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Biological aspects of human migration. Edited by C.G.N. Mascie-Taylor and G.W. Lasker. New York Cambridge University Press. 1988. viii + 263 pp. figures tables index. $39

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nutrition. Its price makes it unlikely to be
used widely as a secondary text, especially
since its rather eclectic content dictates that
most readers, and most teachers, will pick
and choose from the contributed chapters.
Nutritional Anthropology, as the editor
makes clear in the preface, reflects a n
emerging discipline that is primarily biological in orientation (as opposed to the
anthropology of food, which is primarily
social and cultural). The volume is organized
into four sections: Evolution, Adaptation, and
Variation; Methodological Concerns in Nutritional Anthropology; Nutrition and the Life
Cycle; and Anthropology, Nutrition, and
Ecology. The first section contains a paper by
Kathleen Gordon reviewing the evidence
regarding the composition of human diets
from the early hominids through the early
post-Pleistocene era. Her perspective is evolutionary, and the paper serves as a good
introduction to this field. The other paper in
this section, by Sol Katz, reviews biological
and behavioral adaptations to modern
cultigens. The second section, on Methodological Concerns, contains three useful review papers on dietary methodology, nutritional status assessment, and assessment
of physical activity and energy expenditure,
by Sara Quandt, John Himes, and Angelo
Tremblay and Claude Bouchard, respectively.
These chapters serve a s very adequate
introductions to these topics for the student
unfamiliar with methodologies in nutrition,
and they no doubt will be widely
recommended readings.
The third section includes broad reviews of
nutrition in the reproductive years (by Linda
Adair), a chapter by Judith Gussler on infant
feeding, and chapters on Nutrition and
Growth by Bob Malina and on Nutrition and
Aging by Cynthia Beall. Gussler’s con-
tribution is more overtly cultural in
orientation than most of the volume, and
Beall’s has a comparative, evolutionary cast.
The final section contains papers on iron
deficiency and mental development by Ernesto Pollitt, on obesity by Manuel Pena and
colleagues, and on intervention to improve nutrition by John Townsend. Pollitt’s
paper is probably the only one in the book
that nutrition scientists will find of primary
interest; it serves as a nice model for
integration of methodological and substantive material.
One wishes for some editorial commentary
along the way to clarify the intended audience and to provide linkage among the
various chapters. The editor’s long experience
in the field is reflected in his choice of
contributors and in the generally readable
and consistent style; some of his own
perspective would have been a n excellent
This volume provides useful overviews of
key areas in nutrition that are of interest to
anthropologists, and most of the chapters
could be used as introductory material to
various nutrition-related topics for students
of anthropology. It will not serve the opposite
purpose, that is, to introduce students of
nutrition to the content and theoretical
orientation of anthropology. The bridge it
provides is primarily one-way. However,
given the proliferation of courses in
nutritional and medical anthropology, it
constitutes a welcome resource.
Department of Family and
Community Medicine
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona
MIGRATION. theories inherent in the current literature
Edited by C.G.N. Mascie-Taylor and G.W. that address this complex phenomenon.
Lasker. New York: Cambridge University
After defining migration narrowly (in
Press. 1988. viii + 263 pp., figures, tables, chapter one) as the geographical displaceindex. $39.60 (cloth).
ment of people to a different locale, MascieTaylor and Lasker explain that the
With human migration occurring more organizing principle governing the selection
rapidly today than ever before, C.G.N. of the range of topics included in the book
Mascie-Taylor and G.W. Lasker’s collection concerns the biological effects of that
of eight essays on the biological aspects of movement on the recipient and donor
human migration is a n important contrib- populations. In their review of the history of
ution. The book is useful for anyone migration studies, Mascie-Taylor and Lasker
interested in the diverse methods and say, furthermore, that the diversity of
research topics represented in the book
derives from historical changes in the
literature in regard to assumptiions about
migration and the development of human
diversity. The current multiplicity of studies
on the biological effects of human migration
on recipient and donor populations is a
reflection of the complexity inherent in the
phenomenon itself.
Three chapters focus on the most prevalent
form of migration today, rural to urban
migration. In chapter 5, Bogin reviews the
literature on such biological effects of the
migration on the growth and development,
fertility, demography, and morbidity and
mortality