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Book Review Technische ChemieЧEine Einfhrung in die chemische Reaktionstechnik (Industrial Chemistry Introduction to the Technology of Chemical Reactions). By E. Fitzer and W. Fritz

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Several annual surveys are to be found in a volume of the
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. C . Blomberg has compiled the literature appearing on magnesium in 1974 (1 14
pp., 384 references); G . 0. Doak and L. D. Freedman have
authored three separate reviews of the 1974 literature on
arsenic, antimony, and bismuth (102 pp., 326 references; 38
pp., 116 references; and 4 pp., 26 references). Articles on ferrocene published in the same year have been collected by G.
Marr and B. W Rockett (78 pp., 209 references). There follows
a survey of the 1973 literature on nickel, palladium, and
platinum by E. Singleton, G. Cooke, and J . R. Moss (124
pp., 463 references). The volume closes with an author index.
[J. Organomet. Chem. 106, 1-486 (1976)l
[Rd 842 IE-L]
Raw materials, as the basis of industry and primarily the
chemical industry, provide the subject matter for an entire
issue of the journal “Science”. More than 30 authors express
their ideas about future supplies of all kinds of raw materials
and about possibilities of avoiding threatening shortages.-A
brief introduction is followed by five articles on economic
aspects and three about questions of energy and the environment and about the recovery of materials (and generation
of energy) from household garbage. In the next four articles
future requirements are estimated and suggestions made for
action upon eventual exhaustion of, e. g., mercury reserves.
Production of chemicals from coal is another topic considered.
There follow three contributions on prospecting for ores and
new processes for extraction and recovery of metals, and
three about materials for special purposes, e. g. in electronics.
The final six articles are about wood and plant materials.
These sources are the only ones capable of regeneration and
therefore occupy a special position. [Materials. Science 291,
631-776 (1976)l
[Rd 843 IE-L]
Rydberg states are considered in a review by R. S. Mulliken.
A complete understanding of electronic spectra and the photochemistry of atoms and molecules requires a knowledge of
the spectra of Rydberg states. Rydberg states are transversed
during the ionization process and are also of importance
for reactions in the upper atmosphere. In the case of atoms
and molecules having high ionization energies the Rydberg
spectra lie in the vacuum UV; for species with lower ionization
energies they extend into the near UV. Particular attention
is paid to H: as a prototype of a molecule and to Rydberg
states in diatomic molecules such as N2 and NO. [Rydberg
States and Rydbergization. Acc. Chem. Res. 9, 7-12 (1976);
13 references]
[Rd 844 IE-L]
BOOK REVIEWS
Technische Chemie-Eine Einfuhrung in die chemische Reaktionstechnik (Industrial Chemistry: Introduction to the
Technology of Chemical Reactions). By E. Fitzer and W
Fritz. Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1975.
1st Edit.,xiii,532pp., 150figures, 36 tables,paper,DM44.-.
This book fills a gap that has been felt for many years
in the German-language literature by chemistry students and
teachers in universities.
The volume is divided into two parts. In the first 3 chapters
(104 pp.), the economic factors affecting production are
explained and the position of the chemical industry within
the framework of world production is presented. The individual parameters affecting profits, such as the production output, the range of capacity, the site of the factory, etc. are
discussed and the criteria for the choice of the raw materials
and processes are described with the aid of examples. After
the concepts important for reaction techniques have been
explained, the industrial realization of batch, semibatch, and
flow processes is related to the properties of reactor types
important for single-phase and multiphase systems, as well
as to the individual aspects of process optimization and the
minimization of costs.
The second part (418 pp.) forms the bulk of the book, providing quantitative relationships for a mathematical treatment of
the course of the reaction. The principles of chemical thermodynamics, microkinetics and heat and material transport are
treated in Chapters 4 and 5. The behavior and the properties
of ideal reactor types for batch and continuous operation
in isothermal, adiabatic, and polytropic processes are presented in Chapters 6 to 10. Comparison of the residence-time
distributions and back-mixing for ideal and real reactors and
for the diffusion and the cell model, as well as calculations
of the yield for real reactors are carried out in Chapter 11.
Chapters 12 to 15 treat chemical reactions in multiphase
systems, the special features of heat and material transport
processes in reactions at the solid-liquid interface, and the
principles of catalytic and non-catalytic heterogeneous reac246
tions, including the relevant reactors; the various possible
methods of carrying out such reactions are discussed. Chapter
16 (by H . Gerrens) is devoted to polymerization reactions
and their industrial performance.
The book is written with didactic expertise, in readily understood, clear form, and with many illustrations and numerous
examples of calculations taken from practice, together with
their solutions; it can be recommended as a textbook, and
that not only for chemistry students, since its readership should
also include many chemists and economists.
Milos Rnlek [NB 297 JE]
Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 1. Specialist Periodical Reports.
Senior Reporter G . Eglinton. The Chemical Society, London
1975.1st Edit., xii, 199 pp., numerous figs. and tables, bound,
f 7.-.
This is the first volume of a new series of “Specialist Periodical Reports” with the subtitle “Review of Recent Literature
on the Organic Chemistry of the Environment up to the
Middle of 1973”; the next volume, which should treat also
inorganic problems, is expected by late 1976. The intended
readership goes far beyond chemists. In the frst chapter the biogeochemical cycles in undisturbed and stressed environmental
regions are treated by the use of the stable isotopes of C,
S, N, H, and 0 as examples; three chapters deal with ecotypes
determined by water, with inclusion, when necessary, of sedimentary chemistry, material balances, and the microbiology
of these areas. Two further chapters describe hydrocarbons
in marine systems, including oil-spill accidents, as well as
the behavior of DDT and PCB, with emphasis on metabolism,
distribution, and analysis. In the final chapter 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate is discussed in detail. The text of the seven
chapters is excellently documented with formulas, tables, and
more than 900 references; the large number of diverse literature
sources alone shows how much work of compilation has
gone into this volume, which is a real mine of information
for the user. The volume fulfills the function of a mediator
Angew. Chem. Int.
Ed. Engl. / Vol. 15 (1976) No. 4
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