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Book Review Structure and Properties of Polymers. (Series Materials Science and Technology Vol. 12.) Edited by E. L

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BOOKS
tions to figures. This works well in most
cases. although occasionally the figure is
out of synchronization with the text. In
fact the entire book is extremely well illustrated with a whole gamut of molecular
orbital diagrams, figures, schemes, structures, spectra, and equations.
The “Foundations” section follows the
traditional treatment: atomic and molecular structure, molecular shape and symmetry, structure of solids, acids and bases,
metal complexes, redox. Part 2 (“Systematic Chemistry of the Elements”) begins
with a new chapter on the metals, followed by chapters on hydrogen and its
compounds, main-group organometallic
compounds, boron and carbon groups,
nitrogen and oxygen groups, and halogens and the noble gases.
Part 3 (“Advanced Topics”) covers effectively all aspects of transition metal
chemistry, with chapters on electronic
spectra of complexes, reaction mechanisms of d-block complexes, d- and fblock organometallic compounds, structures and properties of solids, and
bioinorganic chemistry. The book ends
with a series of appendices and a formula
and subject index.
All the material that one would wish to
cover in two years of undergraduate inorganic chemistry courses is contained in
this one text. Part 2 is a balance of basic
knowledge and the latest experimental results (e.g. buckminsterfullerene complexes,
p. 482): the latter should serve to stimulate the enthusiasm of students. Excellent
use is made of line drawings of molecular
structures. A positive effort has been made
to apply the theoretical principles (in particular molecular orbital theory) in the latter part of the book.
My negative comment is that on reading the book I experienced a sense of overcompression of the material in some sections, as if the authors have tried to reduce
the text to a minimum number or words.
The end result of being too brief is that
these sections strike me as difficult for the
student to assimilate. A slight amplification would greatly facilitate understanding. This runs contrary to the preface,
which states that the writing and refinement of the text was undertaken with the
advice of students and instructors.
Let me illustrate this with some selected
examples, of which there are many. Chapter 1 on atomic structure is a brief summary with no more depth than a general
chemistry text. It is too brief for anyone
without knowledge of the subject to understand. Students reading a course on inorganic chemistry would already have had
a general chemistry course and this material will be familiar. The aim is thus not
600
63
clear. Is it to refresh the reader’s memory
or to provide a more detailed treatment
than an introductory text? The former
aim may be achieved, but not the latter.
To cite two specific instances, the Uncertainty Principle (p. 12) merits only onethird of a page, and the radial distribution
functions are shown only for hydrogen Is,
2s, and 2p orbitals (the latter two in the
form of a problem).
Similarly, the chapter on molecular
structure describes UV photoelectron
spectroscopy (PES) rather briefly (p. 65).
A slight amplification would greatly enhance understanding; e.g. on page 67 it is
stated that the “vibrational structure in
the photoelectron spectrum can be very
helpful in assigning the origin of the spectral line”, but the authors f d to adequately explain how this can be used to make
assignments. It is left for the reader to do
this, and to relate the sample PES of dinitrogen (p. 66) to the molecular orbital
energy level diagram three pages later.
Concerning the actual text, what is different is the rather frequent use of the first
person plural (we, us), more than is generally found in chemistry books. There are
several instances in the text of a loose colloquial style, e.g. on page 249: “and, although avoiding the pairing penalty, will
have an energy higher by A,”; page 240:
“this trick, which is called the template
effect”.
In summary though, the positive aspects
of the book far outweigh the foibles of style
and layout. Students at all levels of inorganic chemistry will profit from a perusal
of this text which describes the subject as
Franz L. Wimmer
it is in the 1990s.
Department of Chemistry
Universiti Brunei
Darussalam (Brunei)
Structure and Properties of Polymers.
(Series: Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 12.) Edited by E. L.
