вход по аккаунту


Book Review Volume 1. The Principles of Biotechnology Scientific Fundamentals. Volume editors A. T. Bull and H. Dalton

код для вставкиСкачать
For example, according to molecular weight determinations, allyllithium is associated to the extent of twelvefold
in diethyl ether depending on the concentration of the solution,“” the degree of association increasing with increasing concentration. Other structures are also conceivable,
especially cyclic structures, as was recently demonstrated
in the case of crystalline [{(PhCH,)Na(tmeda)),] (tmeda=
N . N , N’, N’-tetramethylethylenediamine).“31
Preparation of 1 and crystal growing: A solution of butyllithium (16.4 mmol)
in hexane (10 mL) was treated at -78°C firstly with T H F (1.42 g, 19.7 mmol;
20°% excess) and then with 3,3-dimethyl-l-butyne (1.39 g, 17.0 mmol). After
30 min at -78°C the crystals that had formed were recovered by suction
filtration and dried under vacuum until they no longer appeared moist. Yield
ca. 1.8 g (70%). In order to avoid efflorescence, the crystals were treated with
two drops of T H F and prepared in a THF-saturated argon atmosphere.
Preparation of 2 and crystal growing: A solution of 3,3-dimethyl-l-butyne
(1.7 g, 20.7 mmol) in cyclohexane (10 mL) was treated dropwise at room temperature with a 1 . 6 ~
solution of n-butyllithium in hexane until the initially
precipitated tert-butylethynyllithium had re-dissolved (ca. 18 mL, 29 mmol).
The solution was then evaporated down to 6 m L and treated with I mL of
THF. After storage for several days at room temperature crystals of 2 separated out. Yield ca. 0.8 g (35%). To avoid cleavage of T H F they were prepared in a THF-saturated argon atmosphere.
The T H F content of 1 and 2 after hydrolytic decomposition was determined
gas-chromatographicall y.
Received: October 23, 1987;
revised: February 23, 1987 [Z 1965 IE]
German version: Angew. Chem. 99 (1987) 569
[I] a ) J. 4. Wardell in G. Wilkinson, F. G. A. Stone, E. W. Abel (Eds.):
comprehensive Orgonometallic Chemistry. Vol. 1 . 1st edit., Pergamon,
Oxford 1982, S. 64ff: b) W. Setzer, P. von R. Schleyer, Adu. Orgonomet.
Chem. 24 (1985) 353.
U. Schiimann, J. Kopf, E. Weiss, Angew. Chem 97 (1985) 222; Angew.
Chem. Inr. Ed. Engl. 24 ( 1985) 2 15.
[3] a) 9.Schubert, E. Weiss, Chem. Ber. 116 (1983) 3212: b) Angew. Chem.
95 (1983) 499; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed Engl. 22 (1983) 496: Angew. Chem.
Suppl. 1983. 703.
[4] a) R. Hiissig, D. Seebach, Helv. Chim. Acta 66 (1983) 2269; b) W. Bauer,
D. Seebach, hid. 6 7 (1984) 1972.
[ 5 ] M. Geissler, J. Kopf, U. Schiimann, E. Weiss, Ahsrr. XIlth Int. Conf.
Orqonomer Chem.. Wien 1985.
161 G . Fraenkel, P. Pramanik, J . Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1983. 1527.
[7] 1: P2/n, a = 1308.8(7), b = I184.6(14), c = 1533.4(9) pm, 8=97.63(4)’,
p,,,,,=0.903 g cm-’, 2 = 2 , MoK.. radiation, structure determination by
direct methods (SHELXS-84 181). refinement to R=0.167 (unweighted)
with 1235 reflections [IR> 4o(F)], measured to 6=22.0”. Anisotropic
temperature factors for Li, 0, and C, but C atoms of the tBu groups and
the T H F molecules refined isotropically. No refinement of the H positions; these were placed at positions calculated from the C atoms. Number of refined parameters 156 19).
[S] G. Sheldrick, SHELXS-84, Programs for Crystal Structure Solution,
Gottingen 1984.
191 Further details of the crystal structure investigations are available on
request from the Fachinformationszentrum Energie, Physik, Mathematik GmbH, D-7514 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 2, on quoting the depository number CSD-52405. the names of the authors, and the journal
[lo] 2 : C2/c, a=2021.4(13), b=2302.6(11), c=2273.5(13) pm, /3=98.10(5)O,
p,,,,,=O.8829 g cm-’, 2=4, MoKo radiation, structure determination by
direct methods (SHELXS-84 IS]), refinement to R=0.16 (unweighted)
with 1378 reflections [IF > 3 o(F)], measured to 0= 20.0”. Anisotropic
temperature factors for Li, 0, and C, but C atoms of the methyl groups
and T H F molecules isotropically refined; H-positions not refined,
placed in calculated positions (analogous to 1 171). Number of refined
parameters 394 [9].
[ I I] H. Kato, K. Hirdo, K. Akagi, Inorg. Chem. 20 (1981) 3659; cf. D. R.
Armstrong, D. Barr, W. Clegg, R. E. Mulvey, D. Reed, R. Snaith, K.
Wade, J Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1986. 869.
1121 G. R. Brubaker, P. Beak, J. Organomet. Chem. 136 (1977) 147.
1131 C. Schade, P. von R. Schleyer, H. Dietrich. W. Mahdi, J . Am. Chem Soc
108 (1986) 2485.
Comprehensive Biotechnology. The Principles, Applications
and Regulations of Biotechnology in Industry, Agriculture
and Medicine. Editor-in-chief: M . Moo- Young. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1985. L695.00.
“Comprehensive Biotechnology” is yet another reference work, published in four volumes, on the subject of
biotechnology. The executive editor claims that the publication of this work of reference has set a new standard in
specialist literature on this multidisciplinary subject. The
work is stated to be addressed to a broad readership including students, teachers, researchers, administrators and
others in academia, industry and government. This ambitious claim imposes correspondingly high demands on the
topicality, nature and scope of the contributions, and on
facilitation of the use of the complete work.
A positive feature of the work worthy of first mention is
that the four volumes comprising the set have been published simultaneously, lending to topicality of all the contributions. A guarantee of the quality of the contributions
ought to be the choice of authors. The list of their names
reads like an extract from Who’s Who in Biotechnology.
Regarding facilitation of the use of the reference work, it
should however be mentioned, that only the last of the
four volumes contains a cumulative subject index.
Volume 1. The Principles of Biotechnology : Scientific Fundamentals. Volume editors: A . T. Bull and H . Dalton.
xxv, 688 pp., bound.-ISBN 0-08-032509-2
The first volume of the set attempts to outline the scientific fundamentals of biotechnology, a complex multidisciplinary field intersecting at some points with biological,
chemical and engineering sciences.
The volume is organized in two main sections, viz. genetic and biological fundamentals (15 contributions), and
chemical and biochemical fundamentals (16 contributions). The literature cited relates mainly to the period up
to 1983, in some instances however u p to 1985. The average length of the contributions is 20 pages.
The first section begins with an overview of the organisms of biotechnology, namely viruses, prokaryotes, eukaryotes represented by algae, protozoa and fungi, and animal and plant tissue cultures. In view of the wealth of the
subject matter involved, it is understandable that only the
most important distinguishing properties can be considered. For more detailed information, readers are referred
to cited bibliography, in particular to certain handbooks.
However, mention of the new edition of “Bergey’s Manual”, a standard work on microbiology, would have been
desirable. The following contributions are devoted to the
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 26 (1987) No. 6
isolation and preservation of microorganisms. The discussion of methods for genetic modification of microorganisms and in vitro recombination of DNA relates mainly to
prokaryotes. Eukaryotic cloning systems for mammalian
cells (SV 40), yeasts (ars system) and plants (Ti plasmid,
cauliflower mosaic virus) are briefly mentioned. It is perhaps appropriate that very little space is devoted to the secretion of proteins at this juncture since this topic is discussed in detail in the second section of the volume in association with extracellular enzymes. Most of the first section is taken u p by ten contributions on the subject of microbial growth. Aspects addressed include nutritional requirements of microorganisms, nutrient uptake, nutrient
media, modes of growth of microorganisms, growth kinetics and mixed cultures, with special reference to prokaryotes. Animal and plant cell culture technologies are discussed and compared.
I n the second section of Volume I , particular emphasis is
on the subject of microbial metabolism. Examples discussed include aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and metabolism of C , compounds like methane, methanol and carbon dioxide. In the chapter that follows attention is drawn to the biotechnological importance of microorganisms that function as biocatalysts in methanogenesis.
A discussion of the different pathways involved in the
microbial metabolism of aromatic compounds leads u p to
the question concerning microbial degradation of environmental chemicals. Readers wishing to have a comprehensive overview of this subject would have been still better
served if the cited literature had included publications
from a still wider circle of leading research workers.
The metabolism of polymeric substrates is illustrated by
a description of the biosynthesis and degradation of fatty
acids and lipids. Autotrophic metabolic pathways are
treated by the presentation of a comparative description of
patterns of microbial photosynthesis. Other pathways of
electron transfer are also discussed, with bacterial respiratory chains and their regulation serving as an example.
Principles of enzyme technology are explored in chapters
on enzyme kinetics, mechanisms of enzyme catalysis, enzyme evolution and extracellular enzymes. In a contribution on the overproduction of microbial metabolites, the
effects of nutrient limitation, pH and temperature are discussed. The final contribution presented in volume I is devoted to a description of the mechanisms of regulation relevant to metabolite synthesis, in particular prokaryotic
biosynthesis of amino acids.
Olga Salcher
Bayer AG, Wuppertal (FRG)
Volume 2. The Principles of Biotechnology : Engineering
Considerations. Volume editors: C. L. Cooney and A . E.
Humphrey. xv, 632 pp., bound.-ISBN 0-08-0325 10-6
The material in Volume 2 addresses the state of technology in biochemical synthesis and processing. The division
of the 37 chapters contributed by 44 authors into two sections (I. Bioreactor design, operation and control. 2. Upstream and downstream processing) is somewhat unusual
in its organization. Whereas the fermenters, particularly
the more recent developments in instrumentation and systems for fermentation process control, are dealt with in the
first section, discussions on valves and pumps, gas compression, filtration systems, media sterilization, and problems associated with heat management are left until the
second section.
Angew. Chhem In!. Ed. Engl. 26 119871 No. 6
The quality of individual chapters varies greatly. In
Chapter 3, treatment of the very important areas of fermenter design and scale-up is completely inadequate. Criticism must be levelled at this particular contribution for its
repetition of problems that have been described better
elsewhere. The problem of asepsis is dismissed in eleven
lines containing only two literature references in fact dating back to 1969 (!) and 1976 (!), and that of foam in as few
as four lines including just one reference dated 1969 (!). By
comparison, an excellent review of both the principles and
practical applications of aqueous two-phase systems for liquid-liquid extraction of biopolymers is presented in chapter 28.
Bioreactor systems for plant and animal cells are addressed in two contributions but not discussed in any
depth. There is not a single diagrammatic representation of
a bioreactor shown fully equipped with valves, piping systems and sensors. On the other hand, a number of chapters
describe the principles and state of the art of some downstream processing unit operations. But just as in the chapters on fermentation, the problems of asepsis are almost
completely neglected in the discussions of the processing
Each of the subjects addressed in the different chapters
of this volume will now be reviewed briefly:
The first two chapters deal with the basics of transport
phenomena in bioprocesses-oxygen transfer and heat
transfer. Following an elaboration of the physical aspects,
correlations with the oxygen consumption of the growing
organisms are discussed. Purely biological problems like
the critical oxygen concentration are examined, likewise
questions relating to the structures of pellets and their
supply with oxygen. As already indicated, it is considered
that the chapter on fermenter design and scale-up is to all
intents and purposes a nonentity. Fragments of this topic
are discussed in other contributions.
Chapter 4 describes imperfectly mixed bioreactor systems, and examines the effects of micromixing and macromixing on bioprocesses. This is followed in Chapter 5
by a discussion of different types of nonmechanically agitated bioreactor systems some of which have been adopted
for industrial applications; this chapter concludes with a
comparison of the oxygen transfer efficiencies of different
bioreactors. The next five chapters focus on dynamic modelling of fermentation systems, instrumentation for monitoring and controlling bioreactors, instrumentation for fermentation process control, use of computers for the control of fermentation processes, and computerized data
analysis for on-line process applications. Here, too, accord
among the authors would have been desirable to avoid duplication of material and to include instead more information on recent trends in measurement and control technologies.
The next three chapters (1 1 to 13) are devoted to techniques for immobilizing enzymes and cells. Based on comprehensive coverage of the latest literature data, these
chapters not only describe the very large number of methods that have been developed but also explain why, in
spite of the high potential of immobilized enzyme and cell
technology, only relatively few of these elegant techniques
have found industrial application.
The second section of Volume 2 begins with a chapter on
transport and handling of bioprocess liquids and solids
and on technologies for the mixing of these materials. Different types of pumps, valves (rather old data), piping systems and mixing equipment are discussed in detail. This is
followed by two chapters o n gas compression and filtra589
Без категории
Размер файла
277 Кб
volume, scientific, dalton, book, biotechnology, editor, bull, review, fundamentals, principles
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа