Book Review The Theory of Molecular Spectroscopy. Vol. 1. The Quantum Mechanics and Group Theory of Vibrating and Rotating Molecules. By C. J. H. Schutteкод для вставкиСкачать
of unsaturated compounds in the presence of difluorocarbene generators (difluorochloromethane, tetrafluoroethylene) furnishes high yields of fluorinated arenes which disproportionate and isomerize on heating. Homologs of perfluorinated arenes and heterocycles can be obtained by pyrolysis in the presence of difluorocarbene generators. [The Application of Thermolytic Reactions for the Syntheses of Fluoro-Organic Compounds. Synthesis 1-976, 374-384; 88 references] [Rd 884 IE-M] The synthesis of carbocyclic spiro compounds uiu rearrangement routes is reviewed by A . P. Krapcho. Acid-catalyzed reactions include, inter a h , pinacol rearrangements [(I ) + (2)]; examples of thermal rearrangements are provided, inter a h , by the oxiranes [ ( 3 )+ (411 and alkenes. Spiro compounds 0 HOAc can also be obtained by photochemical excitation of cyclic cross-conjugated dienones and other compounds [ ( 5 ) + (6)], as well as by other rearrangement processes such as reductions, solvolyses, and eliminations. [Synthesis of Carbocyclic Spiro Compounds oin Rearrangement Routes. Synthesis 1976,425444; 184 references] [Rd 885 IE-M] The synthesis of tetrathiafulvalenes ( I ) and tetraselenafulvalenes (2) is dealt with in an article by M . Narita and C . U . Pittmarzn, J r . Compounds ( I ) are prepared, inter a h , by deprotonation of 1,3-dithiolylium ions and desulfurization of 2-thioxo-l,3-dithiols with P"' compounds. Compounds (2) are obtained analogously from 2-selenoxo- 1,3-diselenols. ( 1 ) R R 1;X;I" R Ncm NC CN 13) and (2) are of interest, primarily because they react with tetracyanoquinodimethane (3) and other electron acceptors to give charge transfer complexes which behave electrically and optically like unidimensional metals at room temperature. [Preparation of Tetrathiafulvalenes (TTF) and their Selenium Analogs-Tetraselenafulvalenes (TSeF). Synthesis 1976,489514; 91 references] [Rd 886 IE-MI Reactions on single-crystal surfaces forms the subject of a review by G . A . Somorjai. Catalytic and other reactions on solid surfaces can be truly understood only if the elementary steps of surface chemical reactions are known. It has proven useful to combine studies of surface structure and composition with kinetic studies of reaction rate and reaction path. In the studies described, freshly cleaved metal single-crystals were used. Their surface was investigated before and after the reaction. The gas or gas mixture was directed onto the crystal surface in the form of a molecular beam, whose scattering and composition could be monitored. [Reactions on SingleCrystal Surfaces. Acc. Chem. Res. 9,248--256 (1976); 42 references] [Rd 888 IE-L] BOOK REVIEWS The Theory of Molecular Spectroscopy. Vol. 1. The Quantum Mechanics and Group Theory of Vibrating and Rotating Molecules. By C. J . H . Schutte. North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam 1976. 1st edit., 512 pp., numerous figs., bound, Hfl. 170.-/$ 67.95. This work, planned for two volumes, is intended for scientists active in the field of rotational and rotation-vibrational spectroscopy and for interested advanced students. The present first volume is divided into six chapters and an extensive appendix. In the first chapter (41 pages) a short section is provided that gives the mathematical basis essential for understanding subsequent parts of the book. Particular stress is laid on the treatment of linear vector space, on the theory of matrices, and on matrix representation of linear operators. The second chapter (80 pages) contains a fundamental introduction to group theory and its applicability to molecular spectroscopy; two separate specialized sections of this chapter deal with the approaches to group-theoretical treatment of nonrigid molecules and with the prerequisites for application of group theory to the spectra of solids. The chapter is rounded off by three sections of the appendix that contain, inter uliu, the character tables for 51 point groups, subgroups and supergroups, as well as correlation tables. In the third chapter (66 pages) some quantum-mechanical principles are outlined: the subjects are not only the basic postulates and most important methods of calculation in quantum mechanics, but also details of harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, quantum mechanics of angular momentum, calculation of the hydrogen atom and the Pauli principle. The fourth chapter (39 pages) is concerned with the exact, classical and quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian operator for vibrating and rotating molecules. In the fifth chapter (73 pages) the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is presented for H; and the H z molecules. Further sections of this chapter deal with the matching experimental data and potential functions, with the quantummechanical virial theorem, and with theoretical approaches to the calculation of dipole moments and molecular polarizabilities. The final chapter (81 pages) deals with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation and matter; semiclassical treatment of this problem is used to derive the selection rules for rotational and vibrational transitions in absorption spectra. The chapter concludes with a brief presentation of the theory of Raman spectroscopy. Numerous textbooks are cited at the beginning of each chapter as a guide to further reading. A comprehensive index 635 facilitates the reader’s search for individual problems. The chapters are well arranged as far as subject matter is concerned, but the WKB method that is mentioned several times in Chapter 5 really deserved a short introduction within the framework ofthe third chapter. A larger number of mathematical examples would enhance the value of the book. Taken as a whole, this first volume can be regarded as successful because of its clear, easily readable, and concise presentation of the subject. Ruiner Moormann [NB 337 IE] Kunststoff-Handbuch. Band I, Grundlagen (Plastics Handbook. Vol. 1, Fundamentals). Edited by R. Vieweg and D. Bruun. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich-Vienna 1975. 1st Edit., xx, 1342 pp., 942 figs., 113 tables, linen, DM 595.-. The eleven-volume Plastics Handbook is completed by the volume on “Fundamentals” that has now appeared“]. Since the Handbook is intended to provide information on the possible uses of plastics not only for chemists and physicists but also for manufacturers, architects, electrical engineers, etc., this “General” volume on the scientific and industrial basics of the plastics sector has long been anxiously awaited. Even though the editors emphasize that it was never their intention to provide a textbook of macromolecular chemistry and physics and of plastics technology, it must be recognized and noted that they have succeeded excellently in setting out, in clear and readily comprehensible form, the knowledge of fundamentals essential for the volumes on individual topics. The basic principles of the chemistry and then the physics of plastics are treated in well-devised and clear sections, with much space devoted to measurements and test procedures. Particular mention may be made of a chapter in which the properties of plastics are compared with those of other materials. A further section treats the principles of plastics processing, e. g. their forming, joining, separation, and improvement, including the principles of mold construction and the various equipment for injection molding, extrusion presses, and blowers. Finally, separate chapters deal with the principles of plastics standardization from a national and an international standpoint, with the economics of plastics and relevant statistics, and with organizations and research institutes. Understanding of the specialist volumes will be found easier and deeper if the reader also consults the corresponding chapter in the “General” volume. It is a remarkable achievement to have coordinated the contributions of many authors into a compilation that can be understood even by the nonexpert. For all those interested in a deeper insight the rich reference list at the end of each chapter provides a sufficient introduction into the original literature. With this volume the Plastics Handbook receives its accolade as a complete work, for the good reviews, the instructive illustrations, and the good subject index simplify its use by all those interested in plastics. With this work, which has no equal in the world literature, the editors and the publisher have done a great service to the plastics sector. Both the “General” volume and the complete work can be recommended without any reservations as of great use to all who develop, manufacture, or use plastics. O n o Horn [NB 339 IE] Subnuclear Components. Preparation and Fractionation. Edited by G . D. Birnie. Butterworths, London 1976. 1st edit., 334 pp., numerous figs. and tables, bound, E 15.00. Following the successful introduction of “Subcellular Components” the appearance of “Subnuclear Components” pro[*] Cf. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 14, 579 (1975). 636 vides another highly practical book from the same editor. G . D. Birnie has succeeded, together with a renowned group of research-experienced collaborators, in selecting and testing critically a large number of published methods for the isolation and fractionation of eukaryotic cell nuclei. The individual sections provide, in clear arrangement, a wealth of experimental detail about the isolation of cell nuclei, cell membranes, nucleoli, chromatin, histones, non-histone proteins, and nuclear RNA and DNA. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods for special applications and difficulties arising therein are discussed in detail; criteria are announced that can be brought in to assess the chemical and biological quality of the preparations. Analytical procedures for the characterization of the isolated structures or molecules naturally take up a large space in each chapter. Besides the electron-optical techniques and conventional methods such as the determination of enzyme activities or the amino-acid composition of proteins, less known methods are described, such as isopyknic centrifuging in metrizamide gradients or the isoelectric focussing of non-histone proteins. It is made clear, particularly in the chapter on the isolation of chromatin, that experimental results obtained in the fractionation of the cell nucleus depend largely on the conditions used during the preparation and must be interpreted accordingly. It is thus very important that the reader obtains not only an introduction to the choice of methods for his own research but also indications on how to evaluate published data. Anton Schweiger [NB 344 IE] Vom Wasser, Vol. 46. Issued by the Fachgruppe Wasserchemie in der Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker. Responsible for the text: W Husmann. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1976. 296, A96 pp., bound, DM 88.00. Reaktionen der organischen Chemie. Ein Beitrag zur Terminologie der organischen Chemie. By H. Kruuch and W Kunz. 5th new revised and enlarged edition by W Kunz and E. Nonnenmacher. Dr. Alfred Hiithig Verlag, Heidelberg 1976. xxxi, 875 pp., bound, DM 131.OO. Lehrprogramm Statistik mit zusatzlichen Beispielen aus den Naturwissenschaften. By W Schmidt. Vol. 46 of the series “taschentext”. Verlag Chemie/Physik Verlag, Weinheim 1976. 137 pp., paper, DM 18.80. Lehrprogramm Atombau und Periodensystem. By Ch. Braig. Vol. 47 of the series “taschentext”. Verlag Chemie/Physik Verlag, Weinheim 1976. vi, 146 pp., paper, DM 12.80. Government Regulations, Pheromone Analysis, Additional Pesticides. By G. Zweig and J . Sherma. Vol. VIII of the series “Analytical Methods for Pesticides and Plant Growth Regulators”. Edited by G. Zweig. Academic Press, New York 1976. xiii, 509 pp., bound, $ 46.50.