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Book Review The Chemistry of Boron and its Compounds. Edited by E. L. Muetterties

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second edition. On the other hand, the chapter entitled
“Introduction to the phytochemical principles of pharmacognosy”, which also belongs to this section, has been expanded (55 pp.) and brought into line with current knowledge.
Probably the most striking change is the complete rearrangement of the formulas, which has resulted in a considerable
improvement.
This book, which is intended primarily for pharmacy students
and for practising druggists, contains a wealth of information
for anyone concerned with drug research and phytochemistry,
and can therefore be strongly recommended.
E. Sprecher
[NB 780 IE]
Einfiihrung in die Naturphilosophie, Band I: Naturerkenntnis
und Wirklichkeit. Band 11: Die Erkenntnis des Lebendigen.
(Introduction t o Natural Philosophy. Vol. I: The understanding of nature and reality. Vol. 11: The understanding
of Life) by H . Suchsse. Verlag Friedr. Vieweg und Sohn,
Braunschweig 1968. 1st Edit., Vol. I: 232 pp., 7 figures,
D M 17.50; Vol. 11: 289 pp., 35 figures, 23 tables, DM 22.80.
In these two works the author does not adopt the normal
approach of fusing together the results of natural scientific
studies and philosophical apriorisms. Instead, he reflects starting from the basis of scientific theory - on classical and
modern problems of the science of experience and philosophy (Part I includes natural law, probability, space measurement, formulation of theories, and the concept of substance; Part I1 embraces causality and finality, regulation and
control, data processing, deliberation, and spontaneity) to
come closer to an understanding of man, using human
behavior as an example.
By a skilful choice of material, supported by numerous examples, diagrams, and sketches, the author succeeds in
presenting a readable, interesting work. The book guides the
reader rather than throwing about terms and serving up the
results. The objectivity and stimulating presentation of
this important contribution to the metatheory of natural
science - with its aim of serving the interdisciplinary exchange of information - merits wide distribution.
[NB 783 IE]
A . F. Kremmeter
Chemie in nichtwahigen ionisierenden Losungsmitteln, Bd. 111 :
Chemie in fliissigem Distickstofftetroxid und Schwefeldioxid (Chemistry in non-aqueous ionizing solvents, Vol. 111:
Chemistry in liquid dinitrogen tetroxide and sulfur dioxide). Edited by C. C. Addison, W. Karcher, and H . Hecht.
Friedr. Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig 1967, Pergamon
Press, Oxford. 1st Edit., xiv, 206 pp., 27 figures, 35 tables,
D M 68.-.
In the first part of this book[ll C. C. Addison, who (as a
glance a t the literature list shows) has himself worked mainly
in this field, discusses dinitrogen tetroxide as a solvent. The
second part, dealing with chemistry in liquid sulfur dioxide,
was written by W. Karcher and by H. Hecht, a co-worker for
many years of G. Junder, who himself worked in this field.
Both parts are thus written by experts who are very familiar
with the subjects discussed.
The physical and chemical properties of the pure solvents are
first described, and the solubilities of many substances and
solvate formation are then reported, organic substances also
being included in the case of dinitrogen tetroxide. Solvolysis
reactions and the reverse “neutralization-like” processes are
described in terms of heterolytic dissociation of the solvent
N204
+ NOr
+ NO3-
and
2 SO2
+ SO2+
+ SO:
though it should be said that this is only a working hypothesis in the case of sulfur dioxide.
[ I ] Cf. Angew. Chem. 79, 731 (1967); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 6, 719 (1967).
224
The very different character of the two solvents is made
very clear: one is a substance having a predominantly fast
oxidizing action, whereas oxidations and reductions are
strongly inhibited in the other. (This naturally affects the
ranges of application of the solvents.) Both parts of the book
show very impressively the numerous preparative possibilities
offered by the two solvents. The well printed book is also
well worth reading by those who are interested in theoretical
aspects of inorganic chemistry.
F. See1 [NB 779 IE]
Production of the Boranes and Related Research. Chief editor:
R . T. Holzmann. edited by R . L. Hughes, I. C. Smith, and
E. W. Lawless. Academic Press, New York-London, 1967.
1st Edit., x, 533 pp.. numerous figures and tables, $22.00.
Between 1950 and 1965. many new discoveries have been
made by scientists working for various companies in the
USA in the borane field and a number of problems
have been thoroughly investigated in connection with the
high-energy fuel development program. Since only provisional
or partial reports on the results of “Project Hermes”, “Project Zip”, and “Project HEF” have been published, though
the projects were suspended in 1959, this first compilation in
book form is very welcome.
The book is divided into a section on starting materials for
the preparation of boron hydrides and one on their preparation. Further chapters are devoted to alkylboranes and
carboranes. Separation, purification, and analysis methods
are described. However, a short chapter on boron-nitrogen
chemistry is not properly tied in. Extensive chapters on
toxicology, IR spectra, molecular structures, and physical
properties of boranes and carboranes are also included. The
text is supplemented by tables covering several pages.
The 1673 references, some of which (pp. 490-504) are not
related to the text, include several hundred articles that are
difficult to obtain. This is the particular value of the book.
On the other hand, the results obtained by many other research groups are not all included.
The book should find a place in every library because of its
abundant tabular material and the source data. It provides
those who work in the field of boron compounds with a very
good compilation of the literature on boron hydrides.
R. Kuster
[NB 784 IE]
The Chemistry of Boron and its Compounds. Edited by E. L.
Muetterties. John Wiley & Sons, London-New York 1967.
1st Edit., xiv, 700 pp., 200 figures, 220 s.
Numerous monographs on boron chemistry have been
published in recent years. A book is now available which, in
one volume, contains a complete and up to date account of
boron chemistry. The editor has engaged the services of a
number of well known research workers for the treatment of
the individual subgroups so that a competent review approaching the frontiers of research is ensured.
After a n introduction t o the properties of the element that are
dependent on the structure of the boron atom (structural
properties, multicenter bonds, polyhedral structures, acceptor properties, problems of multiple bonds), J . C. Hoard and
R. C . Hughes, discuss the element and compounds having a
high boron content (130pp.). They give a very instructive
report on the modifications of boron as well as of metal
borides and the significance of the structures in the light of
the multicenter bond theory. One chapter is devoted to a
discussion of “The Structural Chemistry of Borates” (54 pp.)
by J . 0. Edwards and V. I . Ross; here the main emphasis is
placed on a clear system of classification based o n structural
principles. In the reviewer’s opinion the work of Lehmann
has been somewhat neglected. Mechanistic aspects considerably enhance the topical character of the chapter entitled
“The Structure and Acidity of Boric Acid and its Relation
Angew. Clteni. internat. Edit.1 Val. 8 (1969) No. 3
t o Reaction Mechanisms” ( R . P. Bell, J . 0 . Edwards, and
R. B. Jones, 14 pp.).
M . F. Hawthorne gives a n exemplary discussion of the boranes (102 pp., including a wealth of experimental material).
The main stress is on decaborane chemistry, polyhedral
borane ions, and the carboranes; the chemistry of diborane
and tetrahydridoborates are considered in a n undeservedly
brief manner. An excellent critical review of boron halides is
given in a short space by G. May (52 pp.). 66 pages are devoted to the boron-nitrogen compounds. The layout of the
section written by K . Niedentu and J . W . Dawson resembles
that of their book; however, more recent results are considered. M . F. Lappert arranges the boron-carbon compounds
(174 pp.) according t o their reactivity and to general considerations, which leads to a useful comparative account.
The classes of compounds discussed by G . W. Parshall and
E. L. Muerterties demonstrate how relatively small our
knowledge is of boron-phosphorus (30 pp.), boron-sulfur,
and boron-selenium compounds. Particularly in this field a
certain lack of reliable information becomes apparent.
Unfortunately the index of the book is not very attractive,
containing as it does too many wrong page numbers. On the
other hand, the number of printing errors in the text is small.
All in all, the book gives a good review of a still highly topical
and ever-fascinating field of chemistry, its variety and peculiarities that stem from multicenter bonding and the related
bond theory problems. The reader quickly recognizes a
certain independence of this element in the periodic system,
and the fact that despite the enormous developments made
in the last 15 years many parts of boron chemistry still
represent unknown territory and even the well explored
fields still conceal problems. This book can be recommended
t o anyone wishing t o gain an overall picture of the chemistry
of boron.
H . Noth [NB 747 IE]
Reviews in Macromolecular Chemistry. Edited by G. B. Butler
and K. F. O’Driscoll. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 1967.
1st Edit., Vol. I , vii, 449 pp., numerous illustrations and
formulas, $16.50; Vol. 11, viii, 380 pp.. numerous illustrations, $16.50.
T h e constantly increasing number of scientific publications
makes it difficult or impossible for the individual t o keep
abreast of advances in all fields of interest; reviews are therefore becoming increasingly important for the fast and comprehensive dissemination of knowledge. The advantage of
reviews over handbooks is that they are up to date and can
deal with very specialized topics.
The present series of books edited by Butler and O’Driscoll
provides a brief survey of current topics in macromolecular
chemistry. Though there are several such series of publications in this field, this new arrival must be welcomed for its
breadth of subject. However, it remains t o be seen whether
the coordination and arrangement of the topics is such as to
avoid duplication of effort. Volume 1 of this series contains
seven articles, which give some idea of the wide outlook of
the book.
K . O’Driscoll and T. Yonezawa present a critical review of the
application of molecular orbital theory to the polymerization of vinyl compounds. Though the authors distinctly state
that M O theory has so far enjoyed only limited success in the
calculation of polymerization processes, the review shows that
considerable progress has been made in the field of freeradical polymerization.
A . Gurgiolo contributes an excellent report on developments
in polyalkylene oxides in 1963 and 1964. The initiators and
polymerization mechanisms are compared; in addition to a
detailed description of the physical properties of the polymers,
the use of crosslinked polyalkylene oxides in the elastomer
field is discussed. Though this comprehensive article (150 pp.,
352 references) deals with applied aspects mainly by reference
to the literature it still provides a good review.
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
/ Vol. 8 (1969) No. 3
The article by D . Lyman o n “Polyurethanes” is intended
mainly for chemists working with synthetic polymers; in contrast t o the book of the same title by VieweglHochtlen, which
appeared at about the same time, this author deliberately
ignores the technological side of polyurethane chemistry.
This is a very readable report, which provides a rapid survey
of the polyurethane field. However, the fact that the discussion is mainly concerned with linear polyurethanes should
be indicated in the title.
L. Reich and S. Stirala describe the uncatalyzed, uninhibited
thermal oxidation of saturated olefins. The literature is
covered up to and including 1964, and the extensive experimental data are well arranged.
Thermally stable polymers are discussed in a n article by
W . de Winter. Although the article is written very concisely,
it is easily readable (24 pp., 161 references) and gives o good
survey of the state of development up to 1965.
D . Lyman presents a review of biochemical polymers. The
clearly written article deals mainly with the use of polymers
as organ substitutes. The influence of the chemical structure,
shaping, and the surface state on the tissue compatibility and
the polymer-blood reaction are discussed; however, little information is given on the use of hydrophilic polymers.
Advances in gel permeation chromatography are described
by J. Johnson, R . Porter, and M . Cantow. The article covers
the literature up to 1966, and deals mainly with separations
in organic solvents. The literature data o n the influsnce Of
experimental parameters on the form of the maxima are
critically compared.
Volume 2 of this series also contains seven articles. Polymers
containing phosphorus in the main and side chains are discussed in two contributions hy M . Sander and A . Steininger.
The comprehensive article (178 pp.) presents a good survey
of the rapid development that has taken place during the
past ten years in the chemistry of organophosphorus polymers.
The theory of polyester formation is discussed by D . Safomon, with special reference to the alkyd resins. Microgel formation and its influence on the polymer structure are dealt
with in particular detail.
General symmetry considerations for stereoregular polymers
are discussed in a short article by A . Liquori.
After a general survey of polymerizability and the polymerization mechanism of cyclic compounds, R. Patsigu describes
the few known cases of successful copolymerization of vinyl
compounds with cyclic compounds.
The other contributions also deal with interesting topics in
macromolecular chemistry. K . Ramey and W. Brey report o n
the use of high-resolution N M R spectroscopy to establish
the structures of polymers; D . Blackadder reviews the field
of polymer single crystals, and an article by G . Cameron and
J. MacCalfum deals with the thermal degradation of polystyrene.
These reviews, which appear as separate items in the Journal
of Macromolecular Science, will be widely read; the choice
of subjects guarantees a n excellent survey of current topics
Heit=
[NB 782 lE1
in macromolecular chemistry.
w.
Molecular Orbital Theories of Bonding in Organic Molecules.
By R . L . FIurryJr., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 1968,
1st Edit., x, 334 pp., numerous figures and tables, $17.75.
As is mentioned in the Introduction of the book, the author
wrote it with two objects in mind. Firstly, he wished to
provide an understanding of chemical bonding on the basis
of the MO theory, and secondly he wished t o offer accurate
procedures for those who would like to carry out semiempirical M O calculations for themselves. The second aim
has been largely achieved. The eighth chapter provides a
very good summary of the formalism of the Pariser-ParrPople (PPP) method and its variants. The brief survey (in
225
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