вход по аккаунту


Book Review Thermodynakik deirefersiblen Prozesse (Thermodynamics of Irreverrsible Processes). By R. Haase. Frotschritte derr Physikalischen Chemic (Advance in PhysicalChemistry) Vol. 8. Edited by W. Jost

код для вставкиСкачать
A novel general synthesis of heterocyclic and carbxyclic compounds is described by E. E. Schweirer. Anions formed from
ROH, R2NH, RSH, R3CH, or R2PH add onto triphenylvinylphosphonium bromide ( I ) to form phosphorylides (2)
which in turn attack functional groups. For example, ( I )
reacts with the sodium salt of salicylaldehyde at 110 "C to give
3,4-chromene (3), b.p. 91-93OC/13 mm, in 62 7; yield together with triphenylphosphine oxide; in acetonitrile the yield
rises to 71 %. Acetoin and NaH react in ether with ( I ) when
dimethylformamide is subsequently added to give 2S-dihydro-2,3-dimethylfuran ( 4 ) , b.p. 104OC, in 39
within 48 h at room temperature, together with 49 % triphenylphosphine oxide.
Y is any bivalent aliphatic or aromatic group, X may be 0,
N , or C ; Rl is an aliphatic, aromatic, or electron-attracting
group, or can be omitted (e.g. when X = 0 ) ;R2 is an aliphatic
or aromatic group or hydrogen, and R3 is C6H5. / J. Amer.
chem. SOC.86, 2744 (1964) / -Ma.
[Rd 131/318 IE]
Thermodynamik der irreversiblen Prozesse (Thermodynamics
of Irreversible Processes). By R . House. Fortschritte der
Physikalischen Chemie (Advances in Physical Chemistry)
Vol. 8. Edited by W. Jost. Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag,
Darmstadt 1963. 1st Edit., XI1 + 552 pp., 40 figs., 23 tables,
hard covers DM 90.- (about $22.50), linen D M 95.(about $24.00).
The discussion in this book is limited to the macroscopicphenomenological t h e x y of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; the problems concerned with statistical or
kinetic confirmation of the postulates used are left untouched.
I n the first chapter, a summary is given of thermodynamic
fundamentals, equilibrium criteria, and stability conditions,
and the entropy balance for homogeneous systeins is derived ;
next the linear equations for the connections between generalized currents and forces are introduced, and the OnsagerCasimir reciprocity relationships are postulated. A final section on the transformation of currents and forces completes
the principles of the theory, which is then developed further
in the next chapters.
The second chapter deals with processes in homogeneous
systems (chemical reactions, relaxation phenomena, the speed
of sound in liquid phases), while the third chapter is devoted
to processes occurring in discontinuous heterogeneous
systems (electrokinetic effects, membrane processes, and thermomechanical effects).
I n the fourth chapter, processes in continuous systems are
discussed. During the development of the formulae for the
entropy balance in Part A, the reduced thermal current is
used throughout, and thus the local production of entropy and
the total entropy current remain independmt of the reference
speed in many practically important cases. Part B deals with
isothermal and Part Cwith non-isothermal processes,separate
sections (e. g . on thermodiffusion, concentration cells, centrifugal cells, thermo-cells, electrolylic thermoelements, etc.)
being devoted t o electrolyte solutions. Part D gives a discussion on processes with internal friction, in magnetic fields,
and in anisotropic media. - The fifth chapter gives a discourse
o n stationary states and closes with an outlook towards biological systems.
The book is characterized by the ease with which it can be
read, owing to the combination of scientific exactness with a
broad presentation of topics and to the effort to give each
symbol a characteristic individual meaning by purposeful use
of sub- and superscripts. The frequent comparisons of theory
with experimental results should arouse considerable interest,
for this conveys some impression of the order of magnitude
or importance of the coefficients which crop up.
The unfortunately high price ofthe volume evokes the question
whether scientific monographs should not be regarded as
[NB 3301188 I E ~
being worthy of subvention. M . Becker
Angew. Cliem. internat. Edit.
1 Vol. 4 (1965) 1 No. 3
Die chemische Bindung. Drei Vorlesxngen fur Chemiker (The
Chemical Bond - Three Lectures for Chemists). By H .
Hartmann. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Gottingen-Heidelberg
1964. 2nd Revised edit., vi + 109 pp.. 61 figs., linen D M 9.80
(about $2.50).
I n his three lectures H . Hnrtmcznn develops the theory of the
chemical bond on the basis of the field theory of matter. The
book has been developed from lecture manuscripts and is intended primarily for the use of chemistry students.
In the first lecture, the fundamentals of the fieId theory of the
"cathode substance" (i. e. the electron), the electronic theory
of the atom, and the periodic system of the elements are discussed. The second lecture deals with problems relating t o the
chemical bond. Examples are used to illustrate the hydrogenmolecule ion, directed valences, hybridization of the carbon
atom, and simple and multiple bonds. The third lecture is
confined to the discussion of a few special problems of bonding. The basic principles of the ligand field theory are derived,
starting from a consideration of ion lattices and ion complexes. The bond order in complicated molecules, the theory
of x-electron systems, and finally the energy bands in metal
lattices form the subjects for discussion. The lecture closes
with a brief interpretation of the transition states of chemical
The book does not demand a knowledge of mathematics, but
still does not make easy reading, for not only does it convey
information about the chemical bond, but strives to impart a
complete understanding of the phenomenon. Hence it can
definitely be recommended to every student of chemistry who
is seeking a firmer foundation for his knowledge. In addition,
on account of its original approach and unusual presentation
of ideas, the book will certainly be of interest to all associated
with didactic problems in chemical education.
H. Zimmerrnonn [N B 2691 126 I El
Lehrbuch der anorganischen Chemie (Textbook of Inorganic
Chemistry). By A . F. Holleman and E. Wiberg. Verlag
Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin 1964. 57th-70th Edits.,
xxi + 766 pp., 177 figs., one table, linen D M 32.- (about
$ 8.00).
The popularity of "Holleman-Wiberg" has been maintained
for decades by its readers and is shown in the rapid sequence
of new editions. This is due principally to the success
with which the authors have constantly revised and modernized their textbook. Here only the most important of the
numerous additions and improvements included in this printing (which corresponds to a total of 14 editions) can be recorded.
The chapter on the chemical bond has been significantly extended and modernized. The wave-mechanical concepts of s-,
Без категории
Размер файла
140 Кб
physicalchemistry, prozess, thermodynakik, irreverrsible, deirefersiblen, haas, frotschritte, physikalischen, derry, thermodynamics, advanced, book, chemic, edited, processes, jost, vol, review
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа