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Book Review Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis. By J. W. Robinson

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The reactions of triallylchromium(Iii) and of tetraallyldichromium(i1) with 2-butyne have been investigated by
R . P. A . Sneeden and H . H. Zeiss. The catalytic activity of
triallylchromium in the polymerization of olefins is already
well-known. Both chromium compounds mentioned were
allowed to react with 2-butyne under identical conditions ;
in each case the same four products were obtained, but in
different relative amounts. (1,2,3,4-Tetramethyl-, pentamethyl-, and hexamethylbenzene, along with traces of
1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene.)Allylgroups originally bonded
to chromium are not involved in product formation except
in the case of hexamethylbenzene. The mechanisms of
these reactions remain unexplained. / J. Organometal.
Chem. 28,259 (1971) / -Ee.
[Rd 368 IE]
For the IR analysis of gas mixtures a modified matrix isolation method is suggested by M . M . Rochkind; it is called
pseudo matrix isolation (PMI) by the author. The gas is
diluted 1:100 with nitrogen, and the mixture is frozen in
“pulses” of 0.1 to 0.5mmoles onto an IR transmitting
substrate cooled by liquid H,. The technique compares
favorably with conventional IR methods of gas analysis
since rotational structure of gas spectra is suppressed and
intermolecular interactions modifying the characteristic
frequencies in pure frozen gases are virtually eliminated.
The method is suitable for qualitative and quantitative
analyses; detection limits of 0.05 pmoles per cm* covered
with the frozen mixture are not uncommon. / Spectrochim.
Acta 27 A, 547 (1971) / -Hz.
[Rd 370 IE]
BOOK R E V I E W S
Physikalische Chemie (Physical Chemistry). By E. A .
Moelwyn-Hughes, edited and translated by W . Jaenicke
and H. Gohr, with the special assistance of H.-D. Sabel.
Georg Thieme Verlag Stutteart 1970. 1st ed.. 714 pp.,
269 Figs., 309 Tables. DM 59.80.
The German translation of the second English edition
of the well-known book by Moelwyn-Hughes is very
different in structure from the textbooks on physical
chemistry that have been used until now in German
universities. The first five chapters (about 150 pages)
deal with the principles of the kinetic theory of gases,
quantum theory, and chemical thermodynamics. Separate
chapters are devoted to the intermolecular energy and
partition functions. Considerable space (about 100 pages)
is allotted to monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, and polyatomic molecules, including the discussion of light dispersion, light absorption, the Raman effect, and X-ray
and electron scattering. Chapters 12 to 17 (about 200
pages) deal with the states of matter (crystalline state,
gaseous state, metallic state, liquid state, solutions, ions).
The chapter on interfacial phenomena is followed by the
discussion of the chemical equilibria in homogeneous
systems and of the equilibria in heterogeneous systems,
which also embraces phase equilibria and electromotive
forces. The last three chapters, which occupy about
100 pages, deal with kinetics. Some mathematical problems are discussed in an Appendix.
This arrangement of the material has both advantages
and disadvantages. The reader who has already been
introduced to physical chemistry will welcome the selfcontained treatment of the monatomic or polyatomic
molecules, the states of matter, or kinetics. He will learn
much from seeing how many problems can be solved
by simple models with the aid of statistics or how various
theories are used in attempts to deal with a given problem. While the beginner will find the first five chapters
relatively easy to understand, he will have difficulty in
recognizing the relations between the various thermodynamic equations derived, since items that belong
together are often necessarily situated far apart because
of the arrangement of the book.
Angew. Chem. internat. Edi:. 1 Vol. 10 (1971) 1 N o . 7
An excellent introduction to the use of statistical thermodynamics is offset by a quantum-mechanical treatment of
the chemical bond that is too brief by present-day
standards.
Very commendable features are the numerous references
and the many exercises, which include not only calculations
but also many questions designed to test the student’s
understanding.
The book would probably make excessive demands on
the beginner, but it is a true mine of information for the
advanced student.
Gerd Wedler [NB 952 IE]
Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis. By J. W . Robinson.
Marcel D e b . LNew York. 1st Edit., 379pp., ca.
DM44.--.
During the past decade the methods of instrumental
analysis - in particular absorption spectroscopy in the IR,
UV, and visible ranges, NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography - have become a fundamental part of inorganic and organic chemistry. Nevertheless, up to the present no generally accepted methods
have been developed in West Germany for the teaching
of these techniques.
The present book attempts, with considerable success
from the instructional point of view, to present instrumental analysis to the beginner along the lines of “What is
instrumental analysis?’ After a general introduction
(survey of analytical methods, observation of errors,
sample handling, etc.), the book gives an introduction to
spectroscopy and the basic principles of spectrometric
systems. Then follow chapters on NMR, IR, and Raman
spectroscopy, UV absorption spectroscopy, atomic absorption, colorimetry and polarimetry, flame photometry,
emission spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, chromatography, thermal analysis, mass spectrometry, and electrochemistry. In each chapter the theoretical and practical
principles of the method are described, and an indication
is given of the range of applications on the basis of simple
and (in general) well chosen examples. Each chapter
525
closes with a bibliography, notes on instructive experiments
for the reader to perform in order to drive home what he
has learnt, and problems. The material is extremely well
arranged, and the illustrations (as far as equipment is
concerned, at any rate) are useful for teaching purposes.
To whom could this book be recommended? Only students
in their first year, who are studying instrumental analysis
as such within the framework of a general chemistry course
or of specific lectures and practical sessions, but who are
not interested in the individual techniques. The very
number of methods treated shows that with its 379 pages
this book can only be regarded as an introduction; thus,
the chapter on mass spectrometry occupies only 17 pages.
A student involved in practicai work in inorganic, organic,
or physical chemistry, who wants to know only about the
methods of specific interest to himself (e.g. mass spectrometry, IR, UV, and NMR spectroscopy) and their possible
range of applications, will reject the book as “too
elementary” and turn to more reasonably priced handbooks. Students of biology, medicine (clinical chemistry),
and members of the academic profession, who only require
a superficial knowledge of the individual methods of
instrumental analysis will find the book’s approach admirably suited to their requirements.
The book can be heartily recommended to all concerned
with the teaching of instrumental analysis, for this is a
truly impressive demonstration of how even complicated
theoretical and practical principles can be presented
simply and in the way most suitable for teaching purposes.
4. AUG. 1971
Egon Fahr [NB 964 IE]
Non Aqueous Solvents. By T.C. Waddington. Studies in
Modem Chemistry Series, edited by W . C. Agosta and
R. S. Nyholrn. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.. London
1969, 1st Edit., 88 pp., DM 22,-.
The selected ranks of this series, aimed particularly at
advanced students, where each volume reflects the latest
situation in its own speciality, are now joined by a new
work on non-aqueous ionizing solvents. The author has
considerable experience in this field, not only from his
own research on anhydrous liquid hydrogen halides and
anhydrous sulfuric acid but also as the editor of a collective work (Non Aqueous Solvent Systems. Academic Press,
London and New York 1965).
The book deals on the one hand with solvents similar to
water, i. e. weakly self-dissociating protonic solvents
such as ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, and sulfuric acid in
Chapter 2 and aprotic solvents such as the arsenic halides,
antimony trichloride, iodine monochloride, and bromine
trifluoride in Chapter 5; on the other hand, it also discusses
solvents that do not resemble water so closely, since they
either hardly dissociate of themselves at all, such as dinitrogen tetroxide and sulfur dioxide in Chapter 3 and the
oxide-halides nitrosyl chloride and phosphorus oxychloride (Chapter 4), or are practically completely dissociated, such as the molten salts (Chapter 6). Wherever
possible, the solvents are compared with one another within
each chapter. The general ideas are summarized in Chapter
1, which serves as an introduction.
The author does not aim at a complete survey of the
material concerned, but rather, by means of selected examples, at a complete review of the principles governing the
behavior of ionizing non-aqueous solvents. From the
viewpoint of coordination chemistry, this is most successful. However, the Br~nstedand Lewis theories for the
acid-base behavior of protonic and aprotic solvents are
526
given extremely scanty treatment, and the solvent theory,
which has rendered such important service in the development of the chemistry of water-like solvents, is not even
mentioned.
The author follows an old-established practice in not
quoting original papers but rather reviewing articles from
monographs. This, together with the well thought out
problems at the end of each chapter, emphasizes the fact
that this volume is the instruction manual of choice for
anyone looking for an introduction to ionizing nonaqueous solvents.
Jochen Junder [NB 966 IE]
Die Physik. Ihre Sprache und Untersuchungsmethoden
(Physics. Its Language and Methods of Investigation)
by K . Kramer and I(.Liiders. Verlan Chemie. Weinheim
1970. 1st Edit., viii, 157 pp., 102 figures, 12 tables, bound,
DM 22.50.
We are told in the foreword that the book is based on a
series of university extension courses. The authors begin
with an introduction to some fundamental concepts which
they discuss with reference to selected subject areas (electron
guns, optics of charged particles, vacuum, low temperatures,
high magnetic fields, particle accelerators, electron spin
resonance, nuclear spin resonance, structural analysis, and
conductivity). They go on to give the reader an outline of
the modern investigation methods used in physics. Naturally enough, within the scope of such a book it is impossible
to proceed beyond the basic principles of the chosen subjects. The authors have succeeded in presenting a vivid
impression of the wide range of modern methods of investigation. An evident desire always to press on quickly
to topical problems is no doubt responsible for the fact
that even relatively complicated quantitative relationships
are sometimes presented in a highly concise form. To derive
full benefit from the book it is desirable that the reader
should already have acquired some knowledge of physics,
or that he should be in the process of doing so within the
framework of an appropriate course of study.
Werner Bucket
[NB 967 IE]
Gmelins Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie (Gmelin’s
Handbook of Inorganic Chemistry), 8th fully revised
edition. Published by the Gmelin-Institut fur anorganische Chemie und Grenzgebiete in der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Wissenschaften under the
direction of Margot Becke-Goehring. Verlan Chemie
GmbH, Weinheim/Bergstr.[’].
System No. 49: Niobium. Part A
Historical, Occurrence. The Element. Principal editor :
Herbert Lehl. 1969. iv, xvi, 356 pp., 76 figures, linen. DM
426.--.
The first chapter of Part A presents the absorbing history
of the discovery of niobium and the naming of the element.
It was not until 1949 that the name was finally settled by a
IUPAC decision in Amsterdam. A short paragraph on the
physiological effects of niobium (with the rather vague
observation that the toxicity of metallic niobium may be
assumed to be similar to that of vanadium, and yet experiments are then described that gave no indication that
niobium has a toxic action) and its compounds is followed
by a chapter on the industrial preparation of the raw
[l] Cf. Angew. Chern. internat. Edit. 10,204 (1971).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edii. 1 Yol. I0 (1971)
No. 7
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