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Book Review The Amino Sugars. Vol. IIB Metabolism and Interactions. Edited by E. A. Balazs and R. W. Jeanloz

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however, has been enlarged and a chapter on “X-ray emission
spectrometry” has been introdaced. The latter is the only
chapter that does not describe experimental procedures, but
simply gives a description of the method and a list of references to applications in the steel industry.
The great value of the book lies in the description of proven
analytical methods, incorporating the experience of numerous
large laboratories of the steel industry. Rather surprisingly,
however, relatively little or no mention is made of a number
of more modern methods, such as polarography, X-ray
analysis, and atomic absorption. Moreover, there may be
some doubt as to the usefulness of the method given for the
determination of selenium.
The updating of this work in the new edition is very welcome,
and the book itself should take a n important place in the
library of any iron-foundry laboratory.
R. Bock
[NB 558 IE]
immune globulins and “paraproteins” in the widest sense;
finally light is thrown from various sources on autoimmunization, special emphasis being rightly placed on “immunovasculitis”. The choice of lecturers is excellent, and the discussions are terse and trimmed to the essentials. It may be
asked, however, whether it might not have been better to
translate the French contributions, for example one as important as that by Voisin, intm English. The overall presentation is such as to make the high price appear justifiable.
This book is more than mere leisure readin and it is recommended to the biochemist, who is nowadays faced to an
increasing extent with i m m u n o b i d ~ ~ l cquestions
al
as integral
parts of his own field. Some mpics, such as immunochemical
questions in the structure of proteins, will already be familiar
to him, and these will encourage him to turn to the apparently complex “immunobiological” phenomena, which are
presented here as a huge field of research.
C . Uhlenbruck
[NB 575 IE]
[*I For a review of Vol. 1 see Chemie-1ng.-Techn.36, 569 (1964).
Advances in StructureResearch by Diffraction Methods, Vol. 2
Fortschritte der Strukturforschung mit Beugungsmethoden,
Bd. 2 [*I Edited by R . Brill and R . Mason. Friedr. Vieweg
& Sohn, Braunschweig - Interscience Publishers, a Division of John Wilev & Sons. Inc., New York-LondonSydney 1966. 1st Edit., iii, 166 pp., 73 figures, 11 tables,
D M 34.--.
Progress reports of this nature fulfil a very important function
in scientific literature. They present a summary of the latest
results of special fields of research within a relatively short
time of the publication of the original papers. The book contains four articles written by experts.
On pages 1 to 33, G. E. Bucon discusses the investigation of
magnetic structures by neutron diffraction. Corresponding
to the great technical interest of this topic, very many publications have appeared; the author presents a good general
review.
An important question is discussed in the article by R . Mason
and G. B. Robertson (Diffraction Methods and Quantum
Chemistry). The authors she+ how accurate X-ray analyses
(particularly accurate measurements of bond lengths and
angles) cawurovide experimental bases for quantum-mechanical calculations.
The longefit xficle ( D . C . Phillipsi Advances in Protein
Crystallography) deals with one af the most modern aspects
of X-ray structure analysis. I t alsoshows how quickly articles
of this type become out of date. For example, the latest work
by Phillips on lysozyme IS not included. However, it is still
very valuable because of its discussion of methods.
The last, short article by P . Corradini (New Results of Structural Researches on High Polymers) deals mainly with recent
work in the Italian high-polymer school.
W . Hoppe
[NB 572 IE]
[*] Vol. 1, cf. Angew. Chem. 77, 184 (1965); Angew. Chem.
internat. Edit. 4 , 175 (1965)
Immunopathology. IVth International Symposium, Monte
Carlo 1965. Edited by P . Grubar and P. A . Miescher.
Schwabe & Co.. Publishers. Basel-Stuttgart 1966. 1st.
Edit., 467 pp., 153 figures, 1 color plate, D M 80.-.
The present volume IV of the series o n immunopathology is
a fit companion for the earlier volumes, and needs no special
recommendation in expert circles.
The subjects discussed at this symposium were: The question
of tumor-specific antigens, and the closely related problem of
the histocompatibility antigens, the chemistry of which is
still largely unknown. A second lecture cycle deals with
474
The Amino Sugars. Vol. I1 B: Metabolism and Interactions.
Edited by E. A . Balazs and R . W. Jeanloz. From the series
“The Chemistry and Biology of Compounds Containing
Amino Sugars”. Academic Press, Inc., New York-London
1966. 1st Edit., xvii. 516 pp., numerous figures and tables,
8 22.00.
The latest contribution on the amino sugarsrll contains 14
chapters (38-51 in the consecutive numbering system), which
can be grouped according to subject. The first group (38-41)
deals with metabolic processes of the monomeric amino
sugars as well as of the polymeric compounds, the second
(42-47) with the enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation
of glycosaminoglycanes, and the third (48-51) with the
relationships between amino sugars or polymers containing
amino sugars and various biological systems.
The individual topics discussed are: the metabolism of amino
sugars (E. A. Davidson), of glycosaminoglycans ( H . Bostrom,
L. Rode‘n), of glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids
( I . Yamashina), the influence of steroid hormones o n the
glycosaminoglycans of secondary sex characteristics ( J . A .
Szirmai), hexosaminidases ( P . G. Walker), neuraminidases
( M . E. Rafelson j r . , M . Schneir, V. W . Wilson j r . ) , glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes ( H . Gibian) glycosaminoglycan sulfatases (K. S. Dodgson), activation and inhibition of
enzymes by polyanions containing amino sugars ( P . Bernfeld), chemical and physical changes of glycosaminoglycans
and glycoproteins by redox systems and irradiation (L. Sundblad, E. A . Balazs), interactions of polyanions with blood
components ( P . Bernfeld), immunochemisirj ( G . F. Springer),
interactions between glycoproteins afid vlruses (A. Gottschalk), and interactions between amino sugars or polymers
containing amino sugars and viruses cells, and tissues (E. A .
Bulazs, B. Jacobson
The literature is generally covered u p to 1963, and publications from 1964 and 1965 are listed as an appendix in some
chapters. In the article on amino sugar metabolism, the data
unfortunately d o not proceed beyond 1963, though numerous
papers o n this topic were published after 1963, particularly
in the bacteriological sector. H . Gibian’s chapter o n glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes is particularly well documented (up to 1965). Many of the articles also contain additional literature surveys on individual problems (e.g. o n the
incorporation of 35s into connective tissue and cartilage;
p. 52).
Like its predecessors in the series, the present volume again
demonstrates the importance of amino sugars in biological
systems. The authors d o not confine themselves to listing and
discussing results, but present detailed information about the
methods used and point out the advantages and disadvantages of certain techniques. (Gibian: hyaluronidase tests;
Walker: working-up of hexosaminidases; Springer: immunological techniques).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Vol. 6 (1967) No. 5
The excellent article by G. F. Springer on the immunochemistry of substances containing amino sugars describes in
detail the structure and immunology of the blood-group
substances, but also deals with other immunologically interesting polymers from higher organisms, bacteria, and protozoa, and describes relationships between the various systems.
Special mention should also be made of the article by A .
Gortschalk, which clearly describes results on virus receptors,
RDE, and analogies between the receptors and various
glycoproteins.
The book is an important addition to the literature, and can
be warmly recommended.
[NB 571 IE]
H , J . Risse
[l] Cf. Angew. Chem. 78, 1027 (1966); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 5 , 979 (1966).
Advances in Free-Radical Chemistry. Vof. 1. Edited by G. H.
Williams. Logos Press - Academic Press, London 1965.
1st Edit., xi. 291 pp., several figures and tables, $12.00;
75s.
The chemistry of free radicals has developed independently
in physical chemistry (gas-phase reactions) and organic
chemistry (solution reactions; stable radicals). It is to be
hoped that the new series “Advances in Free-Radical
Chemistry” will help to bring these two branches together.
In what is probably the most interesting article in the first
volume, A . F. Trotman-Dickenson critically sifts and comments upon the literature on “The Abstraction of Hydrogen
Atoms by Free Radicals”. The articles by N . J. Friswell and
B. G . Gowenlock (“Inorganic Hydrogen- and Alkyl-Containing Free Radicals”) and by E. S. Huyser (“Solvent Effects
in Free-Radical Reactions”) are first interim reports on
current research topics, the object of which is to describe
new departures and to stimulate new work by formulations
that are occasionally rather too subtle.
An important report on the little known but surprisingly
smooth “Vapor-Phase Halogenation of Aromatic Compounds”, which has been studied mainly in the author’s own
laboratory since 1957, is presented by E. C . Kooyman.
R . Kh. Freidlina’s article OR “Rearrangments of Radicals in
Solution” emphasizes the Russian work, and particularly
her own: this article therefore complements a recent review
by Ch. Walling. However, the choice of subject matter is
not always absolutely satisfactory. For example, the important 1,5-hydrogen shifts afe discussed only on the basis
of the earliest examples, while no mention is made of more
recent reviews. “Free-Radical Reactions of Bridged Cyclic
Systems” are discussed by D . 1. Davies and S. J. Cristol.
In contrast to the chemistry of the carbonium ions, these
free-radical reactions show few unusual features; the article
points out some useful relationships.
With a few exceptions, the literature is covered only up to
1964, and even for this period the coverage is unfortunately
not always complete. The authors should have specified the
completeness and the period covered. The presentation and
the index are good, but the references might have been better
C . Riichardt
[NB 574 IE]
inserted as footnotes.
The Molecular Orbital Theory of Conjugated Systems, by
L. Salen?. W. A. Benjamin, Inc., New York-Amsterdam
1966. 1st Edit., xvi, 576 pp., numerous illustrations, cloth
s 22.50.
The MO theory of conjugated systems is probably the most
extended and one of the most successful sectors of quantum
chemistry. Salem makes a commendable attempt to present a
methodically complete description of the theory in its
present state.
This book should not be approached without a previous
knowledge of the elementary theory of chemical bonding.
The first chapter is a recapitulation of, rather than an introduction to, Huckel MO theory. Unfortunately, no serious
foundation is given for the distinction between d and
electrons nor for the fundamentally important 6-TCseparation. This is particularly regrettable since some aspects of
0-TCseparation are currently regarded as very doubtful, and
since joint treatments of D and x electrons (though within the
framework of the c - x separation) are becoming increasingly
important. Among the basic assumptions for which no convincing justification is given are the “neglect of overlap’’ and
of “differential overlap”. The short section on electron
correlation deals only with some aspects of this important
concept.
The review of the refined methods in the second chapter is
arbitrary rather than systematic. The strength of the book
does not lie in the discussion of fundamental questions, but
in the detailed description of the current and possible
applications of the MO theory. The author goes into detail
on the relationship between theoretical delocalization energies and resonance energies, the Huckel rule, and the semiempirical calculation of dipoIe moments, bond lengths,
force constants, and ionization energies Special attention is
given to the magnetic properties of x -electron systems,
particularly to ‘ ring currents”, the theory of “chemical
shifts”, and spin densities and their refation to ESR spectra.
Further chapters deal with the theory of the chemical reactivity and that of the UV spectra of unsaturated molecules.
The author makes extensive and profitable use of the simple
rules derived by the “English school” for the Huckel MO’s
of alternant hydrocarbons, e.g. the scheme for obtaining the
coefficients of a non-bonding MO without calculation.
The final chapter is devoted, apart from the Jahn-Teller
effect, to a phenomenon on which the author himself has
worked successfully, i.e. bond alternation in polyenes and
other conjugated systems.
Though the book is quite extensive and includes treatments
of some uncustomary problems, such as conjugated rings
containing d electrons, the author has omitted the theory of
a number of interesting unsaturated systems, e.g. that of the
non-classical carbonium ions, as well as conjugation in nonplanar systems. The main emphasis is placed on the treatment of alternant hydrocarbons. The reader experiences little
of the special problems of the theory of heteroaromatic
compounds.
The recent literature is abundantly cited, though sometimes
the selection is somewhat arbitrary.
The rather high price of this book may preclude purchase by
individuals, but chemical libraries should not do without
[NB 560 IEI
the information it contains. w.Kurzelnigg
Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in fhis journal, even without specific indication thereof, are not to be considered unprotected by law.
0Verlag Chemie,
GmhH., Weinheim 1967.
- Printed
in Germany by Druckerei Winter, Heidelberg.
All rights reserved. N o part of this journal may he reproduced in any form whatsoever, e.g. by photoprint, microfilm, o r any other means, without
written permission from the publishers.
Editorial office: Ziegelhauser Landstrasse 35, 6900 Heidelberg, Germany, Telephone 24975, Telex 46 1855 kemia d, Cable address: Chemieradaktion
Heidelberg.
Editor: H . Griinewald
. Translation Editors: A. J. Rackstraw
and A . Stimson.
Publishers: Verlag Chemie GmbH. (President Eduard Kreuzhage), Pappelallee 3, 6940 Weinheim/Bergstr., Germany, and Academic Press Inc.
(President Walter J. Johnson), 1 1 1 Fifth Avenue, New York 3, N. Y.,USA, and Berkeley Square House, Berkeley Square, London, W. 1 ., England.
Correspondence concerning advertisements should be addressed to Verlag Chemie, GmhH. (Advertising Manager W . Thiel), Pappelallee 3 ,
6940 Weinheim/Bergstr., Germany, Telephone Weinheim 3635, Telex 4 6 5 5 16 vchwh.. Cable address Chemieverlag Weinheimhergstr.
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. I Yof.6 (1967) / No. 5
475
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