Thomas. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft,
Weinheim/VCH Publishers, New
York, 1993. 786 pp., hardcover
DM 430.00, $ 325.00.-ISBN 3-52726825-110-89573-700-0
The series to which the volume Structure and Properties of’Polyrners belongs is
intended to cover a wide range of topics in
materials science and to serve both as a
work of reference and for systematic
study. Thus each chapter should treat its
subject in greater detail than an encyclopedia but more concisely than a monograph. The series is intended for a broad
readership, and is also suitable for the
VCH Ye~lag.s~e.sell.sr/iuft
m h H , 0-69451 Wrinheirn, 1995
reader who wants a survey of recent developments in a related field.
The book covers a very wide range of
subjects, giving an overview of all the topic areas in modern polymer physics. Polymer structure and elasticity, followed by
viscoelastic. rheological, dielectric, and
optical properties, are treated in 13 chapters. Three further chapters are devoted to
high-strength polymer fibers, polymer
surfaces and interfaces with other materials, and crazing and fracture.
The book begins with a chapter by L. J.
Fetters and E. L. Thomas on the synthesis
of model polymers, covering even very recent published work in this area. Chapter 2, by F. T. Gentile and U. W. Suter,
deals with amorphous polymers and gives
a good review of structural models (static
atomistic modeling), including a detailed
description of the model proposed by
Theodoru and Suter. The diffusion of
small molecules in glassy polymers is also
treated. I particularly liked the chapter by
B. Lotz and J. C. Wittmann on the structure of polymer single crystals, covering
nearly every aspect of their formation,
structure, properties, and deformational
behavior. Experimental methods for
studying polymer single crystals are only
touched on briefly, but despite that the
chapter is a mine of information for the
interested reader. In contrast the following chapter by P. J. Barham on crystallization and morphology devotes much space
to experimental methods (scattering
techniques, microscopy, spectroscopy,
calorimetry), while also not neglecting the
fundamentals (nucleation and crystallization, structural types, models). Chapter 5,
by M. Ballauff, is concerned with liquid
crystal polymers, currently a topic of
great interest. This is written in a clearly
understandable way, and can be read as
an introduction to the physics of liquid
crystal polymers. Chapter 6 (T. Hashimoto) deals with the structure of polymer
blends. Although one cannot expect an
exhaustive coverage of this enormous
field in a chapter of 41 pages, the treatment is far from superficial. Phase diagrams, the formation of microphases, and
spinodal segregation in two-component
systems are well described and discussed.
Next come several chapters that are
mainly concerned with the mechanical
properties of polymers: “Elastic Properties of Crystalline Polymers” (D. T.
Grubb), “Rubber Elasticity” (R. UIImann), “Viscoelastic Properties” and
“Rheological Properties” (both by M.
Doi), and “Elastic Deformation of Polymers” (B. Christ). Together with the later
chapters “High-Strength Polymer Fibers”
(H. Jiang, W. W. Adams, and R. K. Eby)
$ /O.OO+ .25/0
0570-0833195~0505-~600
An,ycw. Cliem. Inr. Ed. Engl. 1995, 34, No. 5
BOOKS
and ‘.Crazing and Fracture of Polymers”
( I . Narisawa and A. F. Yee), these articles
provide much more than a mere overview
of these important areas of polymer
physics. As well as the fundamentals they
include details of methods of measurement and theoretical models, such as the
Takayanagi model for mechanical behavior, the Mooney-Rivlin model for rubber
elasticity, and the Rouse model.
The two chapters on dielectric properties (G. Williams) and optical properties
(W. Knoll) contain a wealth of information, but this is presented in a readable
style. The second of these also touches on
the highly topical areas of optical fibers
and optoelectronics. As the authors of the
chapter on “Polymer Surfaces and InterPaces with Other Materials” (M. Tirrell
and E. E. Parsonage) themselves point
out, it was not possible here to cover all
aspects of this broad field. The chapter
concentrates on solid polymers and omits,
for example. interactions with solvents,
surfaces with adsorbates, and swelling
phenomena.
On the whole the authors of this book
seldom go into great detail. The reader
who wishes to make a thorough study of
a special area may regret this, but on the
other hand those who wish to obtain an
overview are spared the trouble of working through lengthy derivations. Despite
being the work of 22 authors, the volume
is surprisingly homogeneous; the unifying
hand of the editor is evident throughout.
It can be recommended not only for specialists hut certainly also for students interested in this field. especially advanced
and post-graduate students of polymer
physics.
Structure- Property Relations in
Polymers. Spectroscopy and Performance. (Series: Advances in Chemistry, Vol. 236.) Edited by M . U. Urban and c‘. D. Craver. American
Chemical Society, Washington, D . C . ,
1993. 832 pp., hardcover $139.95.ISBN 0-842 2-2525-7
The book Structure- Property Relations in Po/i,nicw contains a selection of
papers from the 200th National Meeting
of the American Chemical Society (Washington, D.C., 1991), covering applications
of Fourier transform (FT) infrared and
Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry in the
polymer field. The preface announces the
aim of bridging the gap between the
molecular data yielded by these spectroscopic methods and specific macroscopic
properties. It aims to serve the needs of
both newcomers to polymer spectroscopy
and experienced specialists. This is an ambitious objective, but in my view some of
the contributions achieve it very well.
The 35 articles are arranged in six chapters; as well as bringing a degree of order to
the topic areas. this in part gives the book
some of the qualities of a monograph.
The first chapter, “Fundamental Aspects of the Spectroscopy of Polymers”, is
concerned with basic principles and recent
developments in F T infrared and Raman
spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy,
and mass spectrometry. Although intended as an introduction to the principles of
these techniques, it also covers some recent developments, such as the use of multivariate data processing in polymer analysis.
The chapters that follow deal with the
applications of the above methods to
problems in polymer physics. Thus the
second chapter is concerned with crystalline polymers and copolymers. Data
from Raman spectra on the internal and
longitudinal vibrational modes can be
used in the structural analysis of crystalline polymers or in studying topotactic
changes during solid-state polymerization. Interesting results from the application of FTIR spectroscopy to the analysis
of phase behavior and the study of molecular interactions in polymer blends are also described. The use of near-IR spectroscopy for the quantitative analysis of a
series of 25 thermoplastics is described in
an interesting paper by H. F. Howell and
J. K. Davis.
Chapter 3 deals with polymer surfaces
and interfaces. The topics discussed include the role of surface-active agents in
latex technology, and measurements on
thick films. L. J. Fina contributes a very
interesting article on the modeling of concentration gradients on polymer surfaces.
Also worth special mention is an article by
M. B. Mitchell on the technique of diffuse
reflectance infrared Fourier transform
(DRIFT) spectroscopy and its applications. Coatings are becoming ever more
important in plastics technology, and the
contribution by M. Claybourn and P. H.
Turner describing FTIR and FT Raman
measurements on coatings is therefore
well worth reading. Other topics of special
interest are FT Raman studies of dyes and
the recording of Raman spectra during
emulsion polymerization.
The chapter entitled “Spectroscopic
Studies of Polymers in Solution and
Polymer Networks” contains eight articles. Among the subjects discussed are
metachromasy in dye-polyelectrolyte solutions, intermolecular association of
polymers in water. photochemical and
degradation reactions in polymers. and
polymer-monomer interactions. Interesting applications of PALS (position annihilation lifetime spectroscopy) measurements for investigating changes of the
in-situ free volume in polymer networks
are described.
Chapter 4 consists of four contributions describing Combinations of two or
more techniques. such as FTIR with photoacoustic measurements. and differential
thermoanalysis with thermogravimetric
analysis.
The final chapter, “Polymer Analysis
and Surface Modifications”, is concerned
with surface analytical methods such as
SPI-SALI (single-photon ionizationsurface analysis by laser ionization),
SIRIS (sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy), SALISA (surface
analysis by laser ionization of sputtered
atoms), and pulsed radiofrequency plasma discharge spectroscopy. Applications
of these techniques in areas such as inorganic polymer synthesis and polymer surface studies are described. Also interesting
is the determination of the molecular mass
of organic compounds by the K’IDS (K’
ionization of desorbed species) technique.
This volume is certainly a mine of information for the specialist. and can also be
recommended for readers with interests in
infrared spectroscopy.
Wcrnc,r Wen&
Laboratorium fur Angewandte Physik
der Universitlt-Gesamthochschule
Duisburg (FRG)
~
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