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Book Review The Theory of Molecular Spectroscopy. Vol. 1. The Quantum Mechanics and Group Theory of Vibrating and Rotating Molecules. By C. J. H. Schutte

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of unsaturated compounds in the presence of difluorocarbene
generators (difluorochloromethane, tetrafluoroethylene)
furnishes high yields of fluorinated arenes which disproportionate and isomerize on heating. Homologs of perfluorinated
arenes and heterocycles can be obtained by pyrolysis in the
presence of difluorocarbene generators. [The Application of
Thermolytic Reactions for the Syntheses of Fluoro-Organic
Compounds. Synthesis 1-976, 374-384; 88 references]
[Rd 884 IE-M]
The synthesis of carbocyclic spiro compounds uiu rearrangement
routes is reviewed by A . P. Krapcho. Acid-catalyzed reactions
include, inter a h , pinacol rearrangements [(I ) + (2)];
examples of thermal rearrangements are provided, inter a h ,
by the oxiranes [ ( 3 )+ (411 and alkenes. Spiro compounds
0
HOAc
can also be obtained by photochemical excitation of cyclic
cross-conjugated dienones and other compounds [ ( 5 ) + (6)],
as well as by other rearrangement processes such as reductions,
solvolyses, and eliminations. [Synthesis of Carbocyclic Spiro
Compounds oin Rearrangement Routes. Synthesis 1976,425444; 184 references]
[Rd 885 IE-M]
The synthesis of tetrathiafulvalenes ( I ) and tetraselenafulvalenes (2) is dealt with in an article by M . Narita and C .
U . Pittmarzn, J r . Compounds ( I ) are prepared, inter a h , by
deprotonation of 1,3-dithiolylium ions and desulfurization of
2-thioxo-l,3-dithiols with P"' compounds. Compounds (2)
are obtained analogously from 2-selenoxo- 1,3-diselenols. ( 1 )
R
R
1;X;I" R
Ncm
NC
CN
13)
and (2) are of interest, primarily because they react with
tetracyanoquinodimethane (3) and other electron acceptors
to give charge transfer complexes which behave electrically
and optically like unidimensional metals at room temperature.
[Preparation of Tetrathiafulvalenes (TTF) and their Selenium
Analogs-Tetraselenafulvalenes (TSeF). Synthesis 1976,489514; 91 references]
[Rd 886 IE-MI
Reactions on single-crystal surfaces forms the subject of a
review by G . A . Somorjai. Catalytic and other reactions on
solid surfaces can be truly understood only if the elementary
steps of surface chemical reactions are known. It has proven
useful to combine studies of surface structure and composition
with kinetic studies of reaction rate and reaction path. In
the studies described, freshly cleaved metal single-crystals were
used. Their surface was investigated before and after the reaction. The gas or gas mixture was directed onto the crystal
surface in the form of a molecular beam, whose scattering
and composition could be monitored. [Reactions on SingleCrystal Surfaces. Acc. Chem. Res. 9,248--256 (1976); 42 references]
[Rd 888 IE-L]
BOOK REVIEWS
The Theory of Molecular Spectroscopy. Vol. 1. The Quantum
Mechanics and Group Theory of Vibrating and Rotating
Molecules. By C. J . H . Schutte. North-Holland Publ. Co.,
Amsterdam 1976. 1st edit., 512 pp., numerous figs., bound,
Hfl. 170.-/$ 67.95.
This work, planned for two volumes, is intended for scientists
active in the field of rotational and rotation-vibrational spectroscopy and for interested advanced students.
The present first volume is divided into six chapters and
an extensive appendix. In the first chapter (41 pages) a short
section is provided that gives the mathematical basis essential
for understanding subsequent parts of the book. Particular
stress is laid on the treatment of linear vector space, on the
theory of matrices, and on matrix representation of linear
operators.
The second chapter (80 pages) contains a fundamental introduction to group theory and its applicability to molecular
spectroscopy; two separate specialized sections of this chapter
deal with the approaches to group-theoretical treatment of
nonrigid molecules and with the prerequisites for application
of group theory to the spectra of solids. The chapter is rounded
off by three sections of the appendix that contain, inter
uliu, the character tables for 51 point groups, subgroups and
supergroups, as well as correlation tables.
In the third chapter (66 pages) some quantum-mechanical
principles are outlined: the subjects are not only the basic
postulates and most important methods of calculation in quantum mechanics, but also details of harmonic and anharmonic
oscillators, quantum mechanics of angular momentum, calculation of the hydrogen atom and the Pauli principle.
The fourth chapter (39 pages) is concerned with the exact,
classical and quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian operator for
vibrating and rotating molecules.
In the fifth chapter (73 pages) the Born-Oppenheimer
approximation is presented for H; and the H z molecules.
Further sections of this chapter deal with the matching experimental data and potential functions, with the quantummechanical virial theorem, and with theoretical approaches
to the calculation of dipole moments and molecular polarizabilities.
The final chapter (81 pages) deals with the interaction of
electromagnetic radiation and matter; semiclassical treatment
of this problem is used to derive the selection rules for rotational and vibrational transitions in absorption spectra. The
chapter concludes with a brief presentation of the theory
of Raman spectroscopy.
Numerous textbooks are cited at the beginning of each
chapter as a guide to further reading. A comprehensive index
635
facilitates the reader’s search for individual problems. The
chapters are well arranged as far as subject matter is concerned,
but the WKB method that is mentioned several times in
Chapter 5 really deserved a short introduction within the
framework ofthe third chapter. A larger number of mathematical examples would enhance the value of the book.
