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Book Review Struktur und Synthese von Vitaminen (Structure and Synthesis of Vitamins). G. Kempter

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BOOK REVIEWS
Brennstoffelemente. Moderne Verfahren zur elektrochemischen
Energiegewinnung (Fuel Cells. Modern Processes for Electrochemical Production of Energy). Monograph No. 82 to
“Angewandte Chemie” and “Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik”.
By W. Vielstich. Verlag Chemie, GmbH., Weinheim/Bergstr. 1965. 1st Edit. XV + 388 pp., 267 figs., 31 tables,
plastic cover, D M 54.- (about $ 14.-).
In recent years the problems involved in fuel cells, where
chemical energy is converted directly into electrical energy,
have drawn the attention of an increasing number of technologists and scientists. W. Vielstich has chosen the right
moment for a comprehensive review of the results and for
delineation of unsolved problems.
The introductory chapter lists the cells according to the
physical state of the reactant materials. Understanding is
made easy for the novice by clear diagrammatic drawings
I n accord with their importance, much space is given to
description of methods of electrochemical investigation, to
electrode kinetics, and to transport phenomena. Special treatment is accorded to anodic oxidation of hydrogen, monoand di-hydric alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, ammonia, hydrazine, and borohydrides, as
well as t 3 cithodic reduction of oxygeq hydrogen peroxide,
nitric acid, bromine, and chlorine This section includes
unpublished work by the author concerning, e . g . , the pHdependence of the exchange current density of the H2 reaction and p2tentiostatic potential diagrams of smooth noblemetal electrodes. The fundamental studies have contributed
materially to a better understanding of the effects observed,
but it remains for the future to show whether they provide a
hasis for new, promising technical developments.
The treatment of low-, medium-, and high-temperature cells,
and of cells containing dissolved fuel, occupies more than
100 pages. This chapter, completed in 1964, makes it particularly apparent how vigorously development of cells and
batteries is progressing. Special types, such as redox cells,
and amalgam-oxygen and biochemical fuel cells, receive
separate treatment.
Discussion of the conversion of heat and nuclear energy by
electrochemical processes is a novel feature for a monograph
on fuel cells. Electrochemical energy storage and electrochemical enrichment of deuterium and tritium are included
in the border problems that are treated in about 30 pages.
For the preparation of individual chapters W. Vielstich
enlisted collaboration of A . Kussner (hydrogen foil electrodes), R . P . Tischer (fuel cells at medium and high temperatures), H. Schmidt (high-temperature cells with solid
electrolytes), and C . Griineberg (heat and nuclear energy
converters).
The book is excelleatly produced and, because of the balanced treatment of the theory and technical status of fuel
cells, will certainly receive a good reception by a wide
F. von Sturm
[NB 446/299 IEI
audience.
Trivialnamenkartei (Card File of Organic Trivial Names).
Issued by the Editorial Office of Chemidches Zentralblatt,
Berlin. Verlag Chemie, GmbH., Weinheim/Bergstr. 1964.
8000 Cards (72 mmx104 mm) in 3 cartons, D M 280.(about S 70.-).
Trivial names are a necessity, but often also a source of
annoyance: the latter always when the structure cannot be
derived from the name no matter how great one’s knowledge
of nomenclature and the like. It is the aim of this set of
cards, compiled in the Editorial Office of Chemisches Zentralblatt, to offer help in this situation. On each card there
is in the center the structural formula, in the top left corner
the German trivial name (or names), in the top right corner
the English trivial designation, in the bottom left corner the
molecular formula, and in the bottom right corner literature
326
references (mostly to Beilstein and to abstracts in Chemisches
Zentralblatt or Chemical Abstracts). The cards are numbered
consecutively according to their alphabetical order, which
facilitates replacement in the correct position. The German
and the English forms of the trivial names have independent
numbers, so that by simply sorting into rising numbers the
cards can be arranged according to the alphabetical order of
either the German or the English keywords.
Compounds having several trivial names have a corresponding number of cards. For cxample, ouabain appears als3 ns
acocanthenin and as g-strophanthin at appropriate places.
This system is, however, not always followed strictly. Thus
diphosphopyridine nucleotide is nat to be found under that
designation. But a corresponding card appears under DPN,
and other trivial designations of this coenzyme are present as
separate cards: yet there is no card for NAD, which has
recently become the customary abbreviation in place of DPN.
It is very welcome that abbreviations are treated here as
trivial names. In most cases the cards contain also a n explanation of how these abbrcvrations arose, e.g., NAA =
naphthylacetic acid, or DDD = dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, but occasionally (CMU, PAN) such explanation is
omitted.
