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Book Review The Proteins Composition Structure and Function. Edited by H

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The layout of the book is very clean, and the formulae are
particularly clear. The few misprints and biochemical incongruities in the text are of no importance. The book closes
with a glossary in German, English, and Russian. The
literature survey is unfortunately confined to fairly recent
reviews. Onthe whole, however, this is an excellent little book,
and contains everything that the student is likely to absorb
from very good special lectures. L , Joerlic,ce [ N B 440!275 [El
Die Oxydation organischer Verbindungen mit Sauerstoff (The
Oxidation of Organic Compounds with Oxygen). By R .
Sc/zullner. Wissenschaftliche Taschenbucher, Vol. 23.
1st Edit., Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1964, 195 pp., 8 tables,
6 illustrations, cardboard DM 12.50 (about $ 3.10).
If one is not disturbed by sentences such as “The rapid development of the chemical industry in the Soviet Union and
in the entire socialist camp will greatly favor the application
of efficient processes for the oxidation of organic raw materials to form high-quality base chemicals”, or by a number
of inaccuracies and misprints, this book will provide a good
picture of the many reactions of the oxygen molecule with
organic substances. In addition to preparat,ive aspects, on
which the greatest stress is placed the kinetics of autoxidation
also are discussed.
The question arises, however. of the type of reader for
whom this book is intended. It contains too many specialized
data for the student whereas the number of references to
original publications is too small for the research worker (the
22 references given are mainly reviews); the book must
therefore be intended primarily for industrial chemists. For
this type of reader, in fact, the book may provide many
suggestions in the course of a few hours’ easy reading.
R . Criegee
[NB 428/298 IE]
Silicate Science. Vol. 11. Glasses, Enamels, Slags. By W . Eitel.
Academic Press, New York-London 1965. 1st Edit., XI1 +
707 pp., numerous figures, $ 26.-.
This volume, the second of the planned series of five, deals
with glasses, enamels, and slags. The chemical and physicochemical properties, such as the viscosities of glass melts,
surface tension, electrical conductivity, and changes in density, are discussed in detail. Considerable space is devoted
to the structures of glasses and to theories o n the subject.
Non-silicate glasses are also mentioned. A special chapter is
given to the surface structure and surface reactions of glass.
The second section deals more fully with industrial glasses,
their homogeneity, color correction, reaction residues, gas
inclusions, and the relationships between physico-chemical
properties and chemical composition than with enamels.
The chapter on slags reports recent findings relating to the
constitution of slags, and includes sections on the viscosity
and corrosiveness of molten slags and on equilibria between
molten slags and molten metals.
The literature covered is mainly that published between 1952
and 1962. The section on glass contains 703 references from
this period, while that on enamels and industrial glasses
contains 458. The chapter on slags contains 186 references.
The division into short, numbered chapters makes the book
tidy and-useful as a reference work. It is regrettable that, in
keeping with the publishers’ wishes, the contents of the book
“Physical Chemistry of Silicates” (1954) are assumed to b e
known, and that the publications discussed in this earlier
work are dismissed with a mere reference in the present
volume. Apart from this, the author has been extremely
successful in his use of the extensive literature. Misprints
(e.g. page 511, where a phenylene complex is given instead
of a catechol complex) are few.
As a reference book and handbook, this work is practically
indispensable for all laboratories and institutes concerned
Armin Weiss
[NB 4431278 IE]
with this field.
Angew. Chem. intermit. Edit.
Vol. 5 (1966) 1 No. 3
Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry. Edited by R. L. Whistler
in collaboration with J. N . BeMiller and M. L. Wolfrom.
Vol. V: General Polysaccharides. Academic Press, New
York-London 1965. 1st Edit., XXIl 463 pp., 26 figures,
11 tables. 6 16.50.
+
The present volume completes the provisional object of this
series“]. Like the previous volume, it contains a collection
of reliable procedures. Volume V is devoted to methods in
polysaccharide chemistry (cellulose and starch are excluded).
86 procedures are presented by 75 well-known specialists.
The text is divided into seven main parts: methods of isolation (18 contributions), preparation of polysaccharides
(25 contributions), chemical (4 contributions) and physical
(5 contributions) analysis, molecular weight determinations
(4 contributions), structural analysis (13 contributions), and
the preparation of polysaccharide derivatives (7 contributions).
The first part describes the modern methods of extraction
and purification of polysaccharides by chromatography, gel
filtration, precipitation, dialysis, ultrafiltration, and zone
electrophoresis. Dehydration and freeze-drying of preparations are explained. The second part contains particulars o n
the isolation of selected polysaccharides from plants, animals,
and microorganisms, including mucopolysaccharides and
lipopolysaccharides, glycogen, heparin, hyaluronic acid,
cellulose, hernicelluloses, inulin, chitin, pectin, dextran, and
plant gums. Part 111 contains only methods for the determination of lignin, acetyl and ester groups in pectin, and
primary hydroxyl groups in polysaccharides T h e physical
methods (Part IV) cover only the electrophoretic homogeneity, the optical rotation, the thixotropy and pseudoplasticity, the film properties, and the irnmui?ology of the
polysaccharides. Part V then deals with molecular weight
determinations by end-group analysis with 14CN and
periodate, or by osmometry and isothermal distillation.
Methods of hydrolytic and oxidative degradation of polysaccharides and thelr methylated derivatives for the purpose
of structural analysis account for the major part of Part VI.
An exhaustive table (44 pp.) of methyl ethers of sugars
should be very useful to the practical chemist. The oxidation
and reduction of uronic acids, esterification and deacetylation
desulfurization (of heparin), and etherification are some of
the points dealt with in connection with the preparation of
polysaccharide derivatives.
Since the book does not deal exhaustively with the subject
“General Polysaccharides,” references are made to methods
published in earlier volumes of this or other series. The
author index is large (18 pp.), since each contribution is
followed by a n average of 10 to 15 references. On the other
hand, the subject index (a 20-page collective index for volumes
111 to V) is rather meagre, and contains only about 2000
keywords.
Volume V satisfactorily fulfils the purpose for which it is
intended, i.e. to serve as a handbook for research and
practical laboratory work. Both the experienced carbohydrate chemist and the newcomer to the field will quickly
realize that “Methods of Carbohydrate Chemistry” is as
valuable and as reliable as is “Organic Syntheses” in organic
chemistry or “Biochemical Preparations” in biochemistry.
J . M . Harkin
[NB 4441279 IE]
The Proteins: Composition, Structure, and Function. Edited
by H . Neuratlt. Academic Press, New York-London. 2nd
Edit., Vol. 11, 1964, XIV + 840 pp., numerous illustrs. and
tables, $ 26.00 (by subscription $ 24.00); Vol. 111, 1965,
XIV + 585 pp., numerous illustrs. and tables, $ 21 .OO (by
subscription $ 18.50).
Soon after its publication, the first edition of “The Proteins” (Chemistry, Biological Activity, and Methods), together
with the standard monograph by Cohn and Edsnll, became
[l] Review of Vol. IV: Angew. Chem. 77, 226 (1965).
321
the standard handbook of every protein chemist. Now, ten
years later, the first volumes of the second edition have been
published. Owing to the illness and untimely death of the
co-editor of the first edition, K . Bailey, the second edition is
edited by Neurath alone.
The second edition, like the first, is to comprise four volumes.
However, it is not a new edition in the true sense, but a
completely new version oriented along different lines. This
is evident from the subtitle: “Composition, Structure, and
Function”, and from the fact that only three of the contributors to the first edition have also contributed to the
second. The principal theme of the work is no longer the
question of the chemical structure of the proteins, but the
problem of the relationship between the structure of a protein
and its specific biological function. Comparison of the new
edition with the old will make clear the progress that has
been made in this field of biochemistry.
The first chapter of Volume I1 deals with the conformation
of the polypeptide chains of proteins in solution (J. A . Schellman and C . Schellman), while the last chapter is concerned
with the X-ray structure analysis of proteins (Dickerson);
these two chapters are closely related, and even overlap in
part. The general theoretical principles and the experimental
methods used in the determination of the structures of
proteins are described in detail, and the facts noted are
discussed. Dickerson gives a list of the proteins that are
under investigation by X-ray analysis.
The chapters by Steinhardt and Beychok, “Interaction of
Proteins with Hydrogen Ions and Other Small Ions and
Molecules,” and by Nichol, Bethune, Kegeles, and Hess,
“Interacting Protein Systems,” are devoted to the interactions of proteins with proteins or components of low
molecular weight. The first of these two chapters is mainly
concerned with the acid-base equilibria of proteins, and so
provides a basis for the discussion of the pH-dependence of
various protein functions. The chapter on protein-protein
interactions has a pronounced physico-chemical bias. This
chapter is very informative o n the subject of the quaternary
structure of many proteins and on the problem of the antigenantibody reaction. A particularly impressive chapter is
“Polyamino Acids as Protein Models” by Katchalski, Seln,
Silman, and Berger, which describes the synthesis and the
chemical, physico-chemical, and biological properties of
polypeptides, and deals with all the results published in this
field. It becomes clear from this chapter how much the
elucidation of the structure of proteins, of the genetic code,
and of immunological problems owes to studies on synthetic
polypeptides.
The first and last chapters of Volume 111 are of a general
nature, while the other four chapters deal with the structures
and functions of various proteins. Sober, Hartley, Carroll,
and Peterson give a very instructive treatment of the “Fractionation of Proteins” (solubility, chromatography, electrophoresis, sedimentation, dialysis, ultrafiltration, and immunological methods), and also describe the methods used for
the characterization of proteins and the determination of
their purity. Weber and Teale (“Interaction of Proteins with
Radiation”) discuss the infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy,
fluorescence, light scattering, and optical rotatory dispersion of
proteins Fraenkel-Conrat gives a brief outline of the structures and functions of virus proteins, and Putnam (“Structure and Function of the Plasma Proteins”) and Singer (“Structure and Function of Antigen and Antibody Proteins”)
presents a lucid, impressive survey of the plasma proteins
and the antigen-antibody proteins. Finally, Davie and Ratnoflgive a clear description of the various factors that effect
the coagulation of blood.
The various chapters are well written by competent authors,
and special emphasis is laid throughout on the description
of the experimental methods. The literature covered includes
very recent publications, so that we are shown the latest
situation in each field. These reports are indispensable to
anyone who is concerned with proteins. There is only one
objection to this work: one gains the impression that the
328
arrangement of the chapters is arbitrary ( e . g . chapters 7, 11
and 17 would be expected to appear together in that order).
This gives the volumes a certain “Advances” character.
Regrettable omissions include a somewhat more detailed
treatment of denaturation and a chapter on the size and
shape of protein molecules such as that contributed by Edsall in the 1st Edition (which will consequently still have to
be consulted as before). Only a few misprints were found,
and the print and layout, with the exception of the cover, are
good.
H . Sund
[NB 441,’276 IE]
Coincidence Tables for Atomic Spectroscopy. By J. Kuba,
L. KuCera, F. Plzcik, M. Dvofak, and J. Mrdz. Elsevier
Publishing Comp., Amsterdam-London-New York 1965.
1st Edit., XXXI + 1136 pp., about $ 18.00
Anyone who is concerned with trace analysis by emission
spectroscopy must constantly ask himself what foreign
elements could interfere with a detection or even make it
doubtful. Kuba and his co-workers have now used all the
published data to produce a comprehensive book of tables
(about 1150 pages) that supplies the answer to this question
immediately.
The emission lines of 90 elements (only At, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm,
Fr, Md, No, Pm, Po, and Tc are excluded) between 2000 and
10000 8, are presented in 17 tables. Table IV and V give
lines that can be used for the analysis of the rare earths,
Table VI for a number of actinides, and Tables VII and VIII
for gases. Table IX gives the spark spectrum of air, and
calibration lines for the secondary standard Fe are given to
at least three decimal places in Tables X and XI. Tables XI1
and XI11 contain the emission lines of inorganic molecules
and fragments (e.g. A10, BeO, Cz, CN, and CaF). Finally,
Table XIV gives the ionization energies of the elements and
of their ions.
The principal tables - Table XVI for 73 elements, with a
total of 683 analytically important lines ( e . g . resonance
lines), and Table XVII for the rare earths - cover 1050 pages,
the elements being arranged alphabetically and in order of
increasing wavelength of the most important lines. All
interfering emission lines there are always a few dozen!)
due to foreign elements are also listed on the following basis:
the entire coincidence region is assumed to be so wide that
the resolution of two lines on a photographic plate must be
possible; the coincident lines are then noted according to
their relative intensities for three ranges 5 Ah. To save
unnecessary searching on the part of analysts with highresolution equipment, the coincident lines are given in three
types of print bold, normal, and italic (corresponding to
linear dispersions of 0.5 to 5 , 2 to 30, and > 30 8,/mm).
A very disturbing fault is the fact that the tables contain
practically no legends or explanations for the symbols used,
so that the explanations must be sought in the text in the
very early part of the book. Thus in Table I (p. XVII)
reference should be made to Table XVI (p. 95), and the
explanation of the table “Dislocation of Main Lines” (pp.
63-91) is given o n p. XVIII. The values given in Tables X
and XI for the standard Fe d o not agreeexactly; no indication
of the source of Table X is given. According to the text on
p. XVI, Table XI should contain calibration lines for the
standards Cd, Kr, and Fe, whereas according to p. 52 these
lines refer only to Fe.
On the whole, this is an excellent and important bqok in a
very good and hard-wearing form - a book for the practical
[NB 442/277 IE1
analyst.
W . Jung
Coordination Chemistry. By F. Bas010 and R. C . Johnson.
W. A. Benjamin, Inc., New York-Amsterdam 1964. 1st
Edit., XI1 + 180 pp., numerous illustrs. and several tables,
linen, $ 4.35.
This book is intended as an introduction to coordination
chemistry for American chemistry students. A very skilful
treatment of molecular orbital methods and ligand field
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
VoI. 5 (1966) 1 No. 3
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