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Book Review Strukturen der Materie und ihre Symmetrie in Stereobildern (Structure of Matter and its Symmetry in Stereoscopic Pictures). By E. Egert and H. J

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Trivialnamenkartei (Card File of Organic Trivial Names). 5.
Erganzungslieferung (5th Supplementary Batch). Issued by
the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, Abteilung ChemieInformation und -Dokumentation Berlin. Verlag Chemie,
GmbH, Weinheim 1976. 1st edit., 1024 cards, DM 208.-.
Every chemist knows that trivial names are both useful
and infuriating. Useful because they are brief designations
for compounds whose systematic names may be very cumbersome, and infuriating because they seldom give the least indication of the compound’s structure. One is thus forced to fall
back on memory when one wants to correlate the name with
the structural formula, or one must turn to a good reference
work. Such a reference work has been available for the last
few years in the form of the Trivial Name Card Filer”] which,
if this new fifth batch is included, now contains more than
13000 entries. Like the previous cards, this fifth batch consists
both of cards giving new names and of replacement cards
that correct information given previously or bring it completely
up to date. In the top left-hand corner each card bears the
position number that applies on alphabetical arrangement
of the cards according to the German spelling of the trivial
names; in the top right-hand corner is the position number
obtained by sorting arrangement according to American English spelling. Below these numbers are, respectively, the German and English trivial names. The center of the card is
occupied by the structural formula with an indication of the
stereochemistry, in the bottom left-hand corner is the molecular formula, and in the bottom right-hand corner are one
or two references with the aid of which one can find the
description of the compound in Chemischer Informationsdienst or Chemical Abstracts. The card file thus contains
all that is needed for preliminary information about substances
whose designations often sound truly exotic-no longer is
one helpless in the face of pinseline, gentiakochianine, o r colestipol; the contents d o not become outdated and thus the
investment is worthwhile. One might even take the presence
of this card file as a criterion of the quality of a chemical
H . Neithurd [NB 370 IE]
Strukturen der Materie und ihre Symmetrie, in Stereobildern
(Structure of Matter and its Symmetry, in Stereoscopic
Pictures). By E. E p r t and H . J . Lindner. 3 D Bildstudio
R. Schmidt, 6101 Nieder-Ramstadt 1976. 1st edit., 30 pp.,
42 figs. (stereoscopic pictures); in spiral binding; red-green
spectacles and rulerjprotractor included ; D M 18.20 (from
ten or more DM 16.00).
The structure of matter is three-dimensional and recognition
of the spatial relationships is essential for its understanding.
There are several possible ways of reproducing it. The widely
used two-dimensional projection is convenient but not really
satisfactory because “the ability to visualize three-dimensional
structures from two-dimensional representations varies greatly
between individuals”. It is remarkable that a book containing
structures of molecules and lattices in stereoscopic representation should appear at this time, when there are more than
a dozen systems of molecular models that appear to satisfy
the desire for three-dimensional viewing.
It is quite natural to see in three dimensions; why then
should one not also see the larger molecules and lattices in
[*] Cf. Angew. Chem. In[. Ed. Engl. 5, 326 (1966)
that way, whose structures are too elaborate to be built with
normal models? Although one can learn chemistry without
stereoscopic pictures, it would be a pity to be denied this
experience of space, which in view of the quality of the Eyerrj
Linrliier book becomes an esthetic pleasure.
Section a) deals with the crystal structures of metals and
nonmetals, b) with ionic crystals, c) with the structures of
inorganic molecules (boron and silicon compounds and metal
complexes), d) with the structures of organic molecules, and
e) with types of crystal lattice and symmetry elements.
The attempt to introduce stereoscopic pictures as teaching
aids in the training of chemists is in itself nothing new: the
materials supplied with the textbooks by Kluges, Hollernun,
and Wberg, and now by Streitwieser and Heuthcock, and the
book by Bernal, Hamilton, and Ricci use the method each
within its own framework, as do Vol. A 1 of Molecular Structures and Dimensions and some Journals.
