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Book Review Two Books on Capillary Electrophoresis. Capillary Electrophoresis of Small Molecules and Ions. By P. Jandik and G. Bonn

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BOOKS
To Help You Help Yourself
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Chemistry. 2nd edition. Edited by S. P.
Parker. McGraw-Hill, New York,
1993. 1236 pp., hardcover $ 95.50.ISBN 0-07-045455-8
This alternate selection of the Library
of Science is one of five new editions of
McGraw-Hill technical encyclopedias.
the others dealing
with astronomy, engineering, environmental science and
engineering,
and
physics. Much of
the material has
been taken from the
20-volume 7th edition o f the McGraM’-Hill Encyclopedia of
S c i e n c ~mu‘
~ Technology (1992) (see G. B.
Kauffman, Angew. Chem. 1993,105,1154;
Angcw. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1993, 32,
1217). with additional articles prepared especially for the volume. Written to be accessible to nonspecialists, the hundreds of
signed articles, replete with bibliographies
for further reading, are the contributions of
407 distinguished authorities from around
the world. including several Nobel laureates. In addition to comprehensive coverage of analytical, inorganic, organic, and
physical chemistry, the book also deals
with the related disciplines of biochemistry, physics, molecular biology, and materials science.
Each article begins with a definition and
presents a concise but complete explanation of the topic. The material has been
extensively revised, cross-referenced, and
updated to reflect the latest developments
such as fullerenes, light-scattering photometry, reactive intermediates, and ultra-
This section contains book reviews and a list of
new books received by theeditor. Book reviews are
written by invitation from the editor. Suggestions
for books to be reviewed and for book reviewers
are welcome. Publishers should send brochures or
(better) books to Dr. Ralf Baumann. Redaktion
Angewandte Chemie, Postfach 1011 61, D-69451
Weinhelm. Federal Republic of Germany. The editor reserves the right of selecting which books will
be reviewed. Uninvited books not chosen for review will not be returned.
A n g m . C h n . lnr. Ed. Engi. 1994, 33, N o . 13
fast molecular processes (although cold fusion and superconductivity are neglected).
The book is well-designed with an outstanding visual layout (wide margins, easyto-read type, and bold headings), and the
text is amplified and supplemented with
hundreds of structural formulas, equations, graphs, tables, drawings, and photographs to clarify the presentation. A 36page index (4 columns per page) facilitates
the retrieval of information. Although
most articles are authoritative and accurate, the entry on cobalt incorrectly states
that the ammines of cobalt were discovered in 1894 by Werner, and the entry on
coordination complexes does not employ
the 1990 IUPAC inorganic nomenclature
for formulas and names.
This attractive, moderately priced, userfriendly encyclopedia will be invaluable to
chemists, chemical educators, students,
librarians, science writers, and anyone
seeking basic. clear, up-to-date information about the central science.
George 3. Kauffman
California State University
Fresno, C A (USA)
Two Books on Capillary Electrophoresis
Capillary Electrophoresis of Small
Molecules and Ions. By P. Jundik
and G. Bonn. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/VCH Publishers,
New York, 1993.298 pp., hardcover
DM 108.00/$65.00.--ISBN 3-52789533-711- 5 6081- 5 33-7
As the title indicates, this book concentrates on one particular area of application
of capillary electrophoresis (CE), namely
the analysis of small molecules and ions.
The more familiar fields of application of
CE, such as the analysis of biomolecules
(DNA, proteins, polysaccharides, etc.),
are treated only marginally. Of the nearly
300 pages, 210 are devoted to the principles of CE and the instrumental aspects
and 70 to applications.
The book begins with a short introduction outlining the history of the development of the method. The second chapter,
@> VCH Kdug.sgeselischa/jr m h H , 0.69451 Wanhrim.IY94
“Fundamentals of Capillary Electrophoresis” (about 60 pp.), explains the most important variables in the CE method and
gives a simple and easily understandable
account of the theory illustrated by many
clear diagrams. The separation techniques
are only outlined briefly here, so that one
gets no more than an indication of the
complexity. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography is only described very briefly,
even though it is the most commonly used
method for the separation of small molecules and ions. There is a very lucid account of band broadening effects caused
by Joule heating and electrodispersion. In
Chapter 3, “Instrumentation for Capillary Electrophoresis”, the authors give a
comprehensive description of the various
components of a CE system. They also
devote about a hundred pages to commonly encountered problem areas in CE,
such as detection methods, the improvement of sensitivity. sample injection techniques, and reproducibility. The section
on the handling of capillary columns is
very useful, especially for beginners in CE.
Coupling techniques are also described,
and altogether this is a very useful review
of modern CE technology. The last two
chapters of this excellent book describe
many practical examples under the titles
“Selected Applications of Counterelectroosmotic Capillary Electrophoresis” and
“Application Examples o f Coelectroosmotic Capillary Electrophoresis”. The
concepts “coelectroosmotic” and “counterelectroosmotic” introduced here are a
useful aid to understanding the migration
processes occurring in the capillary
column. These chapters explain a large
variety of separation procedures, and describe not only direct detection methods
but also the indirect UV detection method
and methods based on the derivatization
of samples.
One of the authors previously worked
for a manufacturer of CE instruments,
and has consequently been able to include
many specialized illustrations in this book,
which are a particular feature of the detailed description of indirect UV detection.
Despite some minor weaknesses this
book can be strongly recommended for
newcomers to CE. Readers experienced in
BOOKS
the field should also find something of interest here, since this excellent survey of
CE techniques reflects the current state of
the art.
Practical Capillary Electrophoresis.
By R. Weinberger. Academic Press,
New York, 1993. 312 pp., hardcover
$ 53.00.-ISBN 0-12-742355-9
This book of about 300 pages provides
a more broadly based survey of the commonly used separation mechanisms in
capillary electrophoresis than does the
one reviewed above. It covers the instrumental and theoretical aspects, and also
applications, which are in this case integrated into the descriptions of the various
separation techniques. Rather than going
into great detail, the author has set out to
give the reader a general overview of the
range of potential applications of CE. The
basic chemistry underlying the separation
procedures is described, and possible
sources of error are discussed.
The twelve chapters cover the various
separation techniques, such as capillary
zone electrophoresis (CZE), capillary gel
electrophoresis (CGE) , capillary isoelectric focussing (CIEF), micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), and
capillary electrochromatography (CEC).
as well as sample injection, detection, and
basic principles. One chapter summarizes
all the separation techniques discussed, so
as to help readers who wish to develop
their own particular methods. Further
help is available from the many clearly set
out tables, which enable one to quickly
review the possibilities. References to the
original publications are provided so that
one can go into specific points in greater
depth if necessary. Another chapter includes a discussion of likely future developments in CE. Because of its textbook
style this volume can be thoroughly recommended for beginners in the field.
Those already experienced in the use of
CE are unlikely to find much in the book
that is new to them.
Thomas Schmitt, Heinz Engelhardt
Fachrichtung Angewandte Physikalische
Chemie
der Universitiit des Saarlandes
Saarbriicken (FRG)
Analysis with Supercritical Fluids:
Extraction and Chromatography.
Edited by B. Wencluwiuk. Springer,
Berlin, 1992. XIV, 213 pp., hardcover
DM
148.00-ISBN 3-540-5542031
0-387-55 420-3
There is currently a great interest in the
use of supercritical fluids in chromatography, either as a mobile phase (supercritical fluid chromatography, SFC) or as a
solvent (supercritical fluid extraction,
SFE). Ten years ago. with the introduction of “capillary” (more precisely, opentubular) column SFC, it was commonly
predicted that it would replace many of
the applications of gas chromatography
(GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Although this did
not occur, SFC has now established itself
as a viable variant of chromatography.
On the other hand, SFE, the younger
brother of SFC in analytical chemistry
(though long familiar as an industrial process) rapidly established itself as a very
important sample preparation technique.
In the case of a rapidly growing field, it
is very important to have at intervals
good, up-to-date compilations from
which one can learn about the newest developments and their relationship to the
fundamentals of the technique. Obviously, this was the purpose of this multi-authored book.
The book consists of eleven chapters.
After a brief (8 pp.) “Introduction for
Novices” on SFC and SFE by the editor,
G . M. Schneider discusses in detail the
physicochemical principles of supercritical fluid separation processes (23 pp.).
This is followed by a chapter on the basic
principles of analytical SFE by J. W. King
and J. E. France (29 pp.). In the following
chapters S. B. Hawthorne deals with the
combination of SFE and G C (13 pp.), E.
Klesper and F. P. Schmitz with gradients
in SFC (26pp.), and T. Greibrokk with
sample introduction techniques in SFC
(16 pp.). (I d o not like the restriction to
“injection techniques” implied by the title
of the latter chapter). The next chapter by
C. F. Poole and his associates discusses in
detail the stationary phases used in
packed-column SFC (18 pp.). This is followed by a chapter by M. Schleimer and
V. Schurig on enantiomer separation by
capillary SFC (17pp.). The next two
chapters deal with the combinations of
SFC with mass spectrometry (J. D.
Pinkston, 27 pp.) and FT-IR (L. T. Taylor
and E. M. Calvey, 12 pp.). In the last
chapter M. L. Lee and his associates discuss supersonic jet spectroscopy (SJS)
with supercritical fluids (13 pp.). At the
end of the book some basic references on
SFEjSFC are given, followed by a threepage appendix listing “recommended literature” from 1992.
In my opinion the book has two major
shortcomings. The first is that three chapters which should have been included are
missing. (a) A chapter should have described the system of a supercritical fluid
chromatograph, including pumps and detectors (FID and UV). the selection of analytical conditions including the mobile
phase, and the instrumentation of SFE.
(b) The book has a chapter devoted to the
packed columns used in SFC. However, it
is almost inconceivable that it does not
also have a chapter on the open-tubular
columns used in SFC. After all, as correctly pointed out by the editor in the preface,
modern SFC could not exist without
them. This can actually be seen from the
illustrations in the book : practically every
chromatogram (except those included in
the packed-column chapter) was obtained
on open-tubular columns (which are not
discussed). How could the most important component of a modern SFC system
be neglected? (c) The book deals with
SFC and SFE, and includes discussions
on the combination of a number of techniques (“hyphenated systems”) such as
SFE-GC. SFC-MS, SFC-FT/IR or
SFC-SJS. However, the most obvious
combination is missing, namely the coupling of SFE with SFC.
The second shortcoming concerns the
up-to-dateness of the discussions. The editor’s preface is dated August 1992 and in
it he mentions that the articles were “collected over a period of one year”. which
would mean that the individual contributions should cover the field up to the first
part of 1991. However, this is not the case.
The chapter by Schleimer and Schurig is
an exception, but in the ten other chapters
one can find no references from 19911992 and only a very few from 1990; out
of a total of 453 references only 14
(3.1 Y O !are
) from 1990. By contrast, in the
chapter by Schleimer and Schurig 51 .I %
of the references (24 out of 47) are from
1990-1992. This is not a coincidence: it
clearly indicates that all the other chapters
were written in the period 1989- 1990. Evidently the editor was aware of this discrepancy and added a supplement containing “recommended literature” from
1992, consisting of 53 citations. This is
laudable, but it still omits results reported
in 1990 and 1991.
I have a few minor criticisms. For example, I disagree with the use of the term
“capillary columns” instead of “opentubular columns”; after all, the smalldiameter packed columns may also be
described as “capillaries”. In the figure
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