatable substances. The possibilities for the autoradiography of electron-microscopic objects are critically
discussed on the basis of numerous examples. In each individual section there are separate notes on the selection of
the suitable film material and the photographic technique.
The objectivity of the presentation can be seen from the
numerous notes on artefacts, which all too often lead to
misinterpretations of autoradiograms. The book closes
with a chapter on the use of autoradiography as a quantitative method ; there is a comprehensive bibliography including recent publications.
The fact that some of the captions have been applied to the
wrong picture does not detract much from the quality of
the book. A further point to be noted in a new edition
would be a standardization of the units of measurement,
taking the SI units into consideration.
Over and above its value as a guide for the beginner, this
book will also offer to the worker familiar with this topic
many useful suggestions and a highly informative insight
into other specialist fields, which in turn will contribute to
an enrichment of his own field. In closing, it may be mentioned that the book is very attractive in outward appearance, but the reproduction of some of the original autoradiograms could have been better.
Huns-Adm-tin Kellner
[NB 2 IE]
Chemie der Metall-Olefm-Komplexe (Chemistry of MetalOlefin Complexes). By P . Heimbuch and R . Truunmiiller.
Chemische Taschenbucher Vol. 10. Verlag Chemie
GmbH, Weinheim/Bergstr. 1970. ix, 180 pp., 85 figures,
30 tables, paperback DM 20.--.
The present monograph is devoted to one of the most
interesting fields, and probably also the most topical,
of organometallic chemistry. The authors, who are
themselves active in this field, have tried to select the
results that seem most important to them from the wealth
of available material, and to throw light on the chemistry
of metal-olefin complexes from various angles.
After an introductory chapter with a very brief discussion
of bonding models known at present, the first part of the
book describes a number of important preparation
methods, mainly those giving isolable, kinetically stable
metal-olefin complexes. Syntheses of alkylmetals and
metal hydrides are also mentioned, though these do not
strictly fall within the realm of the subject proper. Chapters 5 and 6 (“Effects of complex formation on olefin and
allyl ligands” and “Olefins and allyl groups as complex
ligands”) survey the methods and results of structural
investigations and also take bonding problems into
account. The second part of the monograph presents
a very detailed discussion of catalytic processes in which
metal-olefin and metal-ally1 complexes play a part,
usually as kinetically labile intermediates. This discussion
is centered on the work of G. Wilke and the Mulheim
school. It is in these chapters that it becomes very plain
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Vol. I 1 (1972)
1 No. 1
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