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Book Review Ullmanns Encyclopdie der technischen Chemie (Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Technical Chemistry). Chief editor W. Foerst. Editor Hertha Buchholz-Meisenheimer

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BOOK REVIEWS
Electrochemical Processes in Fuel Cells. By M . W. Breiter.
Vol. IX of the series “Anorganische und Allgemeine Chernie in Einzeldarstellungen”. Springer-Verlag, Berlin;&
delberg-New York 1969. 1st Edit., xi, 247p p., 98 figures,
bound D M 48.--.
The present monograph deals exclusively with electrode
processes in fuel cells; technological aspects are not discussed.
The material is presented concisely, and is more like a series
of reviews than a textbook. The contents are therefore rather
heavy, and not always easy for the non-expert to understand.
For example, pages 39 to 59 of Levich’s book[Jl have been
condensed to only three pages. The problems o n which the
author has worked are discussed rather more fully. The
depth in which the various questions are dealt with appears
arbitrary. Thus the oxidation of ammonia is not even mentioned, and the reactions of hydrazine are touched on only
briefly. The classification of fuel cells @.3) includes a group b
“organic electrolytes”. This evidently refers to the biochemical fuel cells. However, these are not discussed further by the
author.
After introductory chapters (definitions, thermodynamics,
mass transfer, and electrode kinetics, 47 pp.), the adsorption of hydrogen o n platinum metals and their alloys is discussed (37 pp.). This is followed by a very brief discussion of
the anodic oxidation of hydrogen (1 1 pp.). Some results from
investigations on oxygen surface films are described for
platinum, nickel, silver, and carbon. The adsorption of
hydrocarbons and the mode of action of the oxygen electrode
in aqueous electrolytes and carbonate melts are dealt with in
considerable length.
In Chapter X, o n the anodic oxidation of fuels, the emphasis
is placed o n the study of methanol and formic acid. The
book closes with some results on the properties of porous
electrodes and their model treatment (30 pp.).
The present work provides a maximum of information for
the number of pages available. References to the literature
are very copious, though not complete. An author index
would have been welcome in this respect.
The volume provides the electrochemist with a very valuable
summary of a large number of investigations in a compact
form. The printing and presentation of the book are excellent.
Wolf Vielstich
[NB 881 IE]
Ullmanns Encyclopadie der technischen Chemie (Ullmann’s
Encyclopedia of Technical Chemistry). Chief editor:
W. Foerst. Editor: Hertha Buchholz-Meisenheimer. Urban
und Schwarzenberg, Munich-Berlin-Vienna.
Vol. 19: Zement bis Zwischenprodukte (Cement to Intermediates). 1969. 66 illustrations 418 pp., D M 120.-.
Complete Index for Vols. 1, 2/I, 2/11 and 3 to 19 with references to the supplementary volume. 1969.354 pp., D M 80.price of the two volumes together D M 190.--.
Supplementary Volume: New Processes, New Products,
Economic Developments. 1970, 175 illustrations + 846 pp.,
D M 198.19 years after work o n the project began, the publication of
these three volumes [*I completes the encyclopedia, which has
a total of 16243 pages and 808 articles, with contributions
from more than 1000 authors. The individual fields dealt
with are as follows: organic intermediates and chemicals
16.2%, inorganic chemistry 11.2%, metals 8.7%, drugs,
natural products (alkaloids, vitamins, hormones), cosmetics,
and perfumes 8%, plastics, lacquers, and rubber 7.1%,
physical methods in the laboratory 6.2 %, construction of
[l] V . G .Levich: Physicochemical Hydrodynamics. Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1962.
[*I See Angew. Chem. 81, 472 (1969); Angew. Chern. internat.
Edit. 8, 465 (1969).
Angew. Chern. internat. Edit. J Vol. 9 (1970) / No. 8
apparatus and process technology 6.1 %, fuels and petrochemistry 6%, fibers, wood, cellulose 5%, food, fats, and
foodstuffs 4.6 %,:dyes and dyeing 4.4%, production supervision 4.2%, ceramics, silicate chemistry, cement, other
and miscellaneous
building materials, glass, enamels 2.9
(including fertilizers, pest control, nuclear energy, isotopes,
and atomic structure) 9.4%. The work contains a unique
assortment of material, giving a coherent picture of the whole
field of technological chemistry including the economic
principles of this branch of science, manifestly an enormous
and bold undertaking in view of the rapid development of
science and technology in the postwar period, which is clearly
mirrored in the 22 volumes.
Volume 19 contains sections on intermediate products
(147 pp.), zinc, zinc alloys, and zinc compounds (107 pp.),
sugar and confectionery (62 pp.), cement (34 pp.), tin, alloys
of tin, and tin compounds (31 pp.), zirconium and zirconium
compounds (24 pp.), and flammables (9 pp.), with contributions from 22 authors, of whom 20 work in industry and 2 in
universities. H . Morchel’s (Farbenfabriken Bayer) article on
“Intermediates” deserves special attention. He concentrates
o n aromatic and heterocyclic intermediate products, tabulating in twenty subdivided synopses the methods of preparation for 1400 compounds arranged in order of precedence
o n the basis of the introduction of functional groups. The
article gives detailed references to the original literature and
t o relevant sections in the encyclopedia. Dye chemists in
particular will find this section useful, with its comprehensive
coverage and novel way of classifying the material.
The index volume is of considerable importance to the complete work, and the editors have therefore devoted particular
attention to it. Chemical technology is developing so rapidly
that it is difficult to classify it o n a systematic basis. Nor has
it been possible to avoid overlapping in the case of this
encyclopedia, where a lexical arrangement has been chosen
for the articles which are of varying length and are in some
cases presented in monographic form. Moreover, the later
volumes have to take into account and incorporate progress
made in the fields dealt with earlier. This means that any
system for the classification of material of this type is far
from perfectly practicable, and a comprehensive and reliable
keyword index becomes all the more important. The present
index volume contains 354 pages and about 30000 keywords,
covering the whole field of technological chemistry. Important keywords are provided with comprehensive and subdivided textual references. For example, the keyword
“rubber”, is accompanied by 150 references covering such
topics as recovery, use, grades, processes, and economic
considerations. To facilitate the search for subjects the index
also contains a number oftitles arranged both as independent
keywords and as subdivisions under main entries. Normal and
bold type is used for quoting page references, the difference
showing where more detailed treatments of the relevant topic
can be found. It is easy to see that all the material contained
in this encyclopedia can quickly be found by means of the
index.
The supplementary volume is a useful and interesting addition
to the complete work. This volume contains articles o n
organic intermediate products (131 pp.), plastics and plastics
products (85 pp.), drugs (81 pp.), economic development and
its importance in the chemical industry (78 pp.), petrochemical bases (53 pp.), fertilizers (41 pp.), metals (34 pp.), rubber
(31 pp.), dyes and optical brighteners (28 pp.), fibers (25 pp.),
nuclear energy (25 pp.), petroleum (21 pp.), and a number of
shorter sections, with contributions from 177 authors. The
subject matter of the book is varied and stimulating since the
editors with the experience of the previous 21 volumes
behind them and suitable contacts with specialists have
gathered together new and interesting material from all fields.
This volume can also be bought singly, and makes worthwhile
reading independent of the encyclopedia. New fields like
lasers, holography, and nuclear energy are described with
x,
647
maximum clarity, but it has also been necessary to include
reports o n the revolutionary progress made in classic processes. We find, for example, that the ammonia process has
changed fundamentally in the last decade. Petrochemical
synthesis gas production has become established, new catalysts allow almost complete CO conversion at low temperatures, and with the development of the turbocompressor
there has been a transition to a single-line plants with capacities of 1000 t/day.
In addition to the varied scientific and technical developments reported in this volume, particular mention should be
made of the article o n the development of science, which
gives a n impressive picture of the dynamics and importance
of technological chemistry. The global chemical production
has quintupled in the last twenty years, and will continue to
increase at this exponential rate. The pipeline network for oil
and petrochemical products amounts to 40 times the circumference of the earth and is increased by 15000 to 20000 km
a year. Between the years 1958 and 1968 the world production
of synthetic fibers increased ninefold. In contrast to other
large industries, the chemical industry deals at the same time
with the production of basic substances, intermediates, and
consumer articles. Unlike any other industry, it acts both as
a supplier and as a purchaser in all fields of the economy, and
is thus perpetually involved in the development of human
relationships and social life. With its abundant key figures,
this article gives a clear survey of development trends.
In view of this dynamism one may well wonder to what
extent a field subject to such far-reaching changes can be
covered by an encyclopedia. In fact, the achievements and
difficulties of our scientific and technological development
are mirrored in the achievements and problems of the present
Ullmann Encyclopedia. A characteristic of our time is that
the quantity of information increases more quickly than it
can be arranged and classified. New documentation systems
are being developed so that we can remain masters of this
situation and store information in readily available form.
Electronic information services, however necessary and important they are, can only store material; they cannot sift
through it, evaluate it or select what is important - they
cannot process (reduce and compress) the information. The
more quickly a field changes and grows the more important
the condensation of material becomes, so that a survey of
trends and developments is available. If there is no overall
survey, contact and understanding between allied branches
are lost and hence also the possibility of fruitful cooperation.
Furthermore, difficulties will be created if this welter of
material is handed down in disorder to the next generation.
There is little point in supplying students with the newest and
most up-to-date information - it will be out of date by the
time they are ready to use it - but there must be a comparative penetration of the material so that the essential principles,
which will play a decisive role in development, can be worked
out. A large number of our educational difficulties arise
because we neglect the didactic processing and condensation
of knowledge in the process of searching out new material. In
the case of many students this leads not only to difficulties in
understanding but also to misconceptions and highly undesirable attitudes t o this complex of modern chemical
practice which is so important for our very existence.
Ullmann can be considered as a comprehensive personal
interpretation of chemical technology and the chemical
industry; it is an example of the fact that abstract modern
theory can successfully be shown to have relevance to the
accepted formulas already used in practice. It is written in
such a way that anyone can obtain information on the main
aspects of a related field in which he is not at home. Finally,
therefore, we must thank the authors who have taken the
time, for the most part in spite of pressing practical duties, to
describe their work to a wider circle of colleagues, and in
particular the management and editors who have managed
to coordinate all this work and produce a n encyclopedia
which, as its name implies, deals coherently with the whole
sphere of chemical and technological knowledge.
Huns Suchsse [NB 889 IE]
The Wave Mechanics of Atoms, Molecules and Ions. By C . J .
H . Schutte, Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., London
1968. 1st Edit., xiii + 502 pp.. numerous figures, bound,
84 s.
Many of the modern textbooks devoted to the subject of
wave mechanics and molecules suffer from the disadvantage,
in particular as regards the chemistry student, of assuming
either a very extensive or a very meager knowledge of mathematics o n the part of the reader. Consequently, the understanding of the chemical bond is often inadequate.
The present book attempts to tread the middle path, and in
fact the author does succeed in striking a happy medium between the two extremes.
The book consists of three main parts, the first of which deals
with the principles of wave mechanics. Numerous examples
are given starting with classical mechanics. Perhaps it was
not entirely necessary to include Bohr’s postulates, which
have now passed into history and which have been extended
by wave mechanics. On the other hand, the reviewer finds it
it highly sensible to present the fundamentals with the aid of
operator algebra. The perturbation method is discussed at
length.
The second part consists of a total of 11 sections in which the
individual methods of quantum chemistry are dealt with:
First of all a particle in simple potential fields, then the
harmonic oscillator in its application to spectroscopy. Rotational and vibrational states are considered next. The 5th
section deals with the hydrogen atom, and the 6th with polyelectronic atoms. Sections 7 and 8 are devoted to group
theory and, finally, the last three sections are concerned with
di- and polyatomic molecules and with a number of applications of the Hiickel theory.
The third part of the book deals exclusively with spectroscopy. An introduction to the principles of spectroscopy is
followed by a discussion of the spectroscopic behavior of
rotational states, vibrational states, and finally, of complex
compounds, including magnetic effects.
Exercises are given with each section, the solutions being
collected at the end of the book. There is also an appendix on
symmetry groups.
The book is clearly written, well illustrated, and provided
with a very detailed subject index. It can be emphatically recommended to every student of chemistry. Even those who
merely want to acquaint themselves with the field will find it
to be a n excellent introduction.
Heinzwerner Preuss m B 886 IE]
Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in lhis journal, even without specific indication thereof; are not
0 Verlag Chemie, GmbH, Weinheim
1970.
- Printed in
lo
be considered unprotected by law.
Germany by Druckerei Winter, Heidel berg.
All rights reserved. N o part of this journal may be reproduced in any form whatsoever, e.g. by photoprint, microfilm, or any other means, without
written permission from the publishers.
Editorial office: Ziegelhauser Landstrasse 35. 6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany, Telephone 45075, Telex 46 1855 kemia d, Cable address: Chemieredaktion
Heidelberg.
Editor: H . Griinewald
. Translation Editors: A . J. Rackstraw and A . Stimson.
Publishers: Verlag Chemie, GmbH. (Presidents Jiirgen Kreuzhage and Hans Schermer), Pappelallee 3 , 6940 WeinheimIBergstr., Germany, and
Academic Press Inc. (President WalterJ. Johnson). 1 1 1 Fifth Avenue, New York 3, N . Y . , USA, and Berkeley Square House, Berkeley Square,
London, W. l . , England.
Correspondence concerning advertisements should be addressed to Verlag Chemie, GmbH. (Advertising Manager W . Thiel), 6940 Weinheim/Bergstr.,
Pappelallee 3, Germany, Telephone Weinheim (06201) 3635, Telex 4655 16 vchwh.
648
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. J Vol. 9 (1970) 1 No. 8
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