Book Review The Proteins. Composition Structure and Function. Vol.1. Edited by Hкод для вставкиСкачать
concerning the nature of the bonding, and stability problems, particularly in connection with coordinatioh). These include, for example “Die Bedeutung quantenmechanischer Modelle fur die Chemie” (the importance of quantum-mechanical models in chemistry) by H . Hartmann, “Inorganic Chromophores” by C. K. Jiirgensen, “The Stabilisation, Stereochemistry, and Reactivity of Five-coordinated Compounds” by R . S. Nyholm and M. L. Tobe, and the “Structure and Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes of Some Unsaturated Ligands” by R . Masea and G . Wilkensen. 0 . Schrnifz-DuMonf [NB 333!191 IE] Chemotaxonomie der Pffanzen (Chemical Taxonomy of Plants). By R . Hegnauer. Vol. 3 . Dicotyledoneae. Part I : Acanthaceak-Cyrillaceae. Chemical Series, Vol. 18. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel-Stuttgart 1964. 1st edit., 744 pp., 14 figs., 17 tables, clothbound D M 123.-‘(about S 31.50). When conservative, stdndards afe applied, dicotyledons are divided into about 270 fahilies; 79 of these are discussed in the present volume [I]. The book therefore d g l s with some 3500 genera comprising about 45000 species. These include some very large families or genera ‘that are important in other connections, including the Compositae, the Ap3cynaceae, Cruciferae, e f c . Chemists interested in plant products will therefore want to inspect this volume .with careful attention. The organization of the material within each family discussed corresponds to that used in earlier volumes: first come a short botanical description and the systematic classification, then a summary of important morphological and chemical characteristics, the latter frequently being subdivided according to substance classes, and finally literature references and concluding remarks which contain the essence of the taxonomic features of the plants. Mostly the main chemical constituents of the plants are critically appraised here whenever they appear very frequently in a certain family and are highly typical for it in contrast to other families. In this way, sometimes clear-cut decisions can be made in favor of one of another known system of plants. The dangers of taxonomic classifications based on single substances are emphasized. There are of course many examples of individual chemical compounds that occur sporadically in plants which are definitely not interrelated, e . g . lysergic acid derivatives in certain species of Convulvulaceae or Ascomycetes. The reader again observes that extremely widespread and thoroughly investigated materials such as the carotenoids contribute but little to the solution of taxonomic problems. In contrast to the volumes that have already appeared, on account of the immense amodnt of material dealt with, the literature and individual compounds have not been comprehensively reviewed. Nonetheless, a great deal of otherwise difficultly accessible literature has been evaluated. The organic chemist will be surprised to find that the formulae shown have again been drawn with complete disregard of the stereochemistry of the compounds concerned. The author indicates many deficiencies in phytochemical research and may thus provide incentives for new research wprk. Misprints and factual errors are few; the quality of the paper, print and binding are as usual excellent. C . H . Eugster [NB 4091266 I € ] The Monosaccharides. By J. Starze‘k, M . Cerny, J. Kocourek, and J. Pacak. Academic Press, New York-London, and Publishing House of the Czechoslovakian Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1963. 1st edit., 1006 pp., 40 figs., 64 tables, linen $ 32.-. An English translation is now available of the book “Monosacharidy” by J. Stanlk et al. The appearance of this translation is to be welcomed, for now this monograph o n a well 111 Forreviewsof\lols. 1 and2seeAngew. Chem. 76, 312(39643; Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 3,452 (1964). Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 VoI. 4 (1965) 1 No. 8 defined section of carbohydrate chemistry is available to a much larger public. The English edition is not merely a s:mple translation of the first Czechoslovakian edition; the contents have been considerably reshuffled and extended, producing a great improvement in the book. Moreover, work published up until about 1962 has now also been included. In the monograph, the most diverse derivatives of this class of substances are described, and their manifold reactions are discussed in detail, often exhaustively. l’he specialist in this field will therefore gladly take first recourse to this work for rapid orientation. The book is also aimed at satisfying the demands of other chemists associated in part with carbohydrate chemistry in close connection. with their own investigations, e . g . biochemisrs and iiidustrial chemists, for here they find a well arrgnged wealth of information. Numerous tablesinterspersed between the text give rapid informa$ion on the derivatives of the monosaccharides prepared to date. The l-ist of references given has been compiled with especial care. Each chapter contains references t o large review articles to facilitate the search for particular details or for original publications. The literature from relatively obscure journals has also been almost completely scanned,’and even the specialist