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Book Review Vitamine. Chemie und Biochemie (Vitamins. Chemistry and Biochemistry). Edited by J. Fragner. Translated from the Czechoslovakia by H. Liebster. Vol. I

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BOOK REVIEWS
Paramagnetische Elektronenresonanz (Electron Paramagnetic
Resonance). By S. A. Altschuler and B. M. Kosyrew.
Translated from the Russian by A . Losche and collaborators. Verlag Harri Deutsch, Zurich-Frankfurt/Main 1964.
1st edit., VII 383 pp., 53 figs. linen D M 54.- (about
$13.75).
After a brief introduction and a survey of experimental
methods, the major part of this book deals with the electron
spin resonance spectra of ionic crystals: with the theory in
Chapter 111 (50 pp.), with experimental results in Chapter I V
(105 pp.), and with relaxation and line widths in Chapter V
(80 PP.).
The remainder of the book deals with the EPR spectra of
metals and semiconductors and with defects in crystals (Chapter VI, 37 pp.), and with stable free radicals and radicals produced by radiation (Chapter VII, 28 pp.). The closing chapter
(45 pp.) is devoted to allied phenomena such as dynamic
nuclear polarization and molecular amplifiers.
In common with all other publications that have appeared o n
this subject, the present monograph gives a particularly
detailed discourse on the particular aspects of electron paramagnetic resonance in which the authors are specialists.
Since here the main accent is o n ionic crystals, the main
attraction should be for solid state physicists; physicochemical applications receive less consideration, and biological aspects none at all. A prominent feature of the book
is the tables in Chapters IV and V which take up over eighty
pages and which form a work of reference augmented with
numerous citations of results published until the appearance
of the Russian edition in 1959. In the German edition, which
bears the date “January 1962” in the foreword, numerous
more recent publications have been cited. It is unfortunate
that the long time that has elapsed between this date and the
final appearance of the book (1964) has nevertheless resulted
in some loss of actuality. In conclusion, attention should be
called t o the fact that there are almost n o original spectra
included in the book. The reviewer is of the opinion that the
gain in clarity obtained from the printing of typical spectra
would justify higher production costs for the book.
+
K . Hausser
[NB 3971255 IE]
Titrationen in nichtwaBrigen Losungsmitteln (Titrations in
Non-aqueous Solvents). By W. Huber. Methoden der Analyse in der Chemie (Methods of Analysis in Chemistry).
Edited by F. Hecht, H. Kaiser, and H. Kriegsmann. Vol. 1.
Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, FrankfurtlMain 1964.
1st edit., XI1 280 pp., 79 figs., 14 tables, linen D M 35.(about S 9.-).
+
This is the first volume in a new series of monographs on
analytical methods in chemistry intended to acquaint their
readers with the current status of selected analytical methods.
The book deals with the quantitative determination of acids
and bases by titration in non-aqueous solvents. In the first mainly theoretical - section, the general fundamentals, the
methods of determining end-points, instrumentation, and
reagents are discussed. The second section gives a detailed
description of the practical execution of acid-base titrations,
arranged mainly according to classes of compounds. The
final section contains tables listing mainly dissociation constants measured in water for the most diverse compounds.
The author has succeeded in presenting a treatise o n acidbase equilibria tailored to suit the practical worker; it is
intended to direct the experimenter toward suitable titration
techniques even for very strong or very weak acids and bases
o n the basis of dissociation constants (Section 111). Unfortunately the author, allegedly to avoid confusion, has employed the outdated basicity constants KB as a measure of
base strength. For the sake of uniformity, it would have
been better to have given data o n the acidity constants of the
1000
conjugate acids. The book should appeal to the practical
worker who has long ago completed his undergraduate chemical studies; it will also offer many an incentive to the expert
in this field,
W. Simon
[NB 373/231 IE]
Vitamine. Chemie und Biochemie (Vitamins. Chemistry and
Biochemistry). Edited by J . Fragner. Translated from the
Czechoslovakian by H . Liebster. Vol. I. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena 1964. 1st German edit., 890 pp., 48 figs.,
117 tables, linen D M 87.60 (about $22.00).
A group of Czechoslovakian scientists have undertaken the
task of writing a monograph on the chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamins. The first volume of the two-volume
Czech edition which appeared in 1961 is now available in
German. It is divided into a general and a specialized section.
In the first part, after a historical introduction, the nomenclature and classification of vitamins, the relationships between their structures and biological activities, their biogenesis, vitamins in biochemical systems, vitamins in the diet, the
occurence of vitamins, fundamentals for vitamin assays, and
the applications of vitamins are discussed. In the specialized
section, which will be continued in the second volume, the individual vitamins are considered, and again the chapters are
divided into historical introduction and nomenclature, chemistry, biochemistry, assay, and applications of each vitamin.
The 26 authors who cooperated in compiling the book have
considered an astounding number of publications, and patent
literature has often been consulted. The tabular summaries
given are especially valuable.
The great expectations with which one begins to read thebook
are however unfortunately disappointed in several parts. The
text is often too digressive, the historical development is
placed too far in the forefront, and the literature has not been
appraised critically enough. Some of the biochemical chapters
are particularly unsatisfactory. Here n o clear-cut distinction is
made between experimentally established results and mere
hypotheses, and many inaccuracies and errors have slipped
in. For example, in the general chapter on the biogenesis of
vitamins, the modern aspects of product inhibition, repression, and induction are not mentioned; instead, inhibition is
explained using outdated examples from reaction kinetics.
The biogenesis of flavonoids is misrepresented on p. 83 phloroglucinol is not a n intermediate - but is reproduced
correctly o n p. 531. Despite the reasons presented by the
authors, it is still not understandable why “bioflavonoids”
and “essential fatty acids” are dealt with in a handbook on
vitamins. The participation of lipoic acid (the formula for
the dehydro derivative on p. 91 is incorrect) in photosynthesis
is presented as a fact, even though Calvin considers it as highly dubious. It is stated on p. 94 that the Schiff base is formed
non-enzymatically during amino-acid activation. On p. 95,
the activation of benzoic acid via its CoA ester is reproduced
erroneously. The isomerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate
is caused by an enzyme and not by H0 ions (see p. 325). The
occurrence of lycopersin as an intermediate in carotenoid biosynthesis is strongly disputed (p. 327). In the chapters o n the
bioflavonoids, the formulae of hesperidin and eriodictin are
drawn with D-rhamnose instead of with L-rhamnose, and on
p. 534, a “catechin component” of rutin is alleged. In this and
in other chapters, little attention is paid to the stereochemistry of the compounds described.
The authors claim that the literature has been reviewed in
general until 1961. However, the structure for activated
methionine is still given only tentatively (p. 723), and the
formula for the vitamin BIZcoenzyme is lacking.
The print and quality of the book are good, but the reproduction of formulae is sometimes poor and contains many errors.
Although the shortcomings outlined above show that the
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
Vol. 4 (1965) / No. I I
book is not entirely satisfactory, it will nevertheless be a great
help to the specialist in the vitamin field provided he exercises
caution in its use.
H . Grisebnch
[NB 405/263 IE]
Silicate Science. By W . Eitel. Vol. 1: Silicate Structures.
Academic Press, New York-London 1964. 1st edit., XI1
666 pp., numerous figs., several tables, price of single
volume in linen $ 24.00.
+
For decades, “Die physikalische Chemie der Silicate” (The
Physical Chemistry of Silicates) by W. Eitel was the standard
textbook in the field of silicate chemistry. It appeared in
several German editions and finally in a n English edition in
1954. In the meantime, the results of experimental studies of
silicates have assumed unprecedented dimensions : over 20000
publications have appeared within the past 15 years alone!
In his new work, “Silicate Science”, the author attempts
to catch up o n this lag in reviews of original publications. The
present volume is the first of a planned series of five.
Chapters 1-3 correspond to the content of his older monograph and contain a general description of the Si-0 bond
together with a survey of the crystal structures of silicates,
with particular emphasis on isomorphic and isotypical
relationships t o non-silicate systems. Epitaxic phenomena
are also dealt with. The systematic classification is built up
on the Bragg system and its supplementation by Zoltai;
however, the work of Below and his school is also given due
attention. The second section is devoted to clay minerals,
particularly their structures. In the last section, which makes
up over half the book, the problems of colloid chemistry and
the surface properties involved in silicate chemistry are
discussed. In this connection, aluminum oxide/silicon dioxide
gels and cracking catalysts are described.
methods. However, some methods which might have been
preferred by experienced analysts have been omitted. For
some elements, several practical procedures are described in
detail, but for others, little more than short headings and
literature references are given. For the sections o n the
separation of the elements, this abbreviated style has been
used throughout. Occasionally only a literature reference is
given for the examination of some natural and synthetic
products.
The vast number of literature references given, which are
mostly linked with a condensed description of the content of
the papers concerned, is the best feature of this book. Some
parts could have been improved by more careful editing.
Although the book has little hope of ousting the established
works on photometric analysis, it is valuable, particularly
because of its second section, for rapid reference to the
solution to certain problems. H . B ~ & [NB 358p16 IE]
Spectroscopy and Photochemistry of Uranyl Compoudds. By
E. Rnbinowitch and R . L. Belford. International Series of
Monographs o n Nuclear Energy, edited by J. V. Dunworth, Division XII: Chemistry, Vol. I. Pergamon Press,
Oxford -London - Edinburgh - NewYork- Paris - Frankfurt
1964. 1st edit., X 370 pp., numerous illustrs. and tables,
linen E4.0.0 (about $ 11.-).
+
Colorimetric Determination of Elements. Principles and
Methods. By G. Chnrlot. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam-London-New York 1964. 1st edit., I X
449 pp.,
72 figs., 12 tables, linen D M 56.- (about $ 14.-).
This monograph reviews the current status of knowledge of
the spectroscopy and photochemistry of hexavalent uranium.
Chapter 1 deals with the spectroscopy of solid uranyl salts.
Following a n introductory section o n the structure of
crystalline uranyl compounds, discussions are given on their
fluorescence, absorption, and infrared spectra. Chapter 2
deals with the spectroscopy of uranyl compounds in solution.
Chapter 3 describes the intensity and decay of uranyl Auorescence and Chapter 4 the photochemistry of uranyl compounds, while Chapter 5 gives a short presentation of the
theory of the electronic structure of the uranyl ion.
The material is presented mainly in chronological order
within each section. The main contributions are naturally
derived from publications which appeared after 1940. A
practically complete list of references is given for the literature
from 1833 (!) to 1961; work that appeared after completion
of the manuscripts is listed in a n appendix covering publications up to the end of 1963.
Naturally, monographs of this type appeal to only a very
limited readership. However, they usually are indispensible
aids for the experts in their specific fields, and this is particularly true of the present volume. All associated with the
chemistry and especially with the spectroscopy of uranium
or of actinides in general will be grateful to the authors for
their efforts in compiling this book.
G. Koch
[NB 3641222 IE]
This book is in the main a translation of the second French
editionof 1961, afewsections having been revised bytheauthor.
In the general section (154 pp.) - somewhat inaptly entitled
“Theoretical Background” - Beer’s law and the fundamentals
of the techniques and equipment used in photometry,
fluorimetry, turbidimetry, and nephelometry are discussed.
The general physical principles aredealt with only summarily;
details concerning apparatus are not given. O n the other
hand, the author goes further into the sources of error and
accuracy of photometric estimations, but again practical
aspects are dealt with less thoroughly than the formal
mathematical concepts. This section also includes chapters
on extraction, ion exchange, chromatography, separations
via the gas phase (11/2 pages and 2 tables), and electrolytic
processes. Although it must be admitted that separations are
often intimately connected with photometric estimations, a
general reference to paper chromatography and ion-exchange
chromatography on about 1 page each are useful only to
readers who are totally unfamiliar with these processes. The
section on the separation of traces (2 pp.) is also poor. In the
second section (280 pp.), procedures for determining 65
elements are described; these are all reliable, well tested
Inorganic Ion Exchangers. By C. B . Amphlett. Topics in
Inorganic and General Chemistry. Edited by P . L. Robinson. Monograph 2. Elsevier Publishing Co., ArnsterdamLondon-New York 1964. 1st. edit., XI + 141 pp., 36 figs.,
32 tables, linen about DM 23.- (about S 5.50).
This book has appeared as the second volume of a large series
of individual monographs on inorganic and general chemistry. The use of inorganic ion exchangers has acquired
increasing importance in recent years on account of their high
thermal stability and resistance to radiation.
After a short historical introduction and a general survey, ion
exchange on clay minerals, zeolites, and salts of heteropolyacids are dealt with. The major portion of the book is devoted
to the exchange properties of zirconium phosphates and
related compounds, on which the author has done a considerable amount of research. The exchange equilibria, ion separations and selectivities, suitability for water purification, and the
preparation of ion-exchange membranes are discussed for
zirconium phosphates. Despite the condensed nature of the
text, the author has succeeded in illuminating the problems
The author has managed to review the vast literature in this
field in magnificent fashion. It should be emphasized that in
all chapters, whenever the views of different research groups
d o not concur, the different experimental methods and interpretations are presented together. The reader thus has the
opportunity of appraising the arguments for himself. For
this reason, the book offers a summary of information that
is valuable not only for those who wish to acquaint themselves with special topics of this subject but also for experts
in this field. It deserves a place in every chemical library.
However, it does not provide a modern textbook of silicate
chemistry, which is still lacking.
Armin Wriss
[NB 384/242 IE]
+
Angew. Chem. internnt. Edit. / Vo1. 4 (1965) 1 No. I 1
1001
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