close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Book Review World Energy Supply Resources Technolgies Perspectives.

код для вставкиСкачать
sorbs at almost the same position (A6=0.11) the protons
Ha in 8 are so strongly shifted upfield through the magnetic anisotropy of the bridging benzene ring that the order
of the signals is reversed (A6=0.79).
Received: April 18, 1983 [Z 349 I€]
German version: Angew. Chem. 95 (1983) 631
CAS Registry numbers:
1, 1633-22-3; 2b, 12093-10-6; 3, 729-30-6; 4, 86421-38-7; 5, 86409-80-5; 6,
86409-81-6; 7, 86409-82-7; 8, 86409-83-8.
[ I ] The complexation of cyclophanes with the (q5-cyclopentadienyl)iron unit
is well-known: A. R. Koray, J. Organomet. Chem. 232 (1982) 345, and references cited therein, particularly E. D. Laganis, R. G. Finke, V. Boekelheide, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78 (1981) 2657. The 1 :1 and I :2 adducts that are formed, however, no longer contain intact ferrocene units.
Moreover, in the 2 :1 products the surfaces of the cyclophanes capable of
complexation are complexed, so that there is no direct possibility for the
construction of oligomeric structures. This limitation does not exist in the
case of the coupling possibilities presented here; the requisite dialdehydes of 1 and [2.2]indenophane have already been prepared (S. Ehrhardt, F.-W. Raulfs, H. Hopf, unpublished results).
[2] A. Rieche, H. Gross, E. Hoft, Chem. Ber. 93 (1960) 88.
131 D. Lenoir, Synthesis 1977, 553.
141 4 : UV (acetonitrile): &,,,=456 (&= 1200), 319 (16400), 236 (sh, 17300),
207 nm (34700); 8 : ‘H-NMR (CDCI,, int. TMS): 6=6.32 (s, 4H), 6.12 (s,
4H),5.63(~,4H),3.75(t,J=2.3Hz,2H,H,),3.67(d,J=2.3Hz,4H,H,),
2.85 (ps-t, 4H), 2.72-2.52 (m, 12 H, bridge-CH2); IR (KBr): 3005 w, 2940
w, 2920 m, 2850 m, 1498 rn, 1435 m, 1100 w, 853 m, 800 m, 792 c m - ’ ; UV
(cyclohexane): &,,,,=530
(&=500), 418 (1100), 300 (16000), 216 nm
(37000).-The spectroscopic and analytical data of all the new substances
prepared here are consistent with the given structures.
[5] a) I. J. Eisch, R. B. King: Organometallic Synthesis. Vol. 1. Academic
Press, New York 1965, p. 73ff.; b) G. Wilkinson, Org. Synth. 36 (1956)
31.
BOOK R E V I E W S
World Energy Supply: Resources, Technologies, Perspectives. By Manfred Grathwohl. Walter de Gruyter & Co.,
Berlin 1982. 450 pp., bound, DM 120.00.
This book needs to be read selectively. Portions of it are
well thought out and convey useful information in a useful
way. Other portions are close to unreadable; they consist
of an accumulation of information from dozens of sources,
frequently selected and reproduced with little discrimination, and presented to the reader with scarcely more input
by the author than goes into compiling a telephone directory. This is a pity, for the book bears all the evidence of
very hard work over a prolonged period.
The task is, of course, enormous. It calls for an ability to
deal intelligently with the major aspects of fossil energy,
nuclear, solar and everything in between. It would be a big
job for a committee. It is apt to overwhelm a single author,
and I am afraid in this instance it has almost done that.
Over and over the author is reduced to merely citing the
literature. I have not made a count, but the number of sentences that begin with “According to ...” is large. What
emerges is a hybrid between a reproduction of statistics
and diagrams, a physics textbook, a geography textbook,
and an occasional policy recommendation that expresses
more the author’s own philosophy or moral suasion than a
conclusion from the data presented.
The book is meticulously organized along logical lines.
It proceeds from a brief, largely introductory chapter, entitled “Primary sources and world economics” to a discussion of the world’s energy potential (which contains segments on each of the primary sources) to a very extensive
chapter on energy supply systems, by which are meant basically the non-primary sources-nuclear, solar, electricity,
synthetic fuels, etc. It next deals with question of the environment and with safety and closes with a brief chapter in
which conclusions are drawn.
Of these chapters, by far the best are those dealing with
energy supply systems, or what I would call “secondary
sources”. Here one has the feeling that the author is at
home, comfortable with the subject matter and far less inclined to lean, often uncritically, on the literature as his
main support. Within this area, nuclear matters are especially well discussed, and so is solar energy.
634
Had the author been less ambitious and just published
the second half of the book, he would merit high marks.
Unfortunately, the first half in no way measures up to the
second. Some of the reasons are inherent in his self-imposed limitation to supply. They are inherent in that it is
very hard, if not unproductive, to deal merely with the
supply side. Indeed, one senses that the authors feels the
same way, for he finds himself compelled to bring in demand if only for the purpose of assessing adequacy of resources. But, of course, he cannot usefully do that without
discussing price. Adequacy or inadequacy exists only at a
stipulated price. Without it there cannot be too much or
too little. Yet, demand and price are treated, if at all, in a
highly incidental fashion. This removes much of the discussion from reality. If I may mention the four most discussed energy books that were published in the United
States in 1979 and 1980: Energy in America’s Future, Energy Future, Energy: The Next Twenty Years, and Energy in
Transition (only one of which, incidentally, is mentioned
in the author’s references, as best I can tell), they dealt,
without exception, equally with supply and demand and
with price as the link.
Still, as I have said, demand sneaks in. So do discussions
of population growth, income differences among countries, famine, and the like - none of these themes being developed and discussed with the authority that stems from
knowledge. They are obviously subjects that fascinate him,
but self-discipline should have kept him from (as an old
editor-friend of mine used to say) chasing too many rabbits
at the same time. Too many obiter dicta.
Concept and structure of the book apart, much of the
first half or so of the book (chapters 2 and 3) is, moreover,
quite unsatisfactory on its own merit. Two points stick out.
First, there is the author’s above-mentioned indiscriminate
use of sources, a practice that proves only that he had access to a wide range of books and articles. What is missing
is evaluation. They are presented as, or turned into, tables
and graphs, regardless of the time the data were first published, or without revealing to the reader the background
of the data, so that he has to take them on faith, and second-hand at that. This is particularly distressing when
most of these data are not hard facts but estimates, so that
Angew. Chem. lnt. Ed. Engl. 22 (1983) No. 8
the assumptions behind them are at least as interesting and
certainly as important to understanding as the data themselves. Here the author simply lets the reader down. If I
want to read a new book on energy, I am interested in
what the author makes of this vast arsenal of numbers.
Otherwise I go to the original source.
What adds to the discomfort is that much of the material
is badly, at times fatally, out of date. To be sure, there are
reasons: the time it takes to translate such a long, complex
volume, the speed with which the energy scene is changing, the slowness with which some of the data become
available. But it goes beyond that. For example, most of
the production and consumption data on the United
States-the area I am most familiar with-are drawn from
publications that are four and five years old. One of these
is, for example, a 1977 report by the Congressional Research Service, a compilation of separate articles by some
twenty authors. How far out of date it is, can be seen when
we look at the U. S. energy consumption and oil import
projections for 1985-then seven years in the future-and
compare them with the 1982 reality. Consumption, then
conjectured to rise from 74 quads in 1976 to 95 quads in
1985 had instead dropped to 71 quads in 1982! N o reason
to believe it will reach even 80 by 1985. Oil imports then
projected to rise from 8.1 million barrels per day in 1976 to
11.8 million berrels per day in 1985 have instead declined
to 5 million barrels per day in 1982. These are hardly small
differences, nor is this an atypical example. Nuclear energy projections, for instance, and with them uranium requirements, are taken from sources prior to the beginning
of the big slide in plans and construction of new plants.
In the face of an abundance of timely data from governmental, industrial and academic sources this is not excusable. As a result, recent trends and projections are for the
most part not just useless but misleading. Though less so,
obsolescence also penetrates the technology portion. To
cite an especially glaring example, the author reports plans
for a U. S. scheme to produce shale oil through the explosion of nuclear devices. Puzzled what he had in mind I
consulted the source reference at the back of the book: an
article in a German journal written in 1965! Surely, it
would not have been difficult to track the relevance of that
statement and above all not to present it as though this was
a contemporary plan. Again, this is not an isolated instance. The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) which was dissolved in 1978, figures as a
live agency. Its estimates, now several years old, are presented as valid now. This is especially disturbing when a
projection of solar energy reaching 25 percent of total U.
S. energy in 2000 is ascribed to that organization (this was
a one-time “goal” put forward by President Carter in early
1977), followed by the observation that “recent projections
are even higher”. Recent, when? The oil price did not quadruple in two years after 1973, but in one year (p. 59). Coal
slurry pipelines are not in the “research and pilot” stage in
the U. S. (p. 90). One, carrying coal from Arizona to California, has been operating for several years, and an earlier
one, in Ohio, carried coal for some 160 km for many years,
before it succumbed to competition from the railroad. A
1400 mile line will begin to be built in 1984 and is expected
to go into operation in 1986. Expectations for steady increases in enhanced oil recovery have been steadily declining and reliance on non-conventional sources of natural
gas has been relegated to a more distant horizon.
Various experts’ or organizations’ cost estimates for new
sources or processes are based on costs and prices long exceeded, and much of the time it is not clear whether we are
Angew. Chem. In,. Ed. Engl. 22 11983) N o 8
dealing in current or constant monetary units. The word
“presently” used frequently remains generally undefined.
Some peculiarities may be due to language difficulties.
For example, anthracite is a small portion of U. S. coal, yet
it is repeatedly used to characterize all U. S. coal. Indeed,
for some reason anthracite and bituminous coal are at
times treated as synonymous. That there are “vast” coal
fields available for strip-mining in the Middle West is
equally confusing. They are in the West, not the Middle
West, nor is there any anthracite in Kentucky (p. 54). The
imbalance between production and consumption is persistently referred to as discrepancy. a term that threw me off
until I sensed the error.
Given the enormous effort that must have gone into
writing this book, the care with which the glossary, the index and the referencing has been done, it is indeed a pity
that the outcome is not more useful. It would be my advice
to take with a large pinch of salt the offerings in chapter 2
and 3 and concentrate on the balance of the book, even
though here too, caution is advised.
Hans H . Landsberg [NB 593 IE]
Electrons in Chemical Reactions; First Principles. By L.
Salem. Wiley-Interscience, Chichester 1982. xii, 260 pp.,
bound, L 27.25.
Anyone who has read and followed Lionel Salem’s numerous, original and pioneering publications will note
with disbelief and regret that he has turned his back on
chemistry, in order to devote himself in future to banking.
The present volume is thus-if another U turn does not
follow-something of a going-away present to his colleages and a summary of current thinking concerning the
electronic theory of chemical reactions as seen by a scientist, who has made fruitful contributions to the field.
The text is written from a lofty standpoint and assumes a
solid background in theoretical chemistry on the part of
the reader, at least enough that he can recognize the importance of and complete the numerous, almost impressionistically sketched definitions. This is in no way the introduction at an elementary level that the subtitle “First
Principles” seems to suggest.
The choice and treatment of the individual themes (energy hypersurfaces; the electronic structure of excited molecules and intermediates; orbital and state symmetries ;
reaction paths; the role of electron spin; solvent effects)
distinctly bear the stamp of the predilections and style of
an author who likes to work out the solution of a problem
using a theoretical-chemical “catch as catch can” technique, which extends from the use of naive, resonance considerations to the use of quantum-chemical methods of
considerable sophistication. The result is a sometimes uneven but demanding text, that is always stimulating and
readable but which challenges contradiction on occasions.
Furthermore, since the text leans on the interests and work
of the author, there are necessarily gaps which some readers will deplore. The few trivial errors, such as the wrong
quadricyclane or benzvalene formulas on p. 113 and 122
will scarcely cause misunderstanding.
Taken as a whole this book constitutes an exceedingly
stimulating piece of work that is suited as a “mise au
point” as well as a basis and source of information for
postgraduate seminars and discussions at a higher level.
From the latter point of view its rather personal approach
is an added attraction.
Edgar Heilbronner [NB 589 IE]
635
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
1
Размер файла
285 Кб
Теги
book, resource, energy, supply, perspectives, world, review, technolgies
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа