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Book Review The Structure of Inorganic Radicals. By P. W. Atkins and M. C. R. Symons

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and routes form the subject matter of volume 22 of this
comprehensive handbook of biochemistry, which, SO t o
speak, gives a chapter by chapter account of the foundations
of a “submolecular biology”. I n the first chapter A . and
B. Pufltnan describe the general ideas and methods of
quantum biochemistry, which is concerned with the quantum
mechanical investigation of the electronic structure of
biologically important molecules. The achievements and
predictions realizable by means of this theoretical treatment
are illustrated by a number of examples. B. Grabe’s new
interpretation of the “energy-rich bond” is, of course, not
mentioned since oniy the literature up t o the beginning of
1966 is referred to. Attempting t o force such a rapidly
developing science into a relatively slowly appearing compendium clearly has its limitations.
The mechanisms of energy transfer are dealt with by Th. Forster in a short section devoted t o the problem of transfer of
free energy between various cell components. A lucid account is given of the theoretical and the experimental approaches t o the resolution of this problem which, of course,
still rely largely on the use of models. Charge transfer
complexes may be involved in conducting energy from one
system t o another in solution and in solids. The points
touched on in the first chapter are discussed in more detail
in the chapters written by E . J . Bullock. The latter also
contain a tabular survey of the complex molecules of most
biological substances, and in particular those of the flavins
and the pyridine nucleotides. The excellently written and well
thought out section by P. Mitchell is likely to prove of
greatest interest t o the biochemist. In 25 pages the principles
of the chemo-osmotic ion translation through membranes
are discussed. T h e four chapters blend,well t o give contemporary treatment of the subject. As the price might lead
one to expect, printing and presentation are faultless.
L. Jnenicke
[NB 721a IE]
Comprehensive Biochemistry. Edited by M . Florkin and E. H .
Stotz. Vol. 28: Morphogenesis, Differentiation and Development. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam-London-New York 1967. 1st Edit., xii, 276 pp., Dfl. 42.50.
This volume of “Florkin-Stotz” demonstrates that embryology has a t last outgrown its descriptive biology stage and
is beginning t o be understood o n a molecular level as the
chemical and physical parameters of the growing embryo
become accessible to measurement. The contributors to this
volume d o not conceal the fact that the analytical treatment
of these problems is tedious, and that a chemical understanding of the phenomenon of “life” is still far off. As on
every occasion in the past, the editors have succeeded in
finding experienced and skilled specialists t o write about the
selected topics. A . Monroy deals with oogenesis, in which a n
inert mature egg is fertilized and made to grow into a living
organism by making the genetic information fixed in it
capable of being identified. The information is contained in
nucleic acids, the behavior of which during cell differentiation
is described by J . Brachet in analogy t o the better understood
processes in bacteria. E. Scarano and G . Augusti-Tocco deal
with chemical embryology in a most carefully compiled
section which contains 416 references.
The biochemical processes and the metabolic pathway
regulators acting by interaction of macromolecules during
embryogenesis are modeled largely on reactions known to
take place in the adult organism. A n article by T . Yamuda,
which resembles more a review than a critical evaluation,
discusses how the embryonic induction factors effect the
formation of specific cell populations from undifferentiated
prospective material.
The biochemical processes occurring during hormone-induced,metamorphosis of amphibia are described by R . Weber.
This widely embracing work provides interesting interpretations of long known but still uncertain processes which
must operate in conjuction with “an attuned organism”.
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
Vol. 7 (1968) I No. 4
The analogous chapter on insect metamorphosis by L. J . Gilbert is an indication of the potential of insect biochemistry
rather than just a compilation of data. This volume is
stimulating in many respects although some of the aspects
are treated subjectively. The bibliography includes very
recent work; unfortunately, however, references t o previous
volumes are somewhat sparse. The neat arrangement of the
work needs no reiteration. Like its predecessors, this volume
has been printed on soft rough paper. The readability is
therefore spoilt, not by glare, but rather by unsharp contours.
L. Jaenicke
[NB 721 b IE]
Cross Electrophoresis, its Principles and Applications. By S .
Nakamura. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam-LondonNew York 1966. 1st Edit., ix, 194 pp., numerous illustrations and tables, Dfl. 47.50.
In 1953 Grassmann and Hiibner showed that paper electrophoresis by the curtain principle is suitable for detection of
complex formation or association by dyestuffs if the two
components are applied in such a way that the paths taken
by them on electrophoresis cross each other. This principle
was applied by Nakamuru t o horizontal paper electrophoresis,
extended to a two-dimensional technique, and tested on a
series of interacting systems. Thus arose what is called “cross
electrophoresis”. However, a special case, in which the
substances are applied to the strips in parallel streaks so that
the faster-moving component passes over the slower (which
reacts with it), is described by Lung as ‘‘Uberwanderungselektrophorese” (overrunning electrophoresis).
The first 36 pages of this book are devoted to principles and
apparatus, the next 23 pages t o immunochemical use of the
method. It seems t o the reviewer that, particularly in immunological reactions, the usual carrier material (paper) might be
replaced with advantage by agarose plates or acetate foil;
then, similar results are t o be expected t o those obtained by
Ressler’s or Laurell’s method in which the antibodies are
equally distributed in the medium. Later sections of the book
treat the behavior of trypsin inhibitors and the possibilities
of studying enzyme-substrate complexes. 400 citations from
the literature are given in this book, including more than
30 t o work of the author.
For those who can and wish to apply this comparatively
little-used technique to their own problems, this book is a
safe guide, being written in clear language and well set out.
Unfortunately the pictures obtained by means of cross
electrophoresis have no aesthetic appeal!
B . Kickhofen
[NB 675 IE)
The Structure of Inorganic Radicals. By P. W. Atkins and
M . C . R . Symons. Elsevier Publishing Corp., AmsterdamLondon-New York 1967. 1st Edit., x, 280 pp., numerous
illustrations and tables, bound, Dfl. 60.-.
Our knowledge of free radicals, their electronic states and
bonding, has been greatly extended by the use of electron
paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In this work, inorganic
radicals have a special place because their composition is
generally simple. Their electronic states are important for
clarification of the electronic structure of analogous diamagnetic molecules which arise from these radicals by
addition or removal of an electron. In the book under review,
a n attempt is made t o collect the EPR results on inorganic
radicals in a uniform framework, to consider them critically,
and thus t o make them accessible t o a wider circle of readers.
The book begins with a n introduction to the technique of
EPR investigations and t o the methods of preparation and
matrix-isolation of radicals. This forms the basis for a
gradually developing treatment of the types of radical :
electrons in matrices and in solution; ions and atoms in
matrices; and radical molecules containing two, three, four,
or five atoms. A chapter in which generally valid conclusions
are drawn from the results already discussed closes the text
of the main part of the book. Each chapter is introduced by a
short description of its contents. Interpretation of the experimental results is highly critical. The literature is almost
completely taken into account up to and including 1964.
Since the most important object of the book is to clarify the
electronic structure of radicals, the authors’ attempt to
banish theoretical treatment of the results to a brief mathematical appendix must be criticized. This division has the
result that many concepts and quantities are used in the
main part although their definition is to be found only in the
appendix. The reader thus needs some basic knowledge of
quantum chemistry.
The book doubtless fills a noticeable gap and should thus
be recommended to all who are concerned with the electronic
structure of simple molecules and/or ESR measurements,
and to every inorganic chemist. Printing and style are good,
but in spite of many good points the price seems to be too
E. K6nig
[NB 677 IE]
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Organic Chemists. Edited by
D . W. Mathieson. Academic Press Inc., London-New York
1967. 1st Edit., ix, 287 pp., n u m e r o u s ’ w o n s , tables,
and spectra, 65 s/$ 10.50.
This book is a collection of lectures and practical exercises
(with solutions) that formed a summer course held for
chemists by the Royal Institute of Chemistry, London, in
The chapters are written by several authors hut coordinate
well with one another, and they present a cross-section of
high-resolution nuclear resonance spectroscopy in which
applications of the methods and analysis of the spectra,
rather than theory, are placed in the foreground.
After a short introduction into the general principles of
nuclear resonance spectroscopy ( N . Sheppard), chemical
shifts and spin-spin coupling are treated in detail and very
clearly ( J . A . Hvidge).
The next three sections treat the analysis of three-, four-,
and multi-spin systems (E. 0. Bishop), and the ABX spectral
type is dealt with in detail (C. N . Banwell).
The first part ends with chapters o n the dependence of
coupling constants o n stereochemical factors ( R . J . Abraham)
and a short account of the magnetic resonance of nuclei
other than hydrogen that are of interest to organic chemists
( J . Feeney).
The examples of spectral analysis comprise 22 very well
chosen and in part very difficult problems (with solutions),
which are discussed in detail and approached from the most
varied directions.
In sum, the book provides a good survey of the problems and
possibilities of nuclear resonance spectroscopy and can be
highly recommended to organic chemists interested in
H. Friebolin
[NB 664 IE]
structure determination.
Introduction to Mass Spectrometry. Volume 3 of the series
“Spectroscopy in Education”. By H. C . Hill. Heyden &Son
Ltd., London 1966. 1st Edit., xi, 135 pp., many illustrations, board 30 s or $ 4.50.
H . C. Hill is a n experienced worker in the English heavy
chemicals industry. In 135 pages he gives a concise survey
of the mass spectrometry of organic compounds. Experimental technique, methods of introducing the sample into the
ion source of the apparatus, and methods of recording the
spectra are discussed with exclusive reference to the AEI
apparatus (apparatus from a few other firms have a bare
mention). The mechanism of formation of fragments of
organic molecules in the electron-impact ion source is
treated in detail, and this lays the foundation for the next
section which is concerned with interpreting mass spectra
for elucidation of the structure of organic compounds. The
important rules for their interpretation are derived and
illustrated by means of examples. 18 spectra of “unknown
substances” are left for the reader to handle; unfortunately
they are rather one-sidedly chosen -- only one benzene
derivative, no heterocyclic compound, the remainder all
aliphatic or cycloaliphatic compounds.
The book can be recommended as a n introduction; but
anyone wishing to concern himself more deeply with methods
and apparatus of mass spectrometry will soon have to turn
to more detailed monographs. The title does not indicate
that this book concerns only an introduction to the mass
spectrometry of organic compounds and to the interpretation
of spectra for structural analysis of such compounds; the
many other uses of mass spectrometry are not mentioned.
H. Kienitz
[NB 670 IE]
Analysis of Copper and its Alloys. By W.T. Elwell and I . R .
Scholes. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1967. 1st Edit., xiii,
183 pp., 11 illustrations and 4 tables, 50 s.
This book sets out the various chemical procedures used for
analysis of copper and its alloys. Methods are described for
determination of 29 elements - Cu, Al, Sb, As, Be, Bi, B,
Cd, C, Cr, Co, H, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, N, 0, P, Se, Si, Ag,
S, Te, Sn, Ti, Zn, and Zr (Hf); these are preceded by general
considerations o n sampling.
Each chapter begins with a survey of the methods available,
indicating those which are at present most generally used,
always with references to the original papers; and each
chapter is divided according to the methods used for determination of the elements under consideration in respect of
the concentration ranges of interest.The analytical procedures
are formulated precisely and are provided with data concerning their applicability and - what is extremely relevant usually also their accuracy. Not only gravimetric and titrimetric methods, but also photometric techniques and some
instrumental methods (polarographic and atomic absorption
spectrometric) methods are described. The chapter on the
determination of non-metals - H, C, 0, N, and S - must be
singled out as particularly valuable.
The book is written by distinguished experts in the field,
from the laboratories of Imperial Metal Industries, England.
Only a few wishes remain unfulfilled: for instance, for photometric determination of some elements reagents are preferred
that can no longer be regarded as the most effective, e.g.
hydrogen peroxide for determination of Ti, or iodide for
determination of Bi; on the other hand, occasionally reagents
are preferred that - at least in our experience - have not
been generally adopted, e.g. zinc dibenzyldithiocarbamate
for photometric determination of Cu and p-nitrophenylazoorcinol for that of Be. Finally, the importance of temperature
in direct iodometric titration of Sn should have been more
strongly emphasized.
Elwell-Scholes can be most warmly recommended to all who
are interested in the analysis of copper.
G . Kraft
[NB 669 IE]
Bile Salts. By G . A. D . Haslewood. Methuen & Co. Ltd.,
London 1967, xi, 116 pp., several illustrations and tabIes,
27s 6d.
This little book gives a good summary of the chemistry,
biochemistry, and physiology of bile acids and their conjugates, without pretention to being an exhaustive monograph. It builds o n older collective books, and thus 71 % of
the references are to literature published after 1960. In
addition, very many unpublished observations from the
author’s laboratory are reported - and the author is among
the most knowledgeable workers in this field.
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Vol. 7 (1968) / No. 4
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inorganic, structure, symons, book, radical, review, atkins
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