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Book Review The Organic Compounds of Zinc and Cadmium. By N. I. Sheverdina and K. A. Kocheshkov

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interest and curiosity of the layman. In parts this introduction is very detailed and informative; for instance, chapter 10,
on psychopharmacy, is divided into the following subsections: 10.11 Types of psychopathological condition; 10.12
Historical background of psychiatric therapy; 10.13 Clinical
types of psychopharmacy; 10.14 Applications of psychopharmacy; and 7 0.1 5 Clinical pharmacodynamic aspects.
The material is well chosen; its arrangement is didactically
apt and clarified by representative tables and illustrations.
The next section, o n pharmacological and chemotherapeutic
tesfs, i s particularly valuable for the chemist and biochemist.
That it includes recent developments is illustrated, for
example, by chapter 13 o n coronary vasodilators where attempts to measure sympathoinhibitory action are described
as well as the current methods of determining coronary
circulation. Further, the division of sympatholytics into 01and @-groups and their pharmacological recognition are
treated in detail in chapter 3. It must, however, be clearly
recognized that it can be no object of the present treatise to
describe pharmacological methods in detail; the pharmacological section serves rather to give the reader a rapid
survey whilst inducing him to study the specialist literature.
The development of groups of medicaments is described in
the third section. This section begins, in general, with the
history of drugs and their constituents, leading on to synthetic compounds in chronological series. In this way the
evolution of relationships is described, and all who are
interested in relations between structure and activity will
find much of interest therein. Here also are recorded the
metabolism and toxicity of many of the compounds.
The last section is devoted to the preparation of drugs. The
authors seem to have been remarkably successful in choosing
the most important of the usually numerous alternative synthetic methods, and they have documented them mainly by
reference to patents. Confusion by an excess of material has
been happily avoided. Those concerned with drug synthesis
are sufficiently served by wide-ranging references to the
literature.
A chapter on “The structure and mode of function of the
nervous system” and an appendix o n “The route and behavior of drugs in the organism” contribute considerably to an
understanding of the division into 29 chapters.
The impressive success of this book was confirmed for the
reviewer soon after its appearance in his Institute, where
research on drugs is carried out, t is already one of the
sources of information that is in greatest use and most frequent demand. The picture that it gives of the relations between experiment and medical and scientific theories gives it
an appeal to all, whether it be to chemists, biochemists,
pharmacologists, bacteriologists, biologists, or physicians.
It can also be recommended to students who are interested
in drug research and wish to choose this field for their life’s
work.
Inevitably there are some mistakes, but they are of such
minor importance in relation to the range and achievement
of this book that they will not be detailed here; they have
been notified to the authors so that they may correct the
next edition.
The authors, their co-workers, and the publishers deserve
thanks and recognition for this clearly arranged, well illustrated, and carefully selected review, which will become a
standard work for all who are interested in research o n drugs.
E. Biekert [NB 807 IE]
Molecularbiologie. Bausteine des Lebendigen (Molecular
Biology: Units of Life). Edited by Th. Wieland and G .
Pfleiderer. Umschau-VerIag, Frankfurt 1967. 2nd Edit.,
296 pp., numerous illustrations, bound D M 19.80.
In this volume 20 scientists report in 17 articles “in clear
style on the most important discoveries” that form the
essence of modern molecular biology. An introduction by
292
M . F. Perutr gives an exemplary brief and penetrating
review of the decisive stages in the historicai development and
the “dogmas” of molecular biology, after which the reader
is introduced to the world of subcellular particles. There
follow accounts of the “classical” subsections of molecular
biology: DNS, the genetic code, the structure and synthesis
of proteins, the mode of action of enzymes, molecular evolution. and then finally discussions of photosynthesis, contractile structures, biological membranes, immunochemistry,
the biochemistry of viruses, and neurobiology.
The value of the contributions lies in the fact that they are
not written for the expert. All the authors have taken the
greatest trouble that their material, which is in part far from
simple, shall be as clear as possible, often using colored
illustrations. Nevertheless this is no book for the layman, in
spite of what the publisher says. The text will be intelligible
only to those who already know something about the relation
between chemistry and biology and, in particular, to those
who are familiar with scientifio vocabulary. Such readers can
be advised without reservation t o obtain the book for a first
and reliable introduction into the principles of molecular biology. The success of this volume can best be judged by the
fact that a second edition has become necessary only six
months after appearance of the first; in several respects the
second edition gives a more complete and rounded picture
of the field.
H . Griinewald
[NB 808 IE]
Symnetic Methods of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 22, Yearbook
1968. By W . Theilheimer. From the series: Synthetische
Methoden der Organischen Chemie, Jahrbuch mit deutschem Registerschliissel. S. Karger, Basel-New York 1968.
1st Edit., xxiv, 558 pp., D M 227.-.
The annual “Theilheimer”~i1 has become such a standard
work for preparative chemists that it is almost unnecessary to
mention a new volume. The present volume contains a selection of 996 syntheses from 1966/1967; the well established
though somewhat complicated classification system is retained. All fields of investigation are represented, and a
surprisingly large number of heterocyclic and alicyclic ring
syntheses are included. As before, the concise procedures
given often provide an adequate working basis with no need
to refer to the literature. The text is supplemented with clear
formulas. A detailed keyword index (87 pp.), which also
covers the two previous volumes, greally increases the value
of the book. The six pages on “Trends” are a goldmine of the
latest original methods. The presentation and print are again
excellent.
S. Hiinig
[NB 778 IE]
The Brganic Compounds of Zinc and Cadmium. By N . 1.
Sheverdina and K . A . Kocheshkov. From the series:
Methods of Elemento-Organic Chemistry. Edited by A . N .
Nesmeyanov and K . A . Kocheshkov. Volume 3 . NorthHolland Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1967. 1st Edit.,
x, 252 pp.. many figures, Dfl. 36.-.
In the present book 120 pages are devoted to the classical
preparative chemistry of organozinc compounds and 77 to
that of organocadmium compounds, both topics enjoying
the same comprehensive treatment. A complete chapter is
devoted to the Reformatzky reaction (K. A . Kocheshkov and
L. V. Abramova, 43 pages). The task that the authors have
set themselves can be summarized iil the terms “Preparation
of . . . . . . . . . .” and “Reactions with . . . . . . . .”, and they
have accordingly set out the voluminous subject matter in a
clear manner. Each chapter has its own bibliography. The
chemistry of the alkylzincs was last published as a monograph some 30 years ago, whereas that of the alkylcadmiums
[l] Cf. Angew. Chem. 79, 283 (1967); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 6, 277 (1967).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Val. 8 (1969) J No. 4
has never appeared in monograph form. A welcome fact is
that experienced authors, known and valued for many years
in the field of organometallic chemistry, have taken this task
upon themselves.
The literature is covered as far as it has been considered in
the Russian abstracts publication (Ref. 2. Chim) up to July
1, 1963. A series of randomly chosen examples showed that
publications up to the middle of 1961 have been considered;
references from 1962 o r 1963 are seldom encountered and
concern primarily Russian papers. For instance, of the 176
references o n pages 233-239.22 are from 1959,13 from 1960,
and there are not any from 1962 or 1963. Understandably,
the achievements of Russian chemists receive a broader
treatment.
The analysis of the compounds covered is dealt with in short
sections and considers only elemental analyses and short
tables of melting points and boiling points. Analytical techniques such as spectroscopy are not included.
As a result of the preparative tone of the work, modern
structural chemistry and reaction mechanisms, which have of
late attracted greatly increased interest in organometallic
chemistry, are not done full justice. Just a n occasional
reference is made to dissociation energies.
As is the case with the other volumes of this series“], the
considerable value of the present book could have been increased by inclusion of a detailed subject index. It appears to
the reviewer that additional keywords would have been
desirable, e.g. bond energies, bond lengths, dipole moments,
dissociation, infrared, mechanism, N M R , Raman, reactionspectroscopy, stereochemistry. I n the case of Japanese
literature and patents, translations from the Russian abstracts
publication (Ref. 2. Chim.) would have been better replaced
by references from Chemisches Zentralblatt or Chemical
Abstracts.
Not least because of the chapter on the Reformatzky reaction, the book is not only useful for the organometallic
chemist, but represents a valuable reference work for all
chemists engaged in preparative work, and certainly fills a
gap in the existing literature. w, p. N~~~~~~ [NB 789 IE]
Atlas of Electron Microscopy. Biological Applications. Edited
by F. Scanga. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam
1964. 1st Edit., xxvi, 331 pp. 496 illustrations, bound,
CO. D M 118.-
Sight is man’s most important sense. Experimental work
indicates that the contours of a n object which the eye sees
distorted appear similarly distorted to the touch. It is interesting to observe the efforts made by chemists to render the
objects of their research visible, in order to be able to exercize
a measure of visual control over the results of the experiment.
It is therefore not surprising that the development of electron
microscopy has led to spectacular advances in science gener[ l ] Cf. Angew. Chem. 80, 764 (1968); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 7, 744 (1968).
ally, and specially in biology, by permitting us to see a
previously invisible realm of nature.
F. Scanga, of the Istituto Superiore di Sanitii. in Rome, has
gathered together the most interesting photographs so far
taken with the electron microscope into a n atlas which is, in
its way, unique. The work begins with a fifteen-page summary of the technique and the possibilities of application of
electron microscopy. This is followed by 482 photographs of
viruses, bacteria, cell constituents, animal and plant cells,
and finally of shells.
Anyone who finds the observation or nature pleasing will
welcome this book, revealing as it does the forms and structures governing the elementary processes of life.
H. Grunewald [NB 776 IE]
Framework Molecular Models. Construction set with 24-page
instruction leaflet. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.’
USA, D M 32.80.
The need for comprehensibility has repeatedly led chemists
to attempt to represent their molecules in the form of large,
but correctly scaled models. The best known are the Stuart
models and the stereomodels of Dreiding. Recently, in the
USA, Fieser has developed a cheaper plastic version of the
Dreiding models.
Stereomodels can also be constructed with the “Framework
Molecular Models” set. This set differs from the Dreiding
models, in that it provides no prefabricated “atoms,” but
small, rigid tetrahedra, trigonal bipyramids. and octahedra,
all made of wire rods, as well as a large number of differently
colored plastic tubes, which fit closely over the metal rods,
and which can be cut by the user to a scale of 1 A = 1 inch,
so that they represent covalent bonds or the van der Waals
radii of individual atoms. The kit also contains linear and
curved connecting rods, the latter serving for the construction of x-bonds. Twelve chemical elements may be represented
by the twelve colors of the plastic tubes. Plastic tubes marked
with two colors are provided for a number of frequently OCcurring combinations of elements (0-H, N-H, C-H. C-N,
and C-0). The coloring of the models permits the observer, as in the case of the Stuart models, to recognize
rapidly the molecular structure.
With this set it is possible to construct atomic models of the
hybridized states sp3, sp2, dsp3, sp, and d2sp3. It would be
desirable to enlarge the kit with parts that would allow
representation of hepta- and octacoordinated complexes.
For this it would only be necessary to produce appropriate
metal frameworks onto which the plastic tubes could be
fixed.
The kit has other advantages: it is easy to handle, and the
corresponding models are to scale and very clear, as they also
show the positions of free electron pairs. What is more, it is
available at a reasonable price. One would like to see this
useful set in the hands of every student of chemistry, and
would recommend it especially to everyone who has to teach
the subject, since in chemistry there is nothing to beat a good
model.
H . Grunewald [NB 711 IE]
Registered names, trademarks. etc. used in this journal, even without specific indication thereof, are not t o be considered unprorected b y law.
0 Verlag Chemie, GmbH, Weinheim
1969. - Printed in Germany by Druckerei Winter, Heidelberg.
All rights reserved. N o part of this journal may be reproduced in any form whatsoever, e.g. by photoprint, microfilm, or any other means, without
written permission from the publishers.
Editorial office: Ziegelhauser Landstrasse 35,6900 Heidelberg I . Germany, Telephone 45075, Telex 46 1855 kemia d, Cable address: Chemieredaktion
Heidelberg.
Editor: H . Grunewald . Translation Editors: A . J. Rackstraw and A . Stimson.
Publishers: Verlag Chemie GmbH. (Presidents Jiirgen Kreuzhage and Hans Scherrner), Pappelallee 3. 6940 Weinheim/Bergstr., Germany, and
Academic Press Inc. (President Walter J. Johnson), 1 1 1 Fifth Avenue, New York 3, N. Y., USA, and Berkeley Square House, Berkeley Square,
London, W. I., England.
Correspondence concerning advertisements should be addressed to Verlag Chemie, GmbH. (Advertising Manager W. ?%id). 6940 WeinheimiBergstr.,
Pappelallee 3, Germany, Telephone Weinheim (06201) 3635, Telex 4655 16 vchwh.
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
/ VoI. 8 (1969) / No. 4
293
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