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Book Review Treatise of Analytical Chemistry. Edited by I. M. Kolthoff and Ph. J. Elving

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In the fourth volume of the series “Fluorine Chemistry” [*I,
H. C . Hodge and F. A . Smith deal exclusively with the biological properties of inorganic fluorides (Chapter 1 , 3 6 3 pp.) and
effects of fluorides o n bones and teeth (Chapter 2, 306 pp.).
The acute and chronic toxic properties of fluorine towards
man and animals, the biological properties (reactions with
enzymes), and the metabolism rJf inorganic fluoride are
described in the first chapttr. Doses and effects of fluorides
are summarized in 58 tables.
The second chapter describes the role of fluorine in the
human and aniinal orpanism, and placer special emphasis on
the problem of the Iffevention of tooth decay.
Twenty tables deal with the fluoride content of bones and
teeth the elimination of fluoride, histological changes in
bones and teeth, and clinical investigations with inorganic
The book is richly illustrated with diagrams, and
contains 84 pages with 3780 references. The fourth volume of
“Fluorine Chemistry” should be particularly important as a
reference work.
H . Muchleidr
[NB 509 IE]
Computer Programming for Chemists. By K . B. Wiberg.
Frontiers in Chemistry. W. A. Beniamin, Inc.. New YorkAmsterdam 1965. 1st ed., viii, 269 pp., 13 tables, bound
The development of the program languages FORTRAN
(FORmula TRANslation) and ALGOL (ALGOrithmic
Language) has greatly simplified the programming of
electronic computers. These program languages permit the
formulation of a problem without reference to the type of
computer to be used. This presupposes, naturally, that the
computer in question is equipped with a FORTRAN or
ALGOL translation program.
This book is an introduction to programming in FORTRAN.
One chapter also deals with the symbolic internal program
language FAP (Fortran Assembly Program). An introduction to the input and output of data is followed by an explanation of arithmetical expressions, functions, and subprograms. The various “statements” are mostly illustrated by
examples, so that their general significance at first remains
rather in the background; however The most important
statements are again summarized in a special chapter and
their operation explained. Nearly every chapter contains
exercises for practice, the solutions of which are given in the
appendix. Many prograrnsaome of them very comprehensive,
from the fields of kinetics, N M R spfctroscopy, and quantum
chemistry are given in a special chapter These add greatly to
the value of the book, since, as photoreproductions of tested
programs they are free from errors and offer the reader the
opportunity to analyse and understand the programs of
others. The author sees this as “the best method of becoming
familiar with computer programming”, and the reviewer
must agree with this view. In order to understand definitions
of FORTRAN statements and FAP instructions that lie
beyond the scope of the book, many readers will still refer
to the existing literature, but K . B. Wiberg’s book will prove
a great help to both the beginner and the initiate in the
construction of serviceable programs.
G. Ege
[NB 527 IE]
Melting and Crystal Structure. By A . R . Ubbelohde Clarendon
P r e s Oxford 1965. 1st ed., xi, 320 pp., several illustrations
and tables, paper E3.3.0.
Despite many experimental and theoretical studies on the
liquid and crystalline states of matter, the process of melting
still presents a host of problems in connection with both the
equilibrium and the kinetics of the process. For this reason
[*I Cf. Angew. Chem. 77, 599 (1965); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 4, 613 (1965).
even the specialist will welcome the publication of Ubbelohde’s
book, which contains an excellent discussion of melting
from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and of atomic
Starting with the phenomenological observations on melting,
with special reference to modern findings on behavior under
high pressures, a short description of the more traditional
ideas of Lindemann and others is followed by a systematic
discussion of the influence of special structural properties and
of cooperative phenomena up to the Lennard-Jones and
Devonshire theory of melting for simple crystals, and its
modification for the superposition of several melting mechanisms in more complicated cases. Individual chapters deal
with pure crystal lattice transitions (which are related to
melting) and the melting of glasses, liqyrd crystals, and polymeric materials; premelting and precrystallization in the
liquid phase and the rates of melting and of nucleation are
discussed in detail. Tnese di5cussions are based o n extensive
experimental material, which is presented to the reader in
the form of numerous tables showing the influence of the
various parameters.
A book on a subject that is very much a center of interest is
naturally stamped with the autnor’s personal views, so that
one or other idea or special theory receives little or n o
attention (this is true e.g. of the Kirkwood-Monroe theory) ;
in every case, however, the reader finds a detailed discussion
of fundamentally similar ideas, the author probably having
given preference to points that demand less theoretical
knowledge on the part of the reader, and this should gain the
book a wide circle of users.
K. Sch$fer
[NB 529 IE]
Nonexistent Compounds - Compounds of Low Stability. By
W.E.Dasent. Marcel Dekker. Inc.. New York1965.lst ed.,
ix, 192 pp., several illustrations, bound, S 8.50.
At a time when new types of compounds whose existence
formerly was deemed impossible are being discovered with
ever-increasing frequency, the title “Nonexistent Compounds’’ is as attractive as it is daring. For good reason the
author himself adds the neutralizing subtitle “Comqxmds
of Low Stability”.
There is scarcely a preparative chemist who has not had the
experience of finding that one or other of the compounds he
wishes to prepare is unobtainable in spite of all his efforts.
Moreover, lecturers at universities are only too familiar
with the penetrating questions of students regarding the
“gaps” in the otherwise rigid taxonomy of chemistry. For
these reasons Dasent’s book, which was preceded a few
years earlier by an article by the same author [Journal of
Chemical Education 40, 130 !963)], can wpect a good
However, this small volume can, of necessity, only partly
satisfy o m expedations, although the author discusses a
number of interesting examples in such a way that similar
problems can also be worked out on this basis. A list of
407 references is particularly valuable in this respect. In view
of the examples chosen, this book may be recommended in
particular to the inorganic chemist.
H. Schmidbaur [NB 516 IE]
Treatise on Analytical Chemistry. Edited by I. M . Kolthoff
and Ph. J. Elving. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.. London 1965.
Part I, Vol. 6: Theory and Practice. xxiii, 899 pp., several
i Ilustrations, bound G8.15 .O.
Part 11. Analytical Chemistry of Inorganic and Organic
Compounds. Vol. 11: 573 pp., several illustrations, bound
E7.10.0. Vol. 12: xvi, 383 pp., several illustrations, bound
The importance of the entire work to any analytical laboratory has already been stressed [I], though certain reservations
should be mentioned concerning the over-emphasis of the
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Vol. 5 (1966) 1 No. I 1
theoretical principles and the rather minor place given to the
combination of several methods in tackling analytical problems. The various sections in Part I are arranged according
to methods and Part I1 according to elements, and all sections
were written by specialists.
Chemistry of the Rare-Earth Elements. By N . E. Topp.
Monograph Series: Topics in Inorganic and General
Chemistry. Edited by P. L. Robinson. Elsevier Publishing
Company, Amsterdam-London-New York 1965. 1st edit.,
xi + 164 pp., bound. Dutch fl. 27.50 ($7.50).
The sixth volume of Part I continues the discussion of
optical methods in analysis; it contains a section o n emission
spectrography by B. F. Scrihner and M . Mnrgoshes and a
section on flame photometry by B. L. Vczllee and R. E.Thiers.
Both sections present good surveys; the section on emission
spectrography dces not stress sufficiently the importance of
this method for the automated analysis of metals. In the
chapter on flame photometry, the reader searches in vain for
the more recent developments, particularly atomic absorption
and the possibilities of the flame fluorescence technique.
Indications towards the end of the section, as well as the list
of references, suggest that tQis section, like several others,
does not correspond to the latest stage of development.
The author reports the chemistry of the rare earths in an
easily intelligible manner. Twelve chapters introduce the occurrence, treatment, and use of the rare earths. Various
chapters describe in detail the history of their discovery,
their most important minerals, and methods of processing.
Methods of separation, e.g. by ion exchange and countercurrent extraction, are also treated. Analysis, preparation of
rare-earth metals, and the most important technical uses are
reported. The book includes the preparation of pyrophoric
alloys (“flints”). manufactureof east iron by means of nodular
iron, purification of high-melting metals, use of compounds of the rare-eaqh qerals as polishing materials, inclusion of rare earths inultraviolet- absorbing glass, coloration
of glass. and preparation of glas2 with 2 high refractive index.
In addition, the use of cerium fluoride to increase the light
yield from carbon arcs and of sulfides for preparation of
materials stable at high temperatures is reported briefly. The
isotopes of the rare earths, with their physical properties, are
tabulated in an appendix.
E. Ruf
[NB 501 IE]
A . L. Smith contributes more than 200 pages on infrared
spectroscopy. A closer reference to practice would have been
preferable in many places, and in particular a list of the
characteristic bands of inorganic and organic compounds
might have been included. The next section, in which E. J .
Rosenbnum deals with Raman spectroscopy, can only be
described as poor. Though the importance of Raman
spectroscopy as a molecular-spectroscopic method is smaller
than that of infrared spectroscopy, advances in both apparatus and methods have been made in recent years which
might have been mentioned in this section. Considerably
more detailed, the next two sections by J. H. Reisner and
G. W . Leddicotte deal with electron diffraction and scattering
and with neutron absorption and scattering. The section on
neutron scattering scarcely mentions the possibilities of this
method in the structural analysts of organic compounds.
S. 2. Lewin and W . S. Struck then discuss the measurement
of refraction, and E. C . Olson describes the measurement of
optical rotation. Both of these are good surveys. The use of
circular dichroism for the structural analysis of organic
compounds receives too little attention. The literature (and
hence also recent flndings) is evidently covered up to 1959
at latest The last two sections of the book are both good
reviews: dealing with optical [W. C. McCrone and L. B.
McCrone) and electron microscopy (G. G. Cocks).
The first ten volumes of Part I1 of Kolthoff-Elving are systematically arranged according to chemical elements, and deal
mainly with the analysis of inorganic compounds. Volume 11
begins Section B of the second part, which deals with organic
analysis. The present two volumes give a well-rounded
impression, and in addition to an introduction on nomenclature ( L . T . Capelf and K. L. Leoning), the stability of
organic compounds ( H . Eyring and F. W . Cngle),and reaction
kinetics (C. S . Hnmmond), they deal with the elementary
analysis of organic compounds. The description of the
methods for the determination of carbon and hydrogen
(G. Ingrnm and M. Lonsdnle) and of nitrogen and phosphorus (G. M . Gusrin, C . L . Ogg, and E. Q. Laws) in Vol. 1 1
is preceded by general considerations on this field by E. W. D.
Huffmnn and a review of ultramicro methods by M . Williams. Vol. 12 deals with the determination of oxygen ( A .
Steyermark), sulfur ( J . F. Alicino, A . I . Cohen, and M . E.
Everhcird), fluorine ( T . S . Mu), boron ( R . D . Strahm), and
silicon ( H . J . Homer). T.T. Gorsirch concludes this volume
with a review of the methods for the determination of
metallic elements in organic compounds. A special section
in Vol. 11 finally deals with biological and biochemical
methods of analysis.
Apart from the reservations mentioned above, the three
volumes are worthy successors, both in content and in
presentation, to those published earlier.
[NB 536 IE]
H . Kienitz
[ l ] Angew. Chem. 77, 927 (1965): Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
4 , 381 (1965).
Angew. Chem. internnt. Edit.
Vol. 5 (1966)
No. I 1
Diels-Alder Reactions. Organic Background, Physico-chemical
Aspects. By A. Wassermann. Elsevier Publishing Company,
Amsterdam-London-New York 1965. 1st ed., viii, 114 pp.,
numerous illustrations and tables, paper, Dutch fl. 15.00.
The author, himself a pioneer in this field, presents a concise
monograph o n Diels-Alder reactions, which is intended
mainly for the chemist interested in the relationships between
structure and mechanism.
A twenty-page section o n preparative aspects of the reaction
is followed by 15 pages on its stereochemistry, 9 pages on
equilibrium phenomena, 26 pages on kinetic results, and a
25-page discussion of the mechanism. In view of the importance of Diels-Alder additions and the current interest in
their mechanism, a much more comprehensive treatment of
this subject would have been desirable.
The important aspects of cycloadditions with formation of
six-membered rings are presented systematically, but often
briefly and without detajled discussion; many readers will
probably find it necessary to refar to the original literature.
Useful data arE presented in tabulated form in chapters 2 to 5.
The references are mainly confined to the years up to 1962,
and onty a f e d references bring us Up to 1963/1964; consequently, a nurhber of results are out of date or should be
supplemented (e.g. reactions of benzene, hexamethylradialene, Woodward-Hofmann rule). The book does not
contain an alphabetic author index. The print and most of
the formulae are clear, with only very few confusing printer’s
J. S u e r
[NB 507 IE]
Atmospheric Oxidation and Antioxidants. By G. Scott. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam-London-New York
1965. x, 528 pp., numerous illustrations, bound, Dutch
fl. 72.50.
In recent years, autoxidative processes and their inhibition
have been the subject of growing practical interest, particularly in connection with the development of petroleum,
rubber, and plastics technology. The author presents an
interim report on this fast-growing subject, ranging from the
general reaction mechanisms of the autoxidation of organic
compounds and the action of antioxidants, through the
measuring techniques employed, to the description of
special autoxidation reactions in industrial materials and
their prevention by stabilizing additives.
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