In addition to references to Beilstein, Chemisches Zentralblatt, and Chemical Abstracts there are literature citations
such as “Karrer 2203” or “Negwer 1971”, but the inexperienced are not told what these mean (at least not in the
set of cards supplied for review).
I n some cases the user will fail in his search for a trivial name.
This is not surprising for 8000 crirds, but regular supplements
are envisaged which are to complete the file and also to bring
them up to date [*].The Editorial Office ofCheniischesZentralblatt asks specifically to be informed of further trivial names
that should be included and, in the reviewer’s opinion, it is
to be hoped that this request will find the strongest possible
echo, because the cards are and will continue to be a great
help to all who possess them; they furnish the information
sought quickly, reliably, without long thumbing over, and
H . Crunewald
[NB 4471300 IE]
without ballast.
Struktur und Synthese von Vitaminen (Structure and Synthesis
of Vitamins). G . Kempter. WTB-Wissenschaftl. Taschenbiicher - Chemie, Vol. 22, Akademie-Vetlag, Berlin 1964.
1st Edit., 155 pp., numerous illustrations, D M 8.- (about
f 2.-).
This small volume presents a lucid survey of the structures
and syntheses of nearly all the vitamins. The author writes
fluently and competently. He describes the efforts of the
organic chemists that led to the elucidation of the structures
of most of the vitamins in the early 1930’s making this one
of the highlights of natural product chemistry; the book then
shows how the time required for investigations of this nature
is greatly reduced nowadays by the application of physical
methods, although these methods can only be based on
knowledge gained by classical methods
One or two technically important syntheses or syntheses that
provide evidence of the structure are appended to the
structural elucidation of each vitamin, in a style that betrays
the authors detailed technical knowledge The properties of
the vitamins and a number of antagonists are described. The
chapters an the fa,t-soluble vitamins are particularly good ;
however, the stereochemistry of tachysterol is only touched
upon. In the case of the water-soluble vitamins, the cofactor
form and its synthesis is not generally considered, but this
does not form part of the object of the book. I n the discussion of vitamin BIZ,the recent attempts to synthesize the
corrin ring system are not mentioned.
-
.-
[ * ] The first supplement comprising about 1100 cards will appear
shortly.
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit, 1 Vol. 5 (I96G) No. 3
The layout of the book is very clean, and the formulae are
particularly clear. The few misprints and biochemical incongruities in the text are of no importance. The book closes
with a glossary in German, English, and Russian. The
literature survey is unfortunately confined to fairly recent
reviews. Onthe whole, however, this is an excellent little book,
and contains everything that the student is likely to absorb
from very good special lectures. L , Joerlic,ce [ N B 440!275 [El
Die Oxydation organischer Verbindungen mit Sauerstoff (The
Oxidation of Organic Compounds with Oxygen). By R .
Sc/zullner. Wissenschaftliche Taschenbucher, Vol. 23.
1st Edit., Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1964, 195 pp., 8 tables,
6 illustrations, cardboard DM 12.50 (about $ 3.10).
If one is not disturbed by sentences such as “The rapid development of the chemical industry in the Soviet Union and
in the entire socialist camp will greatly favor the application
of efficient processes for the oxidation of organic raw materials to form high-quality base chemicals”, or by a number
of inaccuracies and misprints, this book will provide a good
picture of the many reactions of the oxygen molecule with
organic substances. In addition to preparat,ive aspects, on
which the greatest stress is placed the kinetics of autoxidation
also are discussed.
The question arises, however. of the type of reader for
whom this book is intended. It contains too many specialized
data for the student whereas the number of references to
original publications is too small for the research worker (the
22 references given are mainly reviews); the book must
therefore be intended primarily for industrial chemists. For
this type of reader, in fact, the book may provide many
suggestions in the course of a few hours’ easy reading.
R . Criegee
[NB 428/298 IE]
Silicate Science. Vol. 11. Glasses, Enamels, Slags. By W . Eitel.
Academic Press, New York-London 1965. 1st Edit., XI1 +
707 pp., numerous figures, $ 26.-.
This volume, the second of the planned series of five, deals
with glasses, enamels, and slags. The chemical and physicochemical properties, such as the viscosities of glass melts,
surface tension, electrical conductivity, and changes in density, are discussed in detail. Considerable space is devoted
to the structures of glasses and to theories o n the subject.
Non-silicate glasses are also mentioned. A special chapter is
given to the surface structure and surface reactions of glass.
The second section deals more fully with industrial glasses,
their homogeneity, color correction, reaction residues, gas
inclusions, and the relationships between physico-chemical
properties and chemical composition than with enamels.
The chapter on slags reports recent findings relating to the
constitution of slags, and includes sections on the viscosity
and corrosiveness of molten slags and on equilibria between
molten slags and molten metals.
The literature covered is mainly that published between 1952
and 1962. The section on glass contains 703 references from
this period, while that on enamels and industrial glasses
contains 458. The chapter on slags contains 186 references.
The division into short, numbered chapters makes the book
tidy and-useful as a reference work. It is regrettable that, in
keeping with the publishers’ wishes, the contents of the book
“Physical Chemistry of Silicates” (1954) are assumed to b e
known, and that the publications discussed in this earlier
work are dismissed with a mere reference in the present
volume. Apart from this, the author has been extremely
successful in his use of the extensive literature. Misprints
(e.g. page 511, where a phenylene complex is given instead
of a catechol complex) are few.
As a reference book and handbook, this work is practically
indispensable for all laboratories and institutes concerned
Armin Weiss
[NB 4431278 IE]
with this field.
Angew. Chem. intermit. Edit.
Vol. 5 (1966) 1 No. 3
Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry. Edited by R. L. Whistler
in collaboration with J. N . BeMiller and M. L. Wolfrom.
Vol. V: General Polysaccharides. Academic Press, New
York-London 1965. 1st Edit., XXIl 463 pp., 26 figures,
11 tables. 6 16.50.
+
The present volume completes the provisional object of this
series“]. Like the previous volume, it contains a collection
of reliable procedures. Volume V is devoted to methods in
polysaccharide chemistry (cellulose and starch are excluded).
86 procedures are presented by 75 well-known specialists.
The text is divided into seven main parts: methods of isolation (18 contributions), preparation of polysaccharides
(25 contributions), chemical (4 contributions) and physical
(5 contributions) analysis, molecular weight determinations
(4 contributions), structural analysis (13 contributions), and
the preparation of polysaccharide derivatives (7 contributions).
The first part describes the modern methods of extraction
and purification of polysaccharides by chromatography, gel
filtration, precipitation, dialysis, ultrafiltration, and zone
electrophoresis. Dehydration and freeze-drying of preparations are explained. The second part contains particulars o n
the isolation of selected polysaccharides from plants, animals,
and microorganisms, including mucopolysaccharides and
lipopolysaccharides, glycogen, heparin, hyaluronic acid,
cellulose, hernicelluloses, inulin, chitin, pectin, dextran, and
plant gums. Part 111 contains only methods for the determination of lignin, acetyl and ester groups in pectin, and
primary hydroxyl groups in polysaccharides T h e physical
methods (Part IV) cover only the electrophoretic homogeneity, the optical rotation, the thixotropy and pseudoplasticity, the film properties, and the irnmui?ology of the
polysaccharides. Part V then deals with molecular weight
determinations by end-group analysis with 14CN and
periodate, or by osmometry and isothermal distillation.
Methods of hydrolytic and oxidative degradation of polysaccharides and thelr methylated derivatives for the purpose
of structural analysis account for the major part of Part VI.
An exhaustive table (44 pp.) of methyl ethers of sugars
should be very useful to the practical chemist. The oxidation
and reduction of uronic acids, esterification and deacetylation
desulfurization (of heparin), and etherification are some of
the points dealt with in connection with the preparation of
polysaccharide derivatives.
Since the book does not deal exhaustively with the subject
“General Polysaccharides,” references are made to methods
published in earlier volumes of this or other series. The
author index is large (18 pp.), since each contribution is
followed by a n average of 10 to 15 references. On the other
hand, the subject index (a 20-page collective index for volumes
111 to V) is rather meagre, and contains only about 2000
keywords.
Volume V satisfactorily fulfils the purpose for which it is
intended, i.e. to serve as a handbook for research and
practical laboratory work. Both the experienced carbohydrate chemist and the newcomer to the field will quickly
realize that “Methods of Carbohydrate Chemistry” is as
valuable and as reliable as is “Organic Syntheses” in organic
chemistry or “Biochemical Preparations” in biochemistry.
J . M . Harkin
[NB 4441279 IE]
The Proteins: Composition, Structure, and Function. Edited
by H . Neuratlt. Academic Press, New York-London. 2nd
Edit., Vol. 11, 1964, XIV + 840 pp., numerous illustrs. and
tables, $ 26.00 (by subscription $ 24.00); Vol. 111, 1965,
XIV + 585 pp., numerous illustrs. and tables, $ 21 .OO (by
subscription $ 18.50).
Soon after its publication, the first edition of “The Proteins” (Chemistry, Biological Activity, and Methods), together
with the standard monograph by Cohn and Edsnll, became
[l] Review of Vol. IV: Angew. Chem. 77, 226 (1965).
321
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