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Book Review The Radiation-Induced Decomposition of Inorganic Molecular Ions. By E. R. Johnson

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Gas contents of salts from the Upper Permian formation (Germany) are reported by H. D. Freyer and K. Wagener.Samples
of sylvinite, halite, and kieserite were investigated; their total
cm3 NTP/g. By comparison
gas contents are in the order of
of different methods of disaggregation (grinding, dissolution,
melting) of samples it can be concluded that the gases are molecularly dispersed in the lattice. Probably they were in
equilibrium with the components of the solution when the salt
was deposited. Consequently, gas analyses can supply information about the atmospheric composition at the time of salt formation. Mass spectrometric gas analyses are reported of N,,
O,, Ar, CO,, CH,, H2, and sometimes, H,S./Z. Naturforsch.
25a, 1427 (1970) / -Hz
[Rd 269 IE]
BOOK REVIEWS
Catalysis by Nonmetals. Rules for Catalyst Selection. By
0. V. Krylov. In the series: Physical Chemistry. A Series of
Monographs. Academic Press, New York-London 1970. 1st
Edit., x, 283pp., $ 14.00.
This book is an English translation of the well-known Russian
author’s work. It deals with the catalytic properties of oxides,
sulfides, solids with acid or basic surface groups, and other onecomponent nonmetals. Thus, at first glance the book can be
seen to be the counterpart of the widely read monograph by
G. C. Bond “Catalysis by Metals” which was published by Academic Press in 1962. The main object of Krylov’s work is to
give rules for the choice of catalysts for certain reactions such
as oxidations, hydrogenations, dehydrogenations, hydrations,
dehydrations, exchange and decomposition reactions, isomerizations, cracking, alkylations, and polymerizations.
The book is divided into two sections, the first of which is reserved for a description of the correlations between the catalytic
activity of solids - selectivity is unfortunately not considered
- and their physico-chemical properties (for example, type of
conduction, charge-carrier concentration, doping, width of the
forbidden zone, electron work function, ionic radius and valence, electronegativity of the atoms, acidic or basic surface
groups, dielectric constant, crystal type, and lattice constant).
In this connection, due attention has also been given to theoretical discussions of reaction mechanisms. The second part of
the book summarizes and describes the reactions for which
catalysts can be found by applying the principles discussed. Finally, an appendix summarizes the major physicochemical
parameters of a large number of solids. The list of references
extends essentially as far as 1964.
The book will appeal primarily to physical chemists engaged
in catalyst research and development.
Ernst-Giintfier Schlo
[NB 918 IE]
Modern Reactions in Organic Synthesis. Edited by
C. J. Timmons. Van Nostrand-Reinhold Company, London
1970. 1st Edit., vi, 311 pp., numerous formulas, bound
f 5.10.
The title of this book is too ambitious. The editor himself states
in the foreword: ‘‘This book reviews, within chosen fields some
of the synthetic methods recently developed or applied that
seem important in the views of the contributors.”
In seven chapters the baok’s eight authors discuss the following
topics: reduction and oxidation methods; the use of free radicals
in syntheses; electrochemical and photochemical methods; and
the synthesis of aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. The references cited cover the period from 1960 to 1967/68. Onewonders why the book has only just been published since, in spite
of the lavish use of structural formulas, its careful preparation,
and the detailed index, it should not have taken so much time
to produce.
The individual chapters contain many relevant references (more
than 1100 in all). However, in the case of oxidations with ozone,
for example, no mention is made of the useful tetracyanoethyl-
82
ene variant [Chem. Ber. 96, 1564 (1963)j and, in the case of
the acyloin reaction in the section on radicals, there ist no reference to the vaIuable modified method in the presence of trimethylchlorosilane [Chem. Ber. 100,3820 (1967); Tetrahedron
Lett. 1968, 5861.
The book should be kept in libraries for students in the final
stages of their degree courses but it is of limited value to teachers
and research workers.
Dieter Seebach [NB 919 IE]
The Radiation-Induced Decomposition of InorganicMolecular
Ions. By E. R. Johnson, Gordon and Breach, New YorkLondon-Paris. 1970. 1st Edit., ix, 144 pp., Bound f 18.-.
Comprehensive monographs on specialized topics from the
large field of radiation chemistry have long been appearing in
the English-speaking world. Thus, the present book, which attempts to give a comprehensive survey of the action of highenergy radiation on inorganic crystalline solids, is aimed at the
specialist. Basic concepts of radiation chemistry are mentioned
in a few introductory sentences. Somewhat more space is devoted to necessary information on solid-state physics (natural
defects) and crystal-lattice defects caused by high-energy radiation. After a short description of the crystal properties that
change under the effect of radiation and of the factors that cause
these changes, three-quarters of the book is devoted to the results of the radiation-induced decomposition of inorganic salts
(nitrates, chlorates, perchlorates, bromates, azides, sulfates, carbonates, and permanganates). Attention is also paid to the radiolysis products with their G values, the electronic absorption
spectra, and the ESR spectra of the irradiated crystals.
In the case of the more thoroughly investigated nitrates, chlorates, bromates, and perchlorates, the kinetics and mechanisms
of radiation-induced decompositions are discussed. A critical
appraisal of the results, some of which are controversial, is given
at the end of every relevant chapter.
Typically, only three of the 182 references (ranging up to
1968/9) cited in this successful book come from German journals. This cannot be dismissed with the usual explanation,
namely that Americans read only English literature, since Russian journals, for example, are often quoted.
Hans Gusten [NB 921 IE]
Mensch und Arbeit im Chemiebetrieb (Man and Work in the
Chemical Industry). General editor W. Schneider. Verlag
Mensch und Arbeit, Munich, 1970. 1st Edit., lOpp., ring
binder, DM 16.80.
Society has changed considerably in the course of this century,
not least in the sphere of working life. An employee in industry
can no longer be regarded as a mere subordinate or as mere
work power - he is developing more and more into an actively
participating individual. Comprehensive professional training
and further education are constantly improving the employee’s
ability to understand his sphere of work and to act fruitfully
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Vol. 10 (1971) / N o . 1
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