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Book Review Transport Phenomena. By W. J. Beek and K. M. K. Muttzall

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NMR and the periodic system is the theme of a review by
R. K . Harris. The author does not deal with ‘H-, “B-, I3C-,
I9F-, and 3LP-NMR spectroscopy, but with the possibility
of using more unusual nuclei in NMR studies. Suitable nuclei
are those (like ‘H, I9F, and 31P) which have spin quantum
number I = ‘I2,which occur in ca. 100 % natural purity, and
which have a relatively high magnetic moment. Apart from
the above mentioned nuclei only 89Y, Io3Rh, and ‘69Tm
can fulfill these three conditions. But if nuclei with I >
or natural purity < 100 % are also considered, there is at
least one nucleus that comes into question in each group
of the periodic system. [NMR and the Periodic Table. Chem.
SOC.Rev. 5, 1-22 (1976); 81 references]
[Rd 854 IE-F]
Selective reductions with complex hydrides are discussed by
E. R. H . Walker. NaBH4 and LiAIH, are universal reducing
agents, but their selectivity leaves much to be desired. The
author illustrates how the properties of the two reagents alter
on changing the solvent, the cation, or replacing some of
the hydrogen atoms. For example, LiBH4 can reduce esters
and is thus a stronger reducing agent than NaBH,. The derivative LiBEt3H (“superhydride”) (1 ) is an extremely nucleophilic
compound which rapidly reduces alkyl halides, but not aryl
halides. Compound (2), M = Li or K, permits selective reductions. Alkoxy-substituted LiAlH,, e.g. lithium tris(tert-butoxy)hydridoaluminate is a mild reducing agent which selectively
reduces acid chlorides to aldehydes. “RED-AL” (3) has practically the same reducing action as LiAIH,, but cannot be
handled safely and conveniently. [The Functional Group
Selectivity of Complex Hydride Reducing Agents. Chem. SOC.
Rev. 5, 23-50 (1976); 64 references]
[Rd 855 IE-F]
Advances in thin-layer chromatography, particularly in direct
combination with thermal procedures, are reviewed in an
article by E . Stahl. Since the preparation of the sample is
often more time-consuming than the actual analysis attempts
have been made to develop “on-line” methods. In the simplest
case a metal block with a hole bored in it to hold sample
and container is used. The metal block is either preheated
or heated according to a temperature program; if necessary,
volatile components are fed onto a moving DC plate.
[Advances in the Field of Thermal Procedures in Direct Combination with Thin-Layer Chromatography. Acc. Chem. Res.
9, 75-80 (1976); 42 references]
[Rd 857 IE-L]
Statistische Versuchsplanung (Statistical Planning of Experiments). By G. Retzlafi G . Rust, and J . Waibel. Verlag Chemie,
GmbH, Weinheim 1975. 1st Edit., ix, 211 pp., 52 figs., 52
tables, bound D M 58.-.
The aim of every experimenter is to make his object capable
of visualization by physical concepts and if possible quantifiable by physical models. If, however, at the beginning of
the investigation there is no physical representation, if the
problem becomes very complex because of the many interfering
factors and in addition the measurements are subject to considerable errors, or if a certain goal must be reached rapidly
and without taking such considerations into account, then
statistical planning of the experiment may be useful. The
literature on this subject has so far suffered the disadvantage
that it is written either in English or in a mathematical abstract
form that is difficult for the chemist. The strength of the
present book is that, right at the beginning, in about 40
pages, the technique of factorial experiment planning is
explained in easily understandable form. Anyone who then
has no wish to probe further will still know enough to be
able, if necessary, to call in an expert. It is not quite clear
why the authors failed to include the process of the steepest
gradient (Box-Wilson method) and a suitable example. In
the following two chapters the basic statistics (Chapter 3)
are treated so far as is necessary for consideration of the
error in factorial experiment planning (Chapter 4). Anyone
with experience of the halfnormal plot will probably regret
that this method is mentioned only in a footnote.
Not all the subsequent chapters will interest the experimental chemist to the same extent. Reference should, however,
be made to the chapter on regression calculation (Chapter
7) and the simplex method (in Chapter 9). Summarizing, it
can be said that this book can be thoroughly recommended
Angew. Chem. I n t . Ed. Engl.
1 Vol. 15 ( 1 9 7 6 ) N o . 6
to anyone who has to d o with the planning and evaluation
of experiments.
Otto Worz [NB 309 IE]
Transport Phenomena. By W J . Beek and K . M . K . Muttzall.
John Wiley & Sons. Ltd., London-New York 1975. 1st
edit., x, 298 pp., numerous figs. and tables, bound, E 9.85.
This book is based on a series of lectures. In four chapters
it covers the fundamental laws of the transport of momentum,
heat, and mass and demonstrates their importance by
numerous important examples from process technology.