Taken as a whole, this first volume can be regarded as
successful because of its clear, easily readable, and concise
presentation of the subject.
Ruiner Moormann [NB 337 IE]
Kunststoff-Handbuch. Band I, Grundlagen (Plastics Handbook. Vol. 1, Fundamentals). Edited by R. Vieweg and
D. Bruun. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich-Vienna 1975. 1st
Edit., xx, 1342 pp., 942 figs., 113 tables, linen, DM 595.-.
The eleven-volume Plastics Handbook is completed by the
volume on “Fundamentals” that has now appeared“]. Since
the Handbook is intended to provide information on the
possible uses of plastics not only for chemists and physicists
but also for manufacturers, architects, electrical engineers,
etc., this “General” volume on the scientific and industrial
basics of the plastics sector has long been anxiously awaited.
Even though the editors emphasize that it was never their
intention to provide a textbook of macromolecular chemistry
and physics and of plastics technology, it must be recognized
and noted that they have succeeded excellently in setting
out, in clear and readily comprehensible form, the knowledge
of fundamentals essential for the volumes on individual topics.
The basic principles of the chemistry and then the physics
of plastics are treated in well-devised and clear sections, with
much space devoted to measurements and test procedures.
Particular mention may be made of a chapter in which the
properties of plastics are compared with those of other materials. A further section treats the principles of plastics processing, e. g. their forming, joining, separation, and improvement,
including the principles of mold construction and the various
equipment for injection molding, extrusion presses, and
blowers.
Finally, separate chapters deal with the principles of plastics
standardization from a national and an international standpoint, with the economics of plastics and relevant statistics,
and with organizations and research institutes.
Understanding of the specialist volumes will be found easier
and deeper if the reader also consults the corresponding
chapter in the “General” volume. It is a remarkable achievement to have coordinated the contributions of many authors
into a compilation that can be understood even by the nonexpert. For all those interested in a deeper insight the rich
reference list at the end of each chapter provides a sufficient
introduction into the original literature.
With this volume the Plastics Handbook receives its accolade as a complete work, for the good reviews, the instructive
illustrations, and the good subject index simplify its use by
all those interested in plastics. With this work, which has
no equal in the world literature, the editors and the publisher
have done a great service to the plastics sector. Both the
“General” volume and the complete work can be recommended without any reservations as of great use to all who
develop, manufacture, or use plastics.
O n o Horn [NB 339 IE]
Subnuclear Components. Preparation and Fractionation.
Edited by G . D. Birnie. Butterworths, London 1976. 1st
edit., 334 pp., numerous figs. and tables, bound, E 15.00.
Following the successful introduction of “Subcellular Components” the appearance of “Subnuclear Components” pro[*] Cf. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 14, 579 (1975).
636
vides another highly practical book from the same editor.
G . D. Birnie has succeeded, together with a renowned group
of research-experienced collaborators, in selecting and testing
critically a large number of published methods for the isolation
and fractionation of eukaryotic cell nuclei.
The individual sections provide, in clear arrangement, a
wealth of experimental detail about the isolation of cell nuclei,
cell membranes, nucleoli, chromatin, histones, non-histone
proteins, and nuclear RNA and DNA. The advantages and
disadvantages of the methods for special applications and
difficulties arising therein are discussed in detail; criteria are
announced that can be brought in to assess the chemical
and biological quality of the preparations.
Analytical procedures for the characterization of the isolated
structures or molecules naturally take up a large space in
each chapter. Besides the electron-optical techniques and conventional methods such as the determination of enzyme activities or the amino-acid composition of proteins, less known
methods are described, such as isopyknic centrifuging in metrizamide gradients or the isoelectric focussing of non-histone
proteins.
It is made clear, particularly in the chapter on the isolation
of chromatin, that experimental results obtained in the fractionation of the cell nucleus depend largely on the conditions
used during the preparation and must be interpreted accordingly. It is thus very important that the reader obtains not
only an introduction to the choice of methods for his own
research but also indications on how to evaluate published
data.
Anton Schweiger [NB 344 IE]
Vom Wasser, Vol. 46. Issued by the Fachgruppe Wasserchemie
in der Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker. Responsible for
the text: W Husmann. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1976. 296,
A96 pp., bound, DM 88.00.
Reaktionen der organischen Chemie. Ein Beitrag zur Terminologie der organischen Chemie. By H. Kruuch and W Kunz.
5th new revised and enlarged edition by W Kunz and E.
Nonnenmacher. Dr. Alfred Hiithig Verlag, Heidelberg 1976.
xxxi, 875 pp., bound, DM 131.OO.
Lehrprogramm Statistik mit zusatzlichen Beispielen aus den
Naturwissenschaften. By W Schmidt. Vol. 46 of the series
“taschentext”. Verlag Chemie/Physik Verlag, Weinheim
1976. 137 pp., paper, DM 18.80.
Lehrprogramm Atombau und Periodensystem. By Ch. Braig.
Vol. 47 of the series “taschentext”. Verlag Chemie/Physik
Verlag, Weinheim 1976. vi, 146 pp., paper, DM 12.80.
Government Regulations, Pheromone Analysis, Additional Pesticides. By G. Zweig and J . Sherma. Vol. VIII of the series
“Analytical Methods for Pesticides and Plant Growth Regulators”. Edited by G. Zweig. Academic Press, New York
1976. xiii, 509 pp., bound, $ 46.50.
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