The new book attempts to show that this method of presentation has distinct advantages over models and, even if it
does not replace them, it is undoubtedly a valuable extension
thereof. The possibility of emphasizing the unit cell in an
extended lattice is used with advantage. The transformation
of the stereoformulas of D- and L-glyceraldehyde, placed in
relation to one another by a mirror plane floating in space,
into the Fischer projections becomes very clear. In the 14
Bravais lattices the angles drawn in can be viewed three-dimensionally. In the especially successful chapter on “Symmetry
Elements” the symmetry axes and planes shown in space
materially ease recognition of e. g. right- and left-handed screws
and the understanding of symmetry operations (e.g. rotationinversion). While spatial recognition requires some time and
practice with the stereoscopic pictures of the older type, and
even in Bertzul’s book, it is evident as soon as one opens
the present volume. The separations and angles between atoms
in space can be obtained (measured off) by means of the
ruler/protractor supplied; they are impressive in comparisons
of enantiomers or diastereoisomers (the latter unfortunately
not illustrated). The philosophy of the book-combination
of stereoscopic pictures with brief but effective introductory
text, is put expertly into practice. It is a pity that the diamond
and graphite lattices were not arranged next to each other,
that the adamantane structure was not emphasized in the
diamond lattice, and that 5 a-cholestane was not illustrated
alongside the 5 p-isomer.
An advantage of stereoscopic pictures over models is clearly
that with the former numerous structures can be stored in
a small space for examination and comparison. On the other
hand, it can be interesting to model parts of the stereoscopic
structures so as to view them from all sides.
The only “shortcoming” of the book is that it is limited
largely to inorganic structures; the organic chemistry section
is only three pages long and contains only two illustrative
blocks, even if interesting ones. The chapter on natural products contains only 5P-cholestane; it is precisely complicated
molecules that exceed the capacity of a model kit or cause
much trouble, and here the advantage of stereoscopic pictures
would be really evident. How impressive it would be to see
in three dimensions (with symmetry relationships), for example
staggered biphenyls, cumulenes and acetylenes of various
lengths (with their x-electron distributions), spiro compounds,
twistane enantiomers, asteranes, propellanes, triptycene, rotaxanes, catenanes, sterically strained and spatially hindered molecules, conformational changes on transition from ligands to
complex, topomerization processes (inversion at nitrogen, bullA I I < ~ WChriu.
/ n r . E d . Eiiyl. 16 ( 1 9 7 7 ) No. 5
valene, hypostrophene, etc.), packing in organic crystal lattices,
chiral natural products, carbohydrates, and the primary,
secondary, and tertiary structures of peptides. The meso/d,l-,
erythrolthreo-, and (R,S)-notation also for chiral axes and
planes could be ideally introduced. And it would be of great
interest to havea section on biochemical structures, e. g. nucleic
acid helices, hormones, and enzymes.
Since stereochemistry combines specialist areas from the
whole of chemistry, there arises, on the basis of this book,
a desire for a complete work with a similar title and in similar
style which, based on the main types of bonding, should
include both organic chemistry and biochemistry.
The book is reasonably priced and deserves wide distribution.
Fritz Vogtle [NB 367 IE]
The Hydrogen Bond. Recent Developments in Theory and
Experiment. (3 volumes). Edited by P. Schuster, G. Zundel
and C. Sandorfy. North-Holland Publishing Company,
Amsterdam-New York 1976,lst edit., ca. 1520 pp., bound,
3 vols. together $ 173.75.
The forty authors of this volume have attempted collectively
to review our present state of knowledge of the hydrogen
bond. After an introduction that touches on the field of Hbonding in excited molecules ( E . Lipperr), the first volume
(Theory) begins with a well-rounded treatise on energy hypersurfaces, in which the various approximation methods are
carefully compared ( P . Schuster). Four articles are devoted
to dynamics: these treat the one-dimensional motion of the
proton in the double minimum potential ( J . Brockmann),
coupling of several such tunnelling protons ( W Weidemann),
coupling of the proton motion to other nuclear vibrations
in the strong-coupling approximation (G. L. Hofacker et al.),
and finally the direct solution of motions on two-dimensional
energy surfaces ( P . Janoschrk); here one misses a critical
comparison of these various methods of consideration. The
volume ends with treatment of the statistics of H-bonds in
ice and water ( J . W Perram).
Volume 2 (Structure and Spectroscopy) deals first with the
geometry of the H-bond, as obtained from X-ray and neutron
diffraction in solids ( I . Olocsson et a/., n. F . Kotzle and M .
S. Lehmunn), as well as with additional spectroscopic aspects
concerning the angular dependence ( W: A . P. Luck). Recent
information on the hydrogen stretching vibration is reviewed
in detail ( D . Hatlzi and S. Bratos), anharmonicity being treated
separately (C. SaridorfJI). The peculiar continuum absorption
in the infrared is discussed thoroughly (G. Zundel), whereas
little space is devoted to long-wave IR spectroscopy ( W G.
Rothschild). Two articles on nuclear resonance spectroscopy
with reference to chemical shifts and quadrupole coupling complete the second volume (E. E. Eicker and E. Lippert, R. Blinc).
The third volume (Dynamics, Thermodynamics and Special
Systems) contains, in the section on dynamics, a pithy review
of nuclear magnetic relaxation in liquid H-bonding systems
( H . G. Hrrtz and M . D. Zeidler). In addition, the less common
incoherent neutron scattering is considered ( J . il.
Juik). The
somewhat disconnected article on dielectric measurements
does not contain any discussion of dielectric relaxation ( L .
Sohzyk, H . Engelhard? and K . Bunzl). Treatment of matrix
isolation spectroscopy f H . E. Hallam) and ferroelectrics ( V .
H . Schmidt, H . Stiller) is followed by a section on therniodynamics, containing a clear exposition of calorimetry and the
connection between thermodynamic and spectroscopic measurements ( A . D. Sherry) and a report on vapor pressure measurements ( H . W o / f ) . H-Bonding in adsorbates on silicon
oxide and aluminum oxide is described at some length ( H .
Kn6zinger). The third volume closes with a consideration of
H-bonds in water ( W A. P. Luck) and a collection of data
on the H-bonding in the various modifications of ice ( E . W a l ley).
The individual articles vary greatly in type of presentation:
some are pure literature reviews, some are detailed original
work, and some are clear characterizations of a certain field.
The review as a whole suffers greatly from the division into
more than two dozen articles, although most of the articles
are very satisfactory in their class. The work nevertheless adds
up to an impressive collection of the literature up to about
1974, and one may await hopefully the planned continuation
dealing with biological aspects; there, however, a better accord
between fewer authors on content and presentation of both
theory and experiment is desirable.
The three volumes must be commended to all who deal
in any way with H-bonding, in particular to workers at Institutes where physicochemical research on hydrogen-bonding
is in progress. They cannot, however, be regarded as a substitute for the 16-year old monograph by Pimentel and McClellnn,
and thus the reviewer hopes that one of the authors will find
the courage and time to contract the contents of the collection
in conherent form to a quarter of its length.
Peter Fromlzerz [NB 368 IE]
Ammonia, Part 111. Edited by A. I/: Slack and G. R. James.
Vol. 2 of “Fertilizer Science and Technology Series”. Edited
by A . V. Slack. Marcel Dekker, New York 1977. xv, 459
pp., bound, SFrs. 222.-.-ISBN
0-8247-61 88-X
Topics in Phosphorus Chemistry, Vol. 8. Edited by E. J . Griffith
and M . Grayson. John Wiley & Sons, New York 1976.
viii, 664 pp., bound, $ 52.00.--ISBN 0-471 -32789-1
Conservation of Resources. A Symposium Held at the University of Glasgow, 5th-9th April, 1976. Organised by
The Royal Institute of Chemistry and The Industrial Division of the Chemical Society. The Chemical Society, London
1976, Special Publication No. 27. ix, 245 pp., paper, E 6.00.ISBN 0-851 86-208-X
Versuchsauswertung. Presentation and evaluation of experimental results in science and technology. For students of
all natural sciences and technical disciplines. By R. H. Leaper
and 7:R. Thomas. Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Wiesbaden 1977.
v, 125 pp., paper, DM 17.80.--ISBN 3-528-03020-8
Analysis of Drugs of Abuse. By E. Berman. From the series
“Heyden International Topics in Science”. Edited by L.
C. Thomas. Heyden, London 1977. x, 80 pp., bound,
€. 5.50.pISBN 0-85501-226-9
Zur Desaktivierung des katalytischen Einzelkorn- und Festbettreaktors. By W Klose. From the series “reprotext”. Verlag
Chemie, Weinheim 1977.169 pp., paper, D M 44.OO-ISBN
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