Following the formulation of the conservation laws in
Chapter 1, the principles of flow theory and dimensional
analysis are discussed in Chapter 2, and these are then used
to work through a large number of important problems (e.g.
the pressure loss in pipelines of various geometrical shapes,
flow measurement, flow through solid beds, fluidized beds,
and residence-time distribution). Chapter 3 begins with a discussion of stationary and nonstationary heat conduction, the
treatment including questions of heat transfer and heat
transmission as well as various types of heat exchangers and
problems of heat transfer during boiling and condensation.
In the last chapter the laws of material transport are discussed, covering not merely stationary and nonstationary diffusion but also continuous material exchange in two-phase flows
and the influence of diffusion on conversion in homogeneous
and heterogeneous reactions.
The book is impressive in the wealth of material offered,
this being skilfully assembled so that, in conjunction with
exercises tied to the text, it demands the reader’s active participation. Since working through the text does not require sophisticated mathematical knowledge, the book can be highly
recommended as a course book alongside lectures on the
fundamentals of industrial processes. The many examples that
keen Flose to Drgctice. treated bv peans of n u m e r o ~ s . t a b k . .
ana aidgrams, ais6 proviae Srim’uiaiidnana n’eipto’me’pracris’-’
ing professional.
Diethard Hesse [NB 314 IE]
Einfuhrung in die Theoretische Chemie. Band 1: Quantenmechanische Grundlagen. (Introduction to Theoretical
Chemistry. Vol. 1 : Quantum-Mechanical Principles.) By
W Kutzelnigg. Verlag Chemie, GmbH, Weinheim 1975.
1st edit., xxiii, 297 pp., 23 figs., 9 tables, cloth, D M 68.-.
It is general experience that familiarization with the principles of quantum mechanics proves particularly difficult for
the chemist. Very closely connected with this is the usually
uncritical, positive or negative, attitude adopted towards the
numerical results of quantum-mechanical investigations,
which are published today in such large numbers. In this
book the author tries to play a mediating role; building on
the smallest possible number of mathematical assumptions,
he acquaints the reader progressively with the basic formalism
and the most important methods and results of quantum
mechanics. The approach has indeed been highly successful.
Mathematical formulations going beyond the basic facts of
differential and integral calculus, with which almost every
student of chemistry is nowadays familiar, are given in the
Appendix. A very commendable feature is that the author
has made it a definite policy not to try to dodge difficulties.
Knowledge that the reader does not already possess must
be acquired during the study of each successive chapter.
Accordingly, for those with little previous knowledge the book
will undoubtedly be rather difficult reading.
Some may regard the author’s concept of the extent of theoretical chemistry as rather too narrow. According to the list
of contents, the second volume will provide a review of the
theory of the chemical bond, the various methods of quantum
chemistry, and the results of numerical calculations. The present volume is already directed to this end. The author quite
consciously left aside anything that was not immediately relevant to his purpose. Time-dependent phenomena such as scat-
tering processes and molecular collisions theory, tunneling
Dhenomena. and theoretical attemDtg to describe chemical
pimesses; as w eii-2s -conuirfitns--mme’~energycontihum ana ’
relativistic effects are not considered. The numerically evaluable approximation methods for the solution of the
Schrodinger equation are naturally treated in great detail.
After a brief section on the basic principles of classical
mechanics essential for a description of atoms and molecules,
the postulates of quantum mechanics are presented and some
simple examples of exactly soluble Schrodinger equations are
discussed. Here it should be emphasized that the author is
always at pains to find the didactically most favorable formulation. For example, the eigenstates of a harmonic oscillator
are derived with the aid of creation and annihilation operators,
whereas in other cases conventional methods are preferred
for the solution of differential equations. Several sections are
devoted to angular momentum operators and their properties
and to the hydrogen atom. Two further chapters treat the
most important approximation methods of quantum
mechanics, variational calculus and perturbation theory. The
remaining six sections present a comprehensive theory of
atoms that, starting from elementary models, leads up to,
problems of spin-orbit coupling and electron correlation
Summarizing, this book can be described as an introduction,
designed for chemists and eminently successful, to the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. Put together with great skill,
the presentation moves in general along the conventional
lines of textbooks in this field. It must be specially emphasized
that the author really has succeeded in building on a very
modest mathematical foundation, gradually leading the reader
up to more difficult formalism. Account is taken of the latest
developments in quantum chemistry by devoting great attention to the concepts needed for a deeper understanding of
numerical methods of calculation. The book can be warmly
recommended both to advanced students of chemistry and
to trained chemists who wish to learn the fundamental facts
of quantum mechanics and their applications in chemistry.
Peter Schuster
[NB 317 IE]
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Angew. Chem. Int.
Ed. Engl.
Vol. I S (1976) No. 6
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phenomena, book, beeko, transport, review, muttzall
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