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Book Review Surface and Defect Properties of Solids.

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tions, and Section 9.5, which deals, under the title “Nature,
Multiplicity, and Properties of Excited States in Photochemical
Reactions of Organic Molecules”, mainly with the theory
of the excitation and deactivation of electrons; it would also
have been preferable to bring together the parts on elementary
analysis (Sections 3.1, 3.2, and 14.4).
In general, attention should be drawn to the clarity of the
description, the often very pointed indication of the possibilities and limitations of the methods, and the extensive list
of references to monographs and relevant publications. These
make the book very valuable as a source of information.
However, it is also natural, simply because of the diversity
of the methods discussed and of the aspects involved, that
the extent and nature of the descriptions will vary from section
to section, so that the user cannot expect to obtain the same
kind of information from each contribution. A number of
articles, particularly those on separation methods, methods
of chemical analysis, trace analyses, and the analysis of special
classes of substances, provide instructions for practical work,
either directly or indirectly t.iu literature references; in this
respect, a comprehensiveness such as one might expect of
a lexicon is found e . g . for the analysis of pesticides (1 1.1).
Extensive tables are also given in many of the descriptions
of physical methods to demonstrate their usefulness as aids,
and special mention should be made of the description of
IR spectroscopy (5.2), which is quite adequate for routine
analyses. As far as other methods are concerned, the information for the user consists of a more or less comprehensive
description of their principles, the principles of the equipment
and/or measuring technique, and (usually with the aid of
examples) the possible applications.
Though such a compilation of methods will undoubtedly be
used mainly as a reference work for special problems, it is
nevertheless gratifying that an attempt is made in the first
volume of the “Methodicum Chimicum” to include even subsidiary aspects of analysis. This is outstandingly achieved in
the chapters “Principles for the Assessment of Analytical
Methods” (1) and “Aspects of the Choice of Suitable Separation
Methods”(2.12); it is a pity that the similarly intended sections
on “Use of Combined Instrumental Methods” (14.1) and
“Trends in the Development of Instrumental Analysis” (14.2)
are too short in comparison with these.
The richness of content of the volume and the variety of
aspects discussed will guarantee it the wide range of users
that it is intended to serve; though it is expensive, it will
certainly be valuable in the handling of various problems.
Giinrer K r es z e [NB 186 IE]
Mechanism-An Introduction to the Study of Organic Reactions. Oxford Chemistry Series. By R. A . Jackson. Clarendon
Press, Oxford 1972, 1st ed., xiii, 136 pp., numerous figures,
bound f 1.10.
How can one determine, and in the ideal case prove, the
mechanism of a reaction? The present book attempts to deal,
at the second-year undergraduate level, with the criteria that
are necessary for a study of reaction mechanisms: analysis
of the reaction products, kinetic studies. reactive intermediates,
stereochemical studies, “other arguments” (Hammett equation,
solvent effects, Hammond postulate). Each chapter ends with
a series ofquestions, and hints on the solution of the problems
are given, together with the answers, at the end of the book.
A short bibliography and the brief subject index complete
the book. The problems are presented very clearly and skillfully
with the aid of interesting examples. Anyone who has mastered
the subject will enjoy reading the book. The student who
is new to the material will sometimes have to consult a textbook
214
as he works through the book, since some prior knowledge
is presumed even with regard to the subject matter. The “Conclusions” at the end of each chapter provide the student with
an additional opportunity to check that he has understood
the essentials.
On the negative side, whereas there are only a few printing
errors, the examples of cycloadditions in the chapter on stereochemistry are not very good, and the Woodward-Hoffmann
rules should not be excluded at this level. In a new edition
of the book, the literature references should always appear
with the examples themselves in the individual chapters. Some
of the reviews cited are too advanced for the readers at whom
the book is aimed; lighter alternatives are available in these
cases.
On the whole this book can be recommended to interested
students preparing for final examinations. The price is also
within the reach ofstudents-agood example to some German
publishers producing literature for students.
Jiirgen Sauer [NB 190 IE]
Laser-Grundlagenund Anwendungen (Laser Principles and A p
plications). By H . Weber and G. Hrrziger. Physik-Verlag,
Weinheim 1972. 1st ed., xi, 252 pp., 185 figures, 26 tables,
bound DM 78.--.
The growing importance of laser applications in research and
industrial production justifies a general account of the properties of laser light sources for readers with no prior knowledge
of quantum mechanics. The book surprises the reader by
its unconventional presentation and illustration, which enable
one to take in even complicated laser effects at a glance.
This presentation is no doubt excellently suited to the rapid
instruction of the type of reader for whom the book is primarily
intended, i. e. technologists and engineers. However, the specialist is more likely to be irritated by the many inconsistencies
(which can surely be weeded out from the next edition) than
to find pleasure in the unusual approach to quantum phenomena with the aid of analogy models.
Starting with a relatively broadly conceived introductory chapter on the spectral properties of classical radiation sources
and optical resonators, the book deals with the following
topics: laser oscillators, short light pulses, nonlinear optics,
laser applications, and special optical elements of laser physics.
Numerous comparisons from mechanics, hydromechanics, and
electrotechnology aregiven as introductions. A useful addition
to the relationships derived in this way would have been
a simple mathematical description to enable the practical
worker to estimate the feasibility of a laser project. Thus
the section on dye lasers, deals at some length with triplet
effects, but ignores the obvious derivation of the required
pump rise times or a calculation of the inversion at the laser
threshold, taking into account the connection mentioned in
the text between fluorescence and reabsorption.
The book is very suitable for use as an easily understandable
introduction to the physics of the laser. It can be recommended
in particular to readers who wish to gain a quick general
picture before tackling the specialist literature on their proposed application.
Gerd Murowsky [NB 181 IE]
Surface and Defect Properties of Solids, Vol. 1. Specialist
Periodical Reports. The Chemical Society, London 1972.
Z st ed., viii, 264 pp., numerous figures, bound f 6.00.
In the nine chapters of this volume of “Specialist Periodical
Reports”, eleven authors present a survey of important results
from the chemistry of solids published between January 1970
Angrw. Chcm. intrrnar. Edir.
1 Vol. 13 (1974) 1 No. 3
and April 1971. The earlier work connected with these results
is naturally also discussed.
The first four chapters deal with the influence of one-dimensional and two-dimensional lattice defects on the structure
and behaviour of solids. Ordered nonstoichiometric phases
are described in “Shear Structures and Nonstoicheiometry”.
The shear structures can be observed directly by a high-resolution electron microscope phase contrast method, which is
described in the next chapter. This method is particularly
suitable for layer structures; in this way one can obtain a
picture of the individual carbon layers in graphite and paracrystalline carbons, but investigations on polymers and macromolecules, e.g. DNA, are also reported. It is shown in two
further chapters that dislocations are decisive for the occurrence of solid-state reactions even in organic chemistry, e. g.
in polymerizations in molecular crystals. Five chapters deal
with investigations on the surfaces of solids and their reactivity.
As a result of recent progress on the equipment side, the
methods of electronic spectroscopy are particularly suitable
for the detection of foreign atoms in surfaces and their bonding.
Photoemission, Auger spectroscopy, ESCA, and a few other
methods are described in two chapters. Progress has also
been made in the IR spectroscopy of molecules adsorbed
on metals. Two further chapters deal with isotope exchange
between gas molecules adsorbed on metals and some aspects
of the selective action of metal catalysts.
This is the start of an attempt to forge a path through the
jungle of wildly proliferating literature by means of handy
reviews published at regular intervals, which is to be welcomed
if it is kept up. The book will be of use to all workers and
institutes concerned with surface and solid-state chemistry,
though some of the authors almost exclusively cite English-language literature.
Hunns-Prtrr Boehm [NB 189 IE]
Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis. By J . 0. Ledbetter. Marcel
Dekker Inc., New York 1972. 1st ed., xii, 424 pp., numerous
figures and tables, bound % 11.75.
The concept of air pollution has not only been a focus of
public interest for some time, but is now also attracting the
interest of scientists, particularly of engineers, chemists, and
analysts. The present work is capable of providing a concep
tually and technically sound basis for the scientific treatment
of air analysis problems. It should be emphasized that the
author has not yielded to the temptation simply to give a
collection of procedures under the sub-title “Analysis”. On
the contrary, he has managed to present all the facts relevant
to the assessment of the analytical problem and to the evaluation of the analytical results in a succinct, precise, and impressive manner. In the first chapter, which deals with the background of the problem, the reader is acquainted with the
essential basic facts, definitions, and units of measurement.
The author then considers the sources of air pollution, and
takes this opportunity to survey the principal components
of air pollution.
Another chapter is devoted to the physical and chemical processes that take place in the atmosphere and that control
the distribution, the dilution, the deposition, and the reaction
of polluting substances in the atmosphere. This is followed
by a very detailed description of the mathematical and statistical methods used in the design of measuring plans and in
the interpretation of the sets of results obtained.
After a brief excursion into the physical chemistry of gases
and the physics and chemistry of aerosols, four chapters are
devoted to the actual analytical technique. The first deals
with the design of measuring plans, presents a survey of the
Anguw. Chem. inturnat. Edit. 1 Yo/. 13 (1974)
1 No. 3
technical equipment necessary for sampling, and finally raises
a number of practical points that must be noted in connection
with air sampling. The chapter on the actual measuring technique begins with a description of the main characteristics of
analytical methods, e. g. detection limits, reproducibility, and
cross-sensitivity, then touches briefly on the procedures for
the presentation of experimental results, and finally gives a
very succinct review of the physical and chemical principles
of the measuring procedures, including spectrochemical
methods, chromatographic procedures, classical wet methods
of analysis, and the methods of electroanalysis. The principles
of the evaluation of smells, noises, and radioactive radiation
are also discussed.
In two further chapters the author first goes into details of
the measurement of aerosols, particularly with regard to the
determination of particle sizes and their distribution, and
then deals with a series of specific procedures.
The work ends with a chapter on the effects resulting from
air pollution. The book is very readable and is provided
with instructive diagrams; each chapter ends with a number
of examples for practice and with references, which are unfortunately almost entirely confined to the Anglo-Saxon literature. German readers may be slightly irritated by the fact
that the selection of examples, procedures, and equipment
described in detail is essentially determined by the conditions
prevailing in the United States. Nevertheless, it is to be hoped
that this handy book will find a wide circulation among
specialists and students.
HPinz Hartkamp [NB 187 IE]
Glycoproteins. Their Composition, Structure and Function. BBA
Library, Vol. 5, Part A and B. Edited by A . Gottschalk.
Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam-LondonNew York 1972. 2nd ed., xxxviii, 1377 pp., 153 figs., 200
tables, bound, together $ 125.--.
Glycoproteins are found in bacterial cell walls and in plant
hemagglutinins, and play a very specific role as components
of animal tissue, e.g. in the proteins of serum and of eggs,
in a number of enzymes, in collagen and fibrinogen,
in thyroglobulin and the gonadotropic hormones, in the
mucins of the mucous membranes, the joints, the blood-group
substances, etc. The agglutination and virus-binding reactions
are due to the glycoproteins of the cell membranes. The relatively short carbohydrate chains of these conjugated proteins
contain eight to ten saccharide residues, and a special characteristic is that these include N-acetylamino sugars and sialic
acid. In all these cases the characteristic properties can be
destroyed by neuraminidase. The protein component is joined
to the carbohydrate component cia the amide group of asparagine or riu the hydroxyl group of the hydroxy amino acids.
The then known physical, chemical, and analytical properties of
the glycoproteins had been described in the first edition of
this work“]. The new edition, appearing six years later,indicates already by its size how much has been discovered
in the meantime. A comparison of the contents shows that
the emphasis is also beginning to shift from “static” descriptions to thc function and biogenesis of the glycoproteins.
The first part presents a detailed and critical discussion
of the methods for the determination of purity, molecular
parameters, and composition of the glycoproteins, i. 6’. amino
acid and sequence analyses, determination of amide nitrogen,
characterization and identification of the sugars by gas chromatography, structural analysis of the carbohydrate component by chemical and enzymatic methods, and the methods
for the detection of the sugar-protein linkage. A particularly
difficult problem is presented by the increasingly recognized
215
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