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Book Review The Proteins. Composition Structure and Function. Vol.1. Edited by H

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concerning the nature of the bonding, and stability problems,
particularly in connection with coordinatioh). These include,
for example “Die Bedeutung quantenmechanischer Modelle
fur die Chemie” (the importance of quantum-mechanical
models in chemistry) by H . Hartmann, “Inorganic Chromophores” by C. K. Jiirgensen, “The Stabilisation, Stereochemistry, and Reactivity of Five-coordinated Compounds” by
R . S. Nyholm and M. L. Tobe, and the “Structure and Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes of Some Unsaturated
Ligands” by R . Masea and G . Wilkensen.
0 . Schrnifz-DuMonf [NB 333!191 IE]
Chemotaxonomie der Pffanzen (Chemical Taxonomy of
Plants). By R . Hegnauer. Vol. 3 . Dicotyledoneae. Part I :
Acanthaceak-Cyrillaceae. Chemical Series, Vol. 18. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel-Stuttgart 1964. 1st edit., 744 pp.,
14 figs., 17 tables, clothbound D M 123.-‘(about S 31.50).
When conservative, stdndards afe applied, dicotyledons are
divided into about 270 fahilies; 79 of these are discussed in
the present volume [I]. The book therefore d g l s with some
3500 genera comprising about 45000 species. These include
some very large families or genera ‘that are important in
other connections, including the Compositae, the Ap3cynaceae, Cruciferae, e f c . Chemists interested in plant
products will therefore want to inspect this volume .with
careful attention.
The organization of the material within each family discussed
corresponds to that used in earlier volumes: first come a
short botanical description and the systematic classification,
then a summary of important morphological and chemical
characteristics, the latter frequently being subdivided according to substance classes, and finally literature references and
concluding remarks which contain the essence of the taxonomic features of the plants. Mostly the main chemical
constituents of the plants are critically appraised here
whenever they appear very frequently in a certain family
and are highly typical for it in contrast to other families. In
this way, sometimes clear-cut decisions can be made in favor
of one of another known system of plants. The dangers of
taxonomic classifications based on single substances are
emphasized. There are of course many examples of individual chemical compounds that occur sporadically in
plants which are definitely not interrelated, e . g . lysergic
acid derivatives in certain species of Convulvulaceae or Ascomycetes. The reader again observes that extremely widespread and thoroughly investigated materials such as
the carotenoids contribute but little to the solution of
taxonomic problems.
In contrast to the volumes that have already appeared, on
account of the immense amodnt of material dealt with,
the literature and individual compounds have not been
comprehensively reviewed. Nonetheless, a great deal of
otherwise difficultly accessible literature has been evaluated.
The organic chemist will be surprised to find that the formulae shown have again been drawn with complete disregard
of the stereochemistry of the compounds concerned. The
author indicates many deficiencies in phytochemical research
and may thus provide incentives for new research wprk.
Misprints and factual errors are few; the quality of the paper,
print and binding are as usual excellent.
C . H . Eugster
[NB 4091266 I € ]
The Monosaccharides. By J. Starze‘k, M . Cerny, J. Kocourek,
and J. Pacak. Academic Press, New York-London, and
Publishing House of the Czechoslovakian Academy of
Sciences, Prague, 1963. 1st edit., 1006 pp., 40 figs., 64
tables, linen $ 32.-.
An English translation is now available of the book “Monosacharidy” by J. Stanlk et al. The appearance of this translation is to be welcomed, for now this monograph o n a well
111 Forreviewsof\lols. 1 and2seeAngew. Chem. 76, 312(39643;
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 3,452 (1964).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 VoI. 4 (1965)
1 No. 8
defined section of carbohydrate chemistry is available to a
much larger public. The English edition is not merely a
s:mple translation of the first Czechoslovakian edition; the
contents have been considerably reshuffled and extended,
producing a great improvement in the book. Moreover, work
published up until about 1962 has now also been included.
In the monograph, the most diverse derivatives of this class
of substances are described, and their manifold reactions are
discussed in detail, often exhaustively. l’he specialist in this
field will therefore gladly take first recourse to this work for
rapid orientation. The book is also aimed at satisfying the
demands of other chemists associated in part with carbohydrate chemistry in close connection. with their own investigations, e . g . biochemisrs and iiidustrial chemists, for
here they find a well arrgnged wealth of information. Numerous tablesinterspersed between the text give rapid informa$ion on the derivatives of the monosaccharides prepared to
date. The l-ist of references given has been compiled with
especial care. Each chapter contains references t o large review
articles to facilitate the search for particular details or for
original publications. The literature from relatively obscure
journals has also been almost completely scanned,’and even
the specialist may find many a reference he has previously
overlooked. ,
The book contains a short but fully satisfactory chapter for
superficial information on tke biochemical syntheses and
conversions of sugars in biological systems. Further details
on this rapidly advancing subject can be found in scientific
journals in any case. However, a more extensive treatment of
modern investigations into stereochemical topics and reaction
mechanisms would have been preferable. Aspects such as
conformational analysis, the mechanisms of substitution
reactions and the associated questions of stereochemistry and
neighboring-group participation, and applications of N M R
spectroscopy are at the focus of attention in the carbohydrate
field a t present and will be studied more intensely in future.
These suggestions might be considered for future editions.
The present volume is thus a n important source of information for a large circle of users and deserves a place in every
chemical library. A second volume on“The Oligosaccharides”
has already been announced which ought to provide a
supplement to the present book.
H . Paulsen
[NB 3701228 lE]
The Proteins. Composition, Structure, and Function. Vol. 1.
Edited by H . Neurufh. Academic Press, NewYork-London
1963. 2nd edit., XI11 f 665 pp., numerous illustrs. and
tables, linen S 22.-.
The following topics are dealt with in six chapters: l.“AminoAcid Analysis of Peptides and Proteins” ( A . Light and E. L.
Smith) with an appendix on “Amino-Acid Analysis of
Certain Proteins” by G . R. Tristrum and R. H . Smith;
2. “Synthesis and Function of Peptides of Biological Interest”
(K. Hofmann and P. G . Kafsoyannis); 3. “Chemical Aspects
of Protein Synthesis” (J. S. Fruton); 4 . “Concepts and
Experimental Approaches in the Determination of the
Primary Structure of Proteins” ( R . E. Canfield and C . B.
Anfinson); 5 . “Intramolecular Bonds in Proteins, I. The
Role of Sulfur in Proteins” ( R . Cecil); 6. “11. Non-covalent
Bonds” (H. A. Scheragu).
The survey shows that the subjects dealt with are arranged
less systematically than in the first edition, being aimed more
directly at individual acute problems. The subtitle of the
book reveals the reason for this selection, namely the coordination of chemical structure and biological function, as is
prominently apparent,, particularly in the second chapter.
Following a discussion of the modern methods of peptide
synthesis, their application to the preparation of hypophyseal
hormone, angiotensin, bradykinin, and kallidin peptides is
described, and the structure-function relationships are
illuminated, particularly for the oxytocin-vasopressin group
and for the melanophore-stimulating systems. The first
chapter is also highly instructive, but a little more emphasis
723
u
on chromatography and its auxiliary methods might have
been desirable. I n the third chapter, a compromise had to
be made, for it was impossible to give a detailed treatment of
the biochemistry of nucleic acids alongside the discourse on
protein biosynthesis, despite the equal importance of both
fields. The solution found in the book can be considered ideal ;
however, since the manuscript was completed in June 1962,
a few of the latest important results are missing, because
of the rapid current developments in this field.
It is obvious from the fourth chapter that its authors are well
familiar with the experimental side of their work; despite the
brevity of their essay (61 pp.), it leaves little room for improvement. The same cannot be said without reservation
for Chapter five: the discussiori of the function of groups
containing sulfur in proteins receives too little attention
(7 pp. compared with 73 pp. devoted to analytical methods
and chemical reactions). Chapter six furnishes a comprehensive review of the statistical thermodynamic theories of noncovalent interactions, with particular emphasis on hydrophobic bonds, and the part played by such phenomena in
denaturation, ionization, proteolysis, and association. The
reader can derive enormous value from the subject matter in
this chapter, but will have to apply almost as much effort
in order to work through it. Simplified, easily understandable
summaries to each section would be a g r e a t help here.
Although the contributions in this first volume of the second
edition of the book are of such great value, and although its
authors are certainly excellent authorities in their fields, it
does not appear to make the first edition completely redundant. It might have been better to publish supplementary
volumes instead of a completely new edition. As far as can
be judged, the selection of topics for inclusion in the new
edition already marks a step in this direction.
F. Turbo
[NB 360/218 IE]
Introduction to Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy. By N . B.
Colthup, L . H . Daly, and S . E. Wiberley. Academic Press,
New York-London 1964. 1st edit., XI1 + 5 1 1 pp., numerous
figs. and tables, linen $ 12.-.
Up to the present, it has always been difficult to recommend
a single book for conveying an introduction to vibration
spectroscopy, because in all the well-known monographs on
this topic, either a theory of vibration spectroscopy is
developed, or the stress is placed upon experimental or
applied technical aspects, or only infrared group frequencies
are listed and discussed. In the present introduction, an
attempt is made t o present all these aspects in a ’ s i n g l e
book, and it must be said, with good success. An introductory chapter is devoted to an elementary treatment of the
theory of rotation and vibration spectra, and despite its
highly condensed form, all the important concepts are done
justice. In the second chapter, the structural elements or
infrared and Raman spectrographs and experimental questions are discussed. In a chapter on the classification of
molecules, the symmetry properties of molecules are explained, and the group theory is presented up t o the point
required for comprehension of the classification of normal
vibrations. Besides character tables for the point groups,
many examples are given of molecules investigated. In
the next nine chapters, group frequencies are summarized
and discussed in detail. Following a very lucid explanation
of the alteration of group frequencies caused by interactions
with other vibrations, the characteristic frequencies are given,
arranged according to groups. The literature on this material
is evaluated up to 1961, sometimes until 1963. In a further
chapter, the group frequencies are again given, this time
arranged according to spectral regions and together with
correlation charts. In addition, the absorption spectra of
624 molecules are given, mostly with indication of the
characteristic group frequencies; this greatly facilitates introductions t o the analytical applications of vibration spectroscopy. In the final two chapters, a theoretical vibrational
analysis and a calculation of the thermodynamic functions
724
with chloroform as an example are given, An extensive
author and subject index greatly simplifies the use of the
volume.
The book can be recommended to all chemists occupied with
any problems in infrared or Raman spectroscopy and to
students with interests in this field. It ought to prove an
excellent introduction even for those who wish to conduct
specialized spectroscopic investigations.
W. Liptay
[NB 350/208 IE]
Les Reactions Chimiques dans les Solvants et les Sels Fondus
(Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Molten Salts). By G .
Charlot and R. Trimillon. Gauthier-Villars, Paris 1963.
1st Edit., VI1 + 602 pp., 114 figures, 157 tables, linen,
N F 94.- (about $20.00).
The rapid advances of inorganic chemistry over the past decades has led to the initiation of new journals and new monograph series devoted to this subject: Journal of Inorganic
Chemistry (U.S.A.), Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry (U.S.A.), Journal of the Less-Common Metals (England); A . Cotton: Progress in Inorganic Chemistry; H.J.Emeleus and A. G . Sharpe: Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and
Radiochemistry. Following the initiative of A. ClrrPtien of the
Sorbonne, a journal “Revue de Chimie Minerale” (Reviews of
Inorganic Chemistry) and a monograph series “ Monographies de Chimie minerale” (Monographs in Inorganic Chemistry), both publiihed by Gauthier-Villars, have been founded in France. This book o n the chemistry in non-aqueous
solvents and in molten salt; forms the first volume of the new
monograph series, which promises further volumes on polyanions and polycations, solubility diagrams, contact catalysis,
and non-stoichiometric compounds.
.In the introduction to the present volume, A Chretien gives
a brief review of the development of inorganic chemistry
within recent times and points out the directives followed in
planning future volumes of the series: only fields which have
recently undergone widespread investigations will be dealt
with, and particular stress will be laid upon broad literature
coverage; on the other hand a critical and lucid picture of the
subject under discussion is to be given, so that not only mere
literature compilations will result. The present volume adheres rigorously to these general principles. In the first five
chapters (158 pp.) general reviews are given of acid-base reactions in weakly and strongly dissociating solvents, of complexes (here including undissociated species such as CdCl@
and CdCIz), of redox reactions, and of solubility phenomena.
The next ten chapters (420 pp.) deal with individual solvents
and contain abundant literature referedces. Nine of these
chapters are devoted to low-melting - mainly organic s2lveats, and only the last chapter, which is particularly long,
deals with molten inorganic salts. Here a theoretical introduction is given.
The b m k gives a good survey of the field and will be particularly useful as a wsrk of reference.
W. Klemm
[NB 334/192 IE]
Ion Exchange Separations in Analytical Chemistry. By
C. Samuelson. Almquist & Wiksell, Stockholm-GoteborgUppsala, and John Wiley & Sons, New York-London 1963.
2nd edit., 474 pp., numerous illustrs., linen Sw. Kr. 65.(about S 12.50).
I t is more than ten years since the first wel! known review of
the analytical applications of ion exchangers appeared in its
first edition; its title has been altered a little in this second
edition. A new edition had become essential in view of the
ever increasing number of publications on this subject and
because of the enhanced importance of its methods in practice. Although the author himself can look back on many
years of experience in this field, he now applies himself to
this task with counseling cooperation from a number of
experts on the subject, and with highly successful results.
8
Ariyew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Vol. 4 (1965) No.
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