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Book Review Water and Solute-Water Interactions. By J. L. Kavanau

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prehensive theory about polycyclic hydrocarbons”. By systematic use of simple symbols (Kekulb structures and n-sextets),
an attempt is made to achieve a uniform description of the
chemical and spectroscopic behavior of aromatic hydrocarbons. These chapters, which contain many new and unconventional proposals, will certainly stimulate discussions.
In addition there is an informative contribution by Regina
Schoental on the carcinogenic effect of aromatic hydrocarbons.
This book ought to prove an indispensable companion for
every chemist, physicist, or physician working directly or
indirectly with polycyclic aromatic compounds.
M. Zander
[NB 338/196 IE]
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons. By E. Clar. Vol. 2. Academic
Press, London-New York; Springer Verlag, Berlin-Gottingen-Heidelberg 1964. 1st. edit., LVIII + 487 pp.. linen
DM 78.40 (about $20.00).
The second volume of E. Clar’s monograph on polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons contains descriptions of peri-condensed systems, i. e. the hydrocarbons derived from perylene,
pyrene, fluoranthene, etc. A total of about 200 aromatic
systems is described. The literature has been completely
scanned until the end of 1962 and sometimes up to the end of
1963.
In the chapters on the various hydrocarbons, the well-proved
divisions used in Clar’s German monograph (1952) on aromatic hydrocarbons has been retained. First the syntheses of
the hydrocarbons are described; here many well-printed
formulae help to maintain clarity. This is followed by a description of the most important physical properties. Ultraviolet spectra are recorded clearly in illustrations with data on
the band maxima and extinction coefficients. On account of
its numerous spectra alone, the book should be of great value
to the chemist interested in spectroscopy. Furthermore, the
most important reactions of the hydrocarbons - substitution,
hydrogenation, oxidation, etc. - are discussed. Whenever
possible, data on their biological activities are given.
This second volume, which now completes the treatise, will
also be of great service to anyone working in the field of polycyclic aromatic compounds. M. Zander
[NB 4001258 IE]
The Enzymes. Edited by P. D. Boyer, H. Hardy, and K. Myrback. Vol. 8 . Academic Press, New York-London 1963.
2nd completely revised edit., XX f 484 pp., numerous
illustrs. and tables, linen S 16.50.
This volume contains a discussion on the porphyrin enzymes
and on the oxidases involved in direct oxygenation. As in the
previous volumes, an opening chapter (Nicholls) gives an
orderly survey of the functions of the cytochromes, whose
cofactors are so similar but whose catalytic activities determined by the protein moiety - are so different. The
individual cytochromes are then given due consideration.
Although naturally the recently discovered structure of the
porphyrin of the respiratory enzyme is not included, the
expanse and orderliness of data given are highly impressive,
and abundant references are cited covering literature up to
1962. There is only little quantitative information given on
the phenol and amine oxidases containing iron or copper.
On the other hand, a thorough treatment is given (NichollsSchonbaum, K. G . Paul) to “the fossil enzymes of unknown
function in mammals” - catalase and peroxidase, which
played so important a role in the development of the fundamentals of the molecular biochemistry of enzymes, for with
them B. Chance worked out the methods of kinetic analysis for
studying the enzyme-substrate complex and its quantitative
dependence on the physico-chemical parameters of the
reaction‘medium. The new field of mixed-function oxidases
is discussed with accustomed authority by 0. Hayaishi, and
a clear and poignant description of the interesting topic of
phenylalanine hydroxylation is given by its discoverer
S. Kaufman. The agglomeration of facts in this way awakes
reasonable hopes that with their help, the basic principles of
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Vol. 4 (1965) / No. 10
enzyme action may soon be recognized, about which, unfortunately, little is said. It is regrettable that here the authors
- perhaps in contrast to the earlier edition - have steered
clear of hypotheses, which would at least incite discussions.
The volume not only completes the description of the
oxidizing enzymes, but also closes the entire work and ends
with a collective index. The series provides a firm foundation
on which molecular biophysical research can continue to
build.
L. Jaenicke
[NB 382/240 IE]
Analysis of Ancient Metals. By E. 11. Caley. International
Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry. Edited by
R. Belcher and L. Gordon. Vol. 19. Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-Edinburgh-New York-Paris-Frankfurt 1964.
1st edit., XI + 176 pp., 64 tables, linen E3.10.0 (about
$ lo.-).
After an indication is given of the irregularities caused by
weathering processes on various layers of metallic archeological finds, proposals are made for eliminating such interferences, and the most important corrosion products and
their analysis are described. This is followed by highly
detailed practical procedures for chemical investigations of
the metals Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Sn, Sb, and their historically
interesting alloys, and of iron and steel and their weathering
products. Mainly classical analytical procedures are applied.
More recent assay and separation procedures, and micromethods are not included, although these are probably
valuable for rapid series estimations.
The purely chemical section is aptly supplemented by numerous sample analyses and an extensive list of references. The
book is well printed and furbished and is of interest to
anyone engaged in analyses of ancient metals.
W. Geilmann
[NB 3651223 IE]
Recent Progress in Surface Science. Vol. 1. Edited by J. F.
Danielli, K. G . A . Pankhurst, and A . C . Riddiford. Academic Press, New York-London 1964. 1st edit., XI1 + 414 pp..
numerous figs., a few tables, clothbound S 16.00.
In this book, eleven chapters by several authors give reviews
of sections of this very broad field of knowledge, which attracts the interest and research participation of biologists,
chemists, physicists, and engineers alike. Subjects dealt with
include the viscosity of interfaces, foams, films of free liquids,
electrical double layers and electrokinetic phenomena, electrode processes, corrosion of metals, surfactants, the chemistry of semiconductor surfaces, facilitated diffusion through
cell membranes, cell contacts, the external surface of cells and
intercellular adhesion, and the formation and properties of
bimolecular lipid membranes.
Progress reports of this kind are very valuable, for they save
the scientist who wants to secure a preliminary survey of the
latest results on a certain topic much time that would otherwise be required for studying widely scattered original publications. The encyclopaedic nature of this book makes its purchase recommendable particularly for both large and small
libraries.
B. Fell
[NB 3801238 IE]
Water and Solute-Water Interactions. By J. L. Kavanau. Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco-London-Amsterdam 1964.
1st edit., 101 pp., 7 figs., linen $ 5.50.
Because of the fundamental significance of its subject, this
little book should arouse great general interest. The author
briefly treats the following in particular: the structures of
water and ice, short- and long-range order in water, proton
mobility and proton exchange, and interactions of water
with ions and macromolecules. Many advances in these
fields have been made so recently that they have not yet
found their way into most textbooks. However, many important questions still remain the object of occasionally
contradictory speculations and hypotheses. The author’s
attempt to make his publication as up to date as possible is
899
illustrated by the fact that he reviews even the latest papers,
including some dated 1964. However, the selection of
literature reviewed sometimes appears to be a little onesided, and some relevant matters have been omitted or are
only mentioned incidentally, e.g. the bonding effect of
hydrophobic interactions or the importance of the structure
of water to the mechanism of fast reactions.
G. Schwarz
[NB 393/251 IE]
The Application of Mathematical Statistics to Chemical
Analysis. By V . V . Nalimov. Translated from the Russian
by P. Basu. Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-EdinburghNew York-Paris-Frankfurt 1963. 1st edit., IX + 294 pp.,
54 figs., numerous tables, linen 44.4.0 (about $ 11.60).
This book is composed as a manual for analytical chemists or
physicists. It has obviously been written with a strong background of personal experience and with careful consideration
of the pertinent literature. The reader is assumed to possess
a fundamental knowledge of higher mathematics and mathematical statistics.
The book is divided into nine chapters. The first three deal
with general principles, mathematical statistics in chemical
analysis, and random variables. This is followed by chapters
on the normal (Gauss) distribution and the distribution functions derived from this and o n Poisson and binomial distributions. Chapter 6 deals with the comparative evalution of
chemical analyses, and Chapter 7 with variance analysis. The
eighth chapter presents a statisical treatment of linear relationships, including a short section on correlation analysis.
The closing chapter gives rules and proposals for the planning
of statistical experiments. A particularly valuable list of
further literature is given: 172 references with short descriptions of the contents of books and papers covering the period
up to 1959. This is followed by a most useful appendix with
15 clear tables of the most important statistical functions.
The book contains a wealth of interesting and original
thoughts and of step-by-step calculations of numerical
examples. The experienced worker in this field will find
many suggestions here. The reviewer considers the volume
less suitable as an introduction for the beginner, for the main
themes cannot be followed well enough. The book adopts a
very wide scope, and important conclusions are given
unobtrusively in the text; if these had been made more
prominent by using italic or bold-faced type, their importance
would be more immediately apparent. The symbols used are
clear, but the number of concepts introduced could have been
reduced. Some definitions are imprecise, and the curves of the
Gauss distribution in Figure 1I are poorly reproduced. Some
aspects are omitted or given only brief treatment, e.g. the
question of the distribution of possible true values around a
result found by experiment and the definition of the limit of
detection.
On the other hand, the book is full of useful ideas and hints.
For instance, it is pointed out that decisions reached as a result
of statistical criteria are of the nature of agreements. Admirable features of the book are the applications of Poisson distribution to semiquantitative analysis and of binomial distribution to qualitative analysis. Even the Chebysheff inequality
is used in analyses when nothing is known of a distribution
function. Nalimov himself states in his foreword that he
considers his book to be a contribution to the further development of a general statistical theory of chemical analysis. It is
certainly a most stimulating and useful contribution.
H . Kniser
[NB 406/264]
Mucopolysaccharides. Chemical Structure, Distribution, and
Isolation. By J . S. Brimacombe and J. M. Webber. B. B. A.
Library, Vol. 6. Elsevier Publishing Co., AmsterdarnLondon-New York 1964. 1st edit., I X + 181 pp., 10figs.
13 tables, linen D M 31.- (about $8.00).
Although numerous monographs have appeared withm
recent years on this topic, the present volume is appealing
because it brings a careful and comprehensive survey of the
900
more recent literature in clear terms and a systematic order.
The authors have attained this their aim firstly by restricting
the material covered to the mucopolysaccharides the structures
of which have been completely or largely elucidated and
secondly by stressing the classical methods of structural
analysis in carbohydrate chemistry. There are six chapters
given on the individual types of mucopolysaccharides, even
blood-group substances being regarded as such (!). Although
data are presented on their distribution, preparation, biosynthesis, and enzymatic degradation, the book is not suitable as
a work of reference nor for use as a laboratory manual. For
example, data on molecular weights and specific optical
rotations, which the reader wouid have preferred in tabular
form, are scattered throughout the text, and other physical
properties that are of importance especially for the biological
function, such as viscosities, electrophoretic mobilities,
sedimentation constants, etc., are omitted altogether. In
addition, the authors have restricted their discussion in the
chapters on quantitative estimation, separation, and purification to a mere reiteration of the methods available without
commenting on their usefulness. Despite these shortcomings,
the experienced worker in this field will take recourse to this
very informative book, especially on account of its reliable
bibliography, which encompasses 946 titles.
E. Buddecke
[NB 4021260 IE]
Treatise on Analytical Chemistry. Edited by I. M. Kolthoff,
P. J . Elving, and E. B. Sandell. Part I : Theory and Practice.
Val. 3 and Vol. 4. Interscience Publishers, a Division of
John Wiley & Sons, New York-London-Sydney 1961 and
1963. 1st edit., Vol. 3, Section C (concluded) Separation:
Principles and Techniques: XVII + 439 pp., numerous figs.
and tables, linen 65.15.0 (about $16.00); - Vol. 4, Section
D-l : Magnetic Field Methods of Analysis; Section D-2:
Electrical Methods of Analysis: XXV + 953 pp., numerous
figs. and tables, linen 49.9.0 (about S26.50).
Fifty-three of the total of 124 sections planned for the first
part - Theory and Practice of Analytical Chemistry - of the
analytical handbook “Treatise on Analytical Chemistry” have
now appeared. The present partial volume I 3 concludes
the Section C begun in the partial volume I 2 o n separatory
methods and their principles and practical techniques; the
partial volume I 4 contains section D-1 on magnetic analytical methods and section D-2 on electrical methods of analysis. As for the first two partial volumes, the editors have
secured competent specialists to write the individual portions.
The fundamentals of the methods are described very carefuily
and comprehensively, but often the practical aspects receive
too little attention. For this reason, the reader will miss a
comparitive appraisal of various methods for solving different
specific analytical tasks.
In the partial volume I 3, H. Irving and R . J. P. Williams deal
with liquid-liquid extraction, and J . A . Hermann and J. F.
Suttle with methods of separation based on solid-liquid equilibria. Separation and purification by crystallization and
precipitation are given much more space than the important
new technique of zone melting (only 3 pp.).
The major portion of volume I 3 is devoted to chromatography. The fundamentals of chromatographic methods are
discussed by I. Rosenthal, A . R. Weiss, and V . R . Usdin;
thereafter individual methods are described: liquid-solid
adsorption chromatography by B . J. Mair, liquid-solid ionexchange chromatography by W . Rieman and A . C. Bveyer,
paper chromatography by H. J. Pardera and W. H. McMitllen,
and gas chromatography by C. E. Bennett, S . Dal Nogare,
and L. W. Safranski. Here too, the 240-odd pages afford far
too little space to go beyond the fundamentals and general
execution l o stress the importance of these methods. Thinlayer chromatography is unfortunately not treated in this
partial volume, which appeared in 1961. Electrochromatography could at least have been mentioned in the discussion of the fundamentals of chromatographic processes,
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
1 Vol. 4 (1965)
No. I0
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