may find many a reference he has previously overlooked. , The book contains a short but fully satisfactory chapter for superficial information on tke biochemical syntheses and conversions of sugars in biological systems. Further details on this rapidly advancing subject can be found in scientific journals in any case. However, a more extensive treatment of modern investigations into stereochemical topics and reaction mechanisms would have been preferable. Aspects such as conformational analysis, the mechanisms of substitution reactions and the associated questions of stereochemistry and neighboring-group participation, and applications of N M R spectroscopy are at the focus of attention in the carbohydrate field a t present and will be studied more intensely in future. These suggestions might be considered for future editions. The present volume is thus a n important source of information for a large circle of users and deserves a place in every chemical library. A second volume on“The Oligosaccharides” has already been announced which ought to provide a supplement to the present book. H . Paulsen [NB 3701228 lE] The Proteins. Composition, Structure, and Function. Vol. 1. Edited by H . Neurufh. Academic Press, NewYork-London 1963. 2nd edit., XI11 f 665 pp., numerous illustrs. and tables, linen S 22.-. The following topics are dealt with in six chapters: l.“AminoAcid Analysis of Peptides and Proteins” ( A . Light and E. L. Smith) with an appendix on “Amino-Acid Analysis of Certain Proteins” by G . R. Tristrum and R. H . Smith; 2. “Synthesis and Function of Peptides of Biological Interest” (K. Hofmann and P. G . Kafsoyannis); 3. “Chemical Aspects of Protein Synthesis” (J. S. Fruton); 4 . “Concepts and Experimental Approaches in the Determination of the Primary Structure of Proteins” ( R . E. Canfield and C . B. Anfinson); 5 . “Intramolecular Bonds in Proteins, I. The Role of Sulfur in Proteins” ( R . Cecil); 6. “11. Non-covalent Bonds” (H. A. Scheragu). The survey shows that the subjects dealt with are arranged less systematically than in the first edition, being aimed more directly at individual acute problems. The subtitle of the book reveals the reason for this selection, namely the coordination of chemical structure and biological function, as is prominently apparent,, particularly in the second chapter. Following a discussion of the modern methods of peptide synthesis, their application to the preparation of hypophyseal hormone, angiotensin, bradykinin, and kallidin peptides is described, and the structure-function relationships are illuminated, particularly for the oxytocin-vasopressin group and for the melanophore-stimulating systems. The first chapter is also highly instructive, but a little more emphasis 723 u on chromatography and its auxiliary methods might have been desirable. I n the third chapter, a compromise had to be made, for it was impossible to give a detailed treatment of the biochemistry of nucleic acids alongside the discourse on protein biosynthesis, despite the equal importance of both fields. The solution found in the book can be considered ideal ; however, since the manuscript was completed in June 1962, a few of the latest important results are missing, because of the rapid current developments in this field. It is obvious from the fourth chapter that its authors are well familiar with the experimental side of their work; despite the brevity of their essay (61 pp.), it leaves little room for improvement. The same cannot be said without reservation for Chapter five: the discussiori of the function of groups containing sulfur in proteins receives too little attention (7 pp. compared with 73 pp. devoted to analytical methods and chemical reactions). Chapter six furnishes a comprehensive review of the statistical thermodynamic theories of noncovalent interactions, with particular emphasis on hydrophobic bonds, and the part played by such phenomena in denaturation, ionization, proteolysis, and association. The reader can derive enormous value from the subject matter in this chapter, but will have to apply almost as much effort in order to work through it. Simplified, easily understandable summaries to each section would be a g r e a t help here. Although the contributions in this first volume of the second edition of the book are of such great value, and although its authors are certainly excellent authorities in their fields, it does not appear to make the first edition completely redundant. It might have been better to publish supplementary volumes instead of a completely new edition. As far as can be judged, the selection of topics for inclusion in the new edition already marks a step in this direction. F. Turbo [NB 360/218 IE] Introduction to Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy. By N . B. Colthup, L . H . Daly, and S . E. Wiberley. Academic Press, New York-London 1964. 1st edit., XI1 + 5 1 1 pp., numerous figs. and tables, linen $ 12.-. Up to the present, it has always been difficult to recommend a single book for conveying an introduction to vibration spectroscopy, because in all the well-known monographs on this topic, either a theory of vibration spectroscopy is developed, or the stress is placed upon experimental or applied technical aspects, or only infrared group frequencies are listed and discussed. In the present introduction, an attempt is made t o present all these aspects in a ’ s i n g l e book, and it must be said, with good success. An introductory chapter is devoted to an elementary treatment of the theory of rotation and vibration spectra, and despite its highly condensed form, all the important concepts are done justice. In the second chapter, the structural elements or infrared and Raman spectrographs and experimental questions are discussed. In a chapter on the classification of molecules, the symmetry properties of molecules are explained, and the group theory is presented up t o the point required for comprehension of the classification of normal vibrations. Besides character tables for the point groups, many examples are given of molecules investigated. In the next nine chapters, group frequencies are summarized and discussed in detail. Following a very lucid explanation of the alteration of group frequencies caused by interactions with other vibrations, the characteristic frequencies are given, arranged according to groups. The literature on this material is evaluated up to 1961, sometimes until 1963. In a further chapter, the group frequencies are again given, this time arranged according to spectral regions and together with correlation charts. In addition, the absorption spectra of 624 molecules are given, mostly with indication of the characteristic group frequencies; this greatly facilitates introductions t o the analytical applications of vibration spectroscopy. In the final two chapters, a theoretical vibrational analysis and a calculation of the thermodynamic functions 724 with chloroform as an example are given, An extensive author and subject index greatly simplifies the use of the volume. The book can be recommended to all chemists occupied with any problems in infrared or Raman spectroscopy and to students with interests in this field. It ought to prove an excellent introduction even for those who wish to conduct specialized spectroscopic investigations. W. Liptay [NB 350/208 IE] Les Reactions Chimiques dans les Solvants et les Sels Fondus (Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Molten Salts). By G . Charlot and R. Trimillon. Gauthier-Villars, Paris 1963. 1st Edit., VI1 + 602 pp., 114 figures, 157 tables, linen, N F 94.- (about $20.00). The rapid advances of inorganic chemistry over the past decades has led to the initiation of new journals and new monograph series devoted to this subject: Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (U.S.A.), Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry (U.S.A.), Journal of the Less-Common Metals (England); A . Cotton: Progress in Inorganic Chemistry; H.J.Emeleus and A. G . Sharpe: Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry. Following the initiative of A. ClrrPtien of the Sorbonne, a journal “Revue de Chimie Minerale” (Reviews of Inorganic Chemistry) and a monograph series “ Monographies de Chimie minerale” (Monographs in Inorganic Chemistry), both publiihed by Gauthier-Villars, have been founded in France. This book o n the chemistry in non-aqueous solvents and in molten salt; forms the first volume of the new monograph series, which promises further volumes on polyanions and polycations, solubility diagrams, contact catalysis, and non-stoichiometric compounds. .In the introduction to the present volume, A Chretien gives a brief review of the development of inorganic chemistry within recent times and points out the directives followed in planning future volumes of the series: only fields which have recently undergone widespread investigations will be dealt with, and particular stress will be laid upon broad literature coverage; on the other hand a critical and lucid picture of the subject under discussion is to be given, so that not only mere literature compilations will result. The present volume adheres rigorously to these general principles. In the first five chapters (158 pp.) general reviews are given of acid-base reactions in weakly and strongly dissociating solvents, of complexes (here including undissociated species such as CdCl@ and CdCIz), of redox reactions, and of solubility phenomena. The next ten chapters (420 pp.) deal with individual solvents and contain abundant literature referedces. Nine of these chapters are devoted to low-melting - mainly organic s2lveats, and only the last chapter, which is particularly long, deals with molten inorganic salts. Here a theoretical introduction is given. The b m k gives a good survey of the field and will be particularly useful as a wsrk of reference. W. Klemm [NB 334/192 IE] Ion Exchange Separations in Analytical Chemistry. By C. Samuelson. Almquist & Wiksell, Stockholm-GoteborgUppsala, and John Wiley & Sons, New York-London 1963. 2nd edit., 474 pp., numerous illustrs., linen Sw. Kr. 65.(about S 12.50). I t is more than ten years since the first wel! known review of the analytical applications of ion exchangers appeared in its first edition; its title has been altered a little in this second edition. A new edition had become essential in view of the ever increasing number of publications on this subject and because of the enhanced importance of its methods in practice. Although the author himself can look back on many years of experience in this field, he now applies himself to this task with counseling cooperation from a number of experts on the subject, and with highly successful results. 8 Ariyew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Vol. 4 (1965) No.