close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Book Review Structure and Reactivity in Reverse Micelles. (Series Studies in Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Vol. 65). Edited by M. P

код для вставкиСкачать
The book includes an excellent and entertaining outline of
the history of the scientific study of lectins, which goes back
more than a hundred years. Every chapter makes it clear,
even to the non-specialist reader, that this history will be
enriched by further additions as a result of studies that are
now in progress or will be carried out in the future. This gives
one an extra incentive to absorb the information presented
here, so as to provide a basis for following and understanding such future developments as they occur. Therefore it is to
be hoped that the book will be widely read, and that it will
not be too long before a new updated edition appears. However, the reader interested in this topic is not advised to wait
for such a new edition. It is to be hoped, and is indeed likely
in view of the quality and presentation of the material in this
well set out and easily digestible survey, that readers+specially those who are not lectins specialists-will be motivated
to keep informed about progress in relevant sectors of the
field of lectins. Finally, it can be assumed that some of the
information that this book contains, such as the role of
lectins in viral and bacterial infections or in transport of
glycoproteins, will also in due course find its way into the
standard textbooks.
Hans-Joachim Gabius [NB 1097 IE]
Max-Planck-Institut fur experimentelle Medezin,
Gottingen (FRG)
A Random Walk Through Fractal Dimensions. By B. H .
Kaye. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/VCH Publishers, New York 1989. xxv, 421 pp., hardcover DM 138.00
(paperback DM 64.00).-ISBN 3-527-26468-X/0-89573496-6
The concept of fractals, invented by Benoit B. Mandelbrot,
has by its vivid imagery altered ways of scientific thought to
an extent that is perhaps greater than that caused by the
second law of thermodynamics. It is doubtless also because
of this graphic quality that a large number of scientists have
already become involved with this new tool. Publications
reviewing this subject are therefore to be welcomed. The
book by B. H . Kaye is neither a handbook nor a work of
reference; instead it contains exactly what its title promises :
a random walk through fractal dimensions, confined to the
scientific and mathematical aspects. The mathematical procedure of fractals is likewise a random one, but it certainly
does not lack a plan. Its basic operations are governed by
strict rules, but these are then applied to random numbers.
Although fractals are ultimately a mathematical device, formulas are avoided in the book. Regrettably, this is taken so
far that one is not even given a mathematical definition of
the term “fractal”. An extreme case is the chapter entitled
“Mathematical Description of Fractal Clusters”, which contains only two quite unimportant formulas. The vague references in the text to “famous” names in the field are rather
annoying; for more detailed information one has to refer to
the bibliography.
The value of the book lies in its plentiful illustrations and
the directness of its style, together with the fact that, due to
the absence of mathematical detail, it is very easy to read. It
is therefore very suitable as a first introduction to the topic.
It can be used as a supplement to basic treatments of the
subject, in particular to those by Mandelbrot or to those that
deal with special aspects. It offers a wealth of new examples
drawn from mathematics, scientific statistics and various
fields of science. The main emphasis of the application examAngew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 30 (1991) No. 3
ples is in the author’s special field of dispersed phases. The
book also serves as a stimulus for further research.
Erich Robens [NB 1115 IE]
Institut fur Anorganische und Analytische Chemie
der Universitat Mainz (FRG)
Structure and Reactivity in Reverse Micelles. (Series: Studies
in Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Vol. 65). Edited by
M . P . Pileni. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1989. xviii, 379 pp.,
hardcover. HF1 285.00. -ISBN 0-444-88166-2
This book, which is published as Volume 65 in the series
“Studies in Physical and Theoretical Chemistry”, is concerened with topical problems in the field of reverse micelles.
It consists of 21 individual contributions by different authors, most of whom do not confine themselves to a narrow
definition of reverse micelles but also include microemulsions in this class. The aspects emphasized in the articles fall
under three headings: the applications of various analytical
techniques, solubilization, and chemical reactions in reverse
micelles and microemulsions. The treatment of structural
problems which is promised in the book’s title is limited to
that arising in the chapters on analytical techniques and
solubilization, and is mainly restricted to “classical” reverse
micelles.
The analytical techniques that are described include methods of investigating structure, such as light-, X-ray- and neutron-scattering measurements, as well as electron microscopy and various spectroscopic methods. First the applicability
of each individual technique to the study of structure and
reactions in reverse micelles is discussed, then particular
types of reverse micelles are used as examples to illustrate the
capabilities and limitations of the various analytical methods.
In the articles on solubilization in reverse micelles and
microemulsions the main emphasis is on discussions concerning the site of the preferential solubilization and the
associated structural changes. Also the various solubilization techniques and their advantages and disadvantages are
discussed in detail.
The reactions that can be carried out in reverse micelles
and microemulsions include such widely different processes
as pulse radiolysis, electron transfer, photoreactions, the
preparation of clusters of metallic and semiconducting elements, polymerizations and enzymic catalysis. Although
here too the reactions are in some cases used to gain more
detailed knowledge about the structures of reverse micelles,
the dominant theme is the idea of using reverse micelles as
variable microreactors.
The form of the book, consisting of separate individual
contributions, has made it possible to present a very wide
range of topics within the overall theme of reverse micelles.
The articles provide the reader with numerous up-to-date
references to original papers on each of the topics treated.
Representatives of widely differing schools of thought such
as P . L. Luisi and K. Martinek have an opportunity to put
their views; this area of research is thereby presented, with its
attendant controversies, as one that is active and exciting,
and in which one can still expect many interesting developments.
Although good use has been made of the opportunities
presented by a book made up of separate contributions, one
is left with the usual problems of this format: the following
of a central theme is sacrificed in favor of breadth of subject
matter. The attempt by P.L. Luisi to provide an aid to
orientation alongside the contributions dealing with their
0 VCH Verlagsgesellsrhafi mbH. W-6940 Weinheim.1991
0570-0833/91/0303-0339$3.50+ .25/0
339
special topics is a very good idea, even though it is not ideally
placed in the book. In their efforts to convey their special
interests the authors of the individual articles have tended to
neglect the treatment of the fundamentals, and they often
assume that the reader has an extensive knowledge of colloid
chemistry. In many cases it is difficult to relate the individual
contributions to each other, especially as their subject matter
is not always well harmonized: many points are explained
several times, others not at all, so that parts of the book are
quite laborious to read. Also some expressions are used with
different meanings in different chapters, and no consistent
notation is used for the mathematical equations.
One has a general impression that the proofreading has
been rather perfunctory. Often one comes across errors that
might be excused as mere blemishes in the main text, but
which cause problems when they occur in keywords (e.g.
“Stibene” frequently instead of “Stilbene”) or in literature
references. There are other minor errors which cause annoyance, such as missing chapter numbers (which frustrate the
laudable attempts of some of the authors to refer to “Chapter X” by one of the others), or gaps in the subject index: for
example, one searches in vain for “NMR” under the letter
N-instead it appears under R with just one entry (!) as
“Reversed micelle, NMR in”.
Despite its shortcomings the book can definitely be recommended as a source of more advanced information on the
field of reverse micelles, not least because of its references to
recent literature for further reading. However, as a first introduction to this field the book is of only limited suitability.
Some of the many review articles that are available on this
subject offer better introductions.
AndrP Laschewsky [NB 1090 IE]
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Universitat Mainz (FRG)
finding strategic bonds are nicely introduced using patchouli
alcohol as an example. This part concludes with a discussion
of how to achieve stereochemical control in ring and acyclic
systems. In Chapter 9 on diastereoselectivity in reactions of
acyclic compounds, several variations of the aldol reaction
are treated followed by a short overview on Sharpless epoxidation. A recapitulation of the heuristic rules and their application, illustrated by a series of examples taken from the
literature, forms the third part, which concludes the main
text. The last part is unfortunately arranged in a rather fragmented way, consisting of Chapter 11, Appendices 2 to 4,
and the diskette containing a copy of the program CHAOS
(Computerisation and Heuristics Applied to Organic Synthesis). Appendix 2 is a tutorial for the use of CHAOS. In
addition there is a list of the retrosynthetic steps used by
CHAOS and some suggestions for exercises. Chapter 11,
which is a description of CHAOS, fits uneasily into the
book’s text.
To try to combine a textbook on organic synthesis and
planning with a computer program is certainly a good idea.
Unfortunately the present publication cannot be considered
to be a good combination of the two media. The program is
not polished enough to be a valuable help in the learning
process. CHAOS certainly cannot be used as an alternative
to other synthesis programs or reaction data bases. Looking
at the price the purchase of this book can only be recommended for libraries or for lecturers preparing courses on
organic synthesis. It only can be hoped that a much cheaper
version without the diskette will appear soon, thus enabling
students to profit from the nicely chosen examples; at the
same time the numerous printing mistakes could be eliminated.
Reinhard Neier [NB 1127 IE]
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Universitat Fribourg (Switzerland)
Organic Chemistry in Action. The Design of Organic Synthesis. (Series: Studies in Organic Chemistry 41). By R Serratosa. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1990. xxi, 395 pp., hardcover
HFI. 290.00.--ISBN 0-444-88345-2
EPR of Exchange Coupled Systems. By A. Bencini and D.
Gatteschi. Springer, Berlin 1990. x, 287 pp., hardcover
DM 178.00.-ISBN 3-540-50944-6
Synthesis is still the main occupation of many organic
chemists. The systematic development of retrosynthesis by
Corey has contributed to the “renaissance” of synthetic
chemistry as a whole. The large number of recently published
natural products syntheses are a lively proof of this fact. In
spite of the large efforts in synthesis relatively few books are
available to introduce synthesis and synthesis planning to
students. The book “Organic Chemistry in Action” by R
Serratosa together with a copy of the program CHAOS aims
to provide such an introduction to organic synthesis. The
combination of a book with a computer program is new and
should hopefully facilitate the learning process for beginners.
Serratosa’s book can be divided into four parts. Chapters
1 to 4 present the basic concepts of synthesis planning. After
a short introduction to the history of synthesis the criteria for
evaluating synthetic schemes are introduced. The next chapter treats the systematic analysis of reactivity according to
Evans. A short introduction to retrosynthesis follows. In the
second part specific synthetic problems are treated. The first
problem is the synthesis of “dissonant” systems or, according to Seebach’s more familiar nomenclature, the application
of the “Umpolung” concept. Next a series of synthetic methods for synthesizing rings are presented. Strategies for synthesizing structures with quaternary carbon atoms and
bridged systems are described in Chapter 7. Corey’s rules for
This book is concerned with the theory of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and magnetic properties for systems containing two or more magnetically coupled paramagnetic centers (transition metal ions and/or free
radicals). A knowledge of the basic theory of EPR spectra of
isolated centers is an essential prerequisite for understanding
this monograph.
After discussing the exchange and superexchange interaction mechanisms, including an explanation of the empirical
rules established by Goodenough and Kanarnori for the occurrence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange
in magnetically coupled systems, the authors discuss in detail
the spin Hamiltonian operator for such systems. Chapter 3
then deals with the spin levels and EPR spectra of magnetically coupled pairs and their dependence on the exchange
interaction. The spin Hamiltonian operators of the isolated
centers and the interaction operator are then used as the
basis for deviving the spin Hamiltonian operator for the
coupled system, by using irreducible tensor operators. From
this one obtains the relationship between the parameters in
the spin Hamiltonian for the individual centers (g-tensor,
fine structure tensor D and hyperfine structure tensor A ) and
those for the coupled system. Following this, the spin Hamiltonian operators and EPR spectra of clusters of paramagnetic species are analyzed, with the emphasis on treating systems
with strong exchange interactions (triads and tetrads). For
340
0 VCH
VrrlugsgesellsehurjtmbH, W-6940 Weinheim, 1991
0570-083319ijO303-0340 $3.50t .2S/O
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 30 (1991) No. 3
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
1
Размер файла
298 Кб
Теги
physical, series, reactivity, micelle, chemistry, reverse, structure, theoretical, book, edited, vol, review, studies
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа