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Book Review Technique of Organic Chemistry. Edited by A. Weissberger

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The spectra of simple molecular ions in the gaseous phase
are surveyed by G. Herzberg. Spectra of this kind permit
an insight into the electronic structure, and thus into the
bonding, of the corresponding neutral molecules. Experimental methods for production of molecular ions are
considered first, and their emission, absorption, photoelectron, and fluorescence spectra are then discussed.
Molecular ions have also been detected in planetary
atmospheres and in interstellar gas. [Spectra and Structure
of Molecular Ions. Quart. Rev. Chem. SOC.25, 201-222
(1971); 52 references, 23 figures]
[Rd 407 IE -K]
NMR studies of molecular relaxation processes in solid
polymers are described by D. W. McCali. A discussion of
theoretical principles is followed by a wealth of examples
of applications. Thus the method can be used to follow the
movements of several different side chains, special movements of the main chain in crystalline polymers, and processes occurring near the glass transition temperature.
[Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Molecular
Relaxation Mechanisms in Polymers. Accounts Chem.
Res. 4,223-232 (1971); 46 references, 17 figures]
[Rd 404 IE -El
Catalytic Processes and Proven Catalysts. By C. L. Thornns.
Academic Press, New York-London 1970. xiii, 284 pp.,
19 tab., bound, $12.50.
important, it aims to provide the catalyst user with a wealth
of important practical information, all of which was specifically obtained on the range of catalysts distributed by ICI.
Thanks to his long years of service as a scientific advisor
to the Sun Oil Company, the author has a wealth of experience in the operation of commercial catalytic processes.
He has now done us the service of setting this experience
down in book form, for the first time making publicly
available proprietary information which in many cases
was previously jealously guarded.
Many well-known scientists, including S. P. S. Andrew,
G. W Bridger, J . S. Campbell, G . C. Chinchen, P. Crauen,
D. A. Dowden, D. R. Goodman,J . J . PhiElipson,C.B. Snowdon,
W Spendley, and P. W Young, have collaborated in the
preparation of this book. The questions of catalyst activity,
selectivity, and lifetime, of decisive importance in all
processes, are dealt with thoroughly by all the authors, and
run as an underlying theme throughout the book. The
specific reactions described are the desulfurization of
hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon-reforming, removal of carbon
monoxide, and ammonia synthesis. In each case the various
methods used, the selection of catalyst, the reaction mechanism, and the kinetics are described; mention is also made
of problems concerned with the need to use certain feedstock blends and to control catalyst poisons. One section
is devoted to the testing and another to the practical
handling of catalysts. In addition, computer programs for
converter calculations are included. An extensive tabular
appendix contains data on ICI catalysts, substance properties, and gas-phase equilibrium constants, together with
examples of calculations.
The book includes descriptions of a large number of catalytic reactions, arranged by reaction type. They include
oxidation, hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, dehydration,
alkylation, isomerization, cracking and reforming, polymerization, ammonia and methanol synthesis, synthesis
gas and hydrogen production, and gas purification processes. Proven catalysts are described for each reaction, and
their advantages and disadvantages are discussed ; commercial catalysts are also described, but only those from
American manufacturers. In addition, the book contains
data on the most favorable operating conditions, particularly temperature and concentrations, the space-velocity,
and the catalyst lifetime. There is also information on the
various types of reactors, the handling of catalysts, catalyst
poisons, and the regeneration (especially by eliminating
carbon deposits) of inactivated catalysts. In conclusion,
there is a section on carriers.
The book is not intended as a textbook, but it can be used
as a guide or collection of formulations, which should be
particularly pleasing to practising chemists and chemical
engineers, who will find it a valuable aid in the solution
of catalyst problems.
E.-G. Schlosser [NB 989 lE]
Catalyst Handbook. Wolfe Scientific Books, London 1970.
1st ed., 231 pp., 81 figs., 16 tab., f, 3.15.
This book, specifically concerned with unit processes encountered in the manufacture of ammonia and hydrogen,
deserves attention for two reasons. In the first place, it contains a number of full yet concise explanations of the fundamentals of heterogeneous catalysis, which justifies its description as a "handbook". But secondly, and what is more
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. J Vol. 10 (1971) J N O . 10
This book is an important reference work for the plant
designer and chemicalengineer and is highly recommended.
E.-G. Schlosser [NB 988 IE]
Technique of Organic Chemistry. Edited by A . Weissberger.
Vol. K/Part 2 : Microwave Molecular Spectra. By
W Gordy and R . L. Cook. Interscience, New York 1970,
2nd Edit., 747 pp., bound, ca. DM 139.-['1.
In recent years, microwave spectroscopy has progressed
in measuring technique, theory, and evaluation technique
to such a degree that this method is applicable to a series
of problems that face the chemist. It provides the most
precise geometrical data on molecules, allows the study
of conformation equilibria, rearrangements, and shortlived intermediates, is suitable for qualitative and quantitative analyses, and provides information about the
electronic structure. Microwave spectroscopy was formerly
[I] Cf. Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 6 , 1092 (1967).
discussed in “Weissberger” in short chapters (Gordy, 1956;
Dailey, 1960); an entire volume is now devoted to this
method. It is a revised version of a book by Gurdy, Smith,
and Pambarulo, which was published by Wiley in 1953.
Contents : Introduction, Theoretical Aspects of Molecular
Rotation ; Microwave Transitions - Line Intensities and
Shapes ; Diatomic Molecules ; Linear Polyatomic Molecules ; Symmetric-Top Molecules, Asymmetric-Top Molecules; Centrifugal Distortion ;Nuclear Hyperfine Structure
in Molecular Rotational Spectra; Effects of Applied
Electric Fields ; Effects of Applied Magnetic Fields ; Internal Rotation ;Derivation of Molecular Structures ;Quadrupole Couplings, Dipole Moments, and the Chemical Bond.
The mathematical methods that are important to interpretation are described and physical data are given in ten
appendices covering 92 pages ; special mention should be
made of the table of molecular structure data established
up to 1969.
The fundamental principles of all microwave transitions
(nuclear magnetic resonances, electron spin resonances)
are discussed ; the application examples are concerned
mainly with the rotational spectra of gaseous molecules.
Instruments and measuring techniques are not described.
The intention of the authors was to write a textbook and
handbook for chemists, in which the theory is developed
“from the simplest approach consistent with essential
correctness and applicability”. They have succeeded well
in this aim. The printing add presentation are also outstanding.
Bernhard Schrader [NB 975 IE]
Elements of Chemical Kinetics. By M . Prettre and B. Claudel. Documents on Chemistry, Vol. 1. Gordon and
Breach, Scientific Publishers, London 1970. 1st ed., xvi,
184 pp., bound, $ IS.-.
The purpose of this new series, “Documents on Chemistry”,
is to bring together the various aspects of chemistry that
are often widely separated in more conventional presentations. Since it is intended to publish extensive original
papers and specific seminars for advanced students in both
French and English, the widest possible circle of readers
should be reached. The first volume is concerned with
elementary chemical kinetics and is mainly limited to
reactions connected with the conversion of covalent bonds
in simple molecules. In the first 93 pages concepts such
as the rate and order of a reaction, activation energy,
activated complexes, photochemical reactions, and chain
reactions are explained by means of examples. The authors
use a minimum of formal mathematics, but are also rather
sparing with their illustrations. The second part contains
descriptions of catalytic reactions, including acid-base
catalysis, adsorption of molecules on solid surfaces, and
the related contact catalysis, and there is even a very brief
look at the Mickaelis-Menten enzyme catalysis. Finally,
the significance of kinetic problems in the optimization of
syntheses under both laboratory and industrial conditions
is discussed. At the end of each chapter there are simple
numerical exercises and a few literature references, mostly
of historical interest.
The book can be used as a first introduction to the problems
and terminology of chemical kinetics, and is rather more
detailed and less general than the corresponding sections
in most of the physical chemistry textbooks. The few
printing errors in the English edition are not a serious
drawback. However, the phenomenological presentation
and the selection of the material (and the price) are hardly
likely to arouse any particular enthusiasm in chemistry
students for this subject.
F. M . Puhl [NB 985 IE]
Carbenes, Nitrenes and Arynes. By T. L. Gilchrist and
C . W Rees. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., London 1969.
1st ed., 131 pp., bound, $21.-.
A number of review articles and monographs have appeared
in recent years on carbenes, nitrenes, and arynes. The
present book is the first attempt to give a comprehensive
picture of a field of research in which so much work has
been done.
Chapter 1 indicates the relationships between carbenes,
nitrenes, and arynes. Chapters 2-4 deal with the preparation and Chapters 5-8 with the reactions of these compounds. Finally, Chapter 9 shows their preparative applications.
In their introduction the authors express their intentions
of taking the fullest possible account of recent work (the
literature is covered up to 1968) and of providing a general
survey rather than an exhaustive treatment. These intentions have certainly been realized, but they require a rigid
selection of the individual reactions, so that many of them
are given very brief treatment. This is particularly true of the
Wolff rearrangement, described on p. 77. For example, the
occurrence of ketocarbenes is stated to be improbable,
and yet recent work suggests that they are found at any
rate in photolytic reactions. Chapter 9 on the range of uses
of carbenes, nitrenes, and arynes in syntheses could also
be expanded a little. The book contains very few factual
errors (pp. 11, 61, 62, 63, 106, and 108) and is practically
free from printing errors.
The text is written in a very clear and understandable style.
Most of the chapters contain references to the most important literature on the individual reactions. All in all,
it is well worth the money, and can be recommended both
to advanced students and to anyone who wants to become
acquainted rapidly with the field concerned.
Heinz Diirr
[NR 490 IE]
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0 Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim
1971. -Printed in Germany by Zechnersche Buchdruckerei, Speyer/Rhein.
All rights reserved (including those of translation into foreign languages). No part of this issue may be reproduced in any form - by photoprint, microfilm, or any other means nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without the permission in writing of the publishers.
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Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. j Vol. 10 (1971) 1 No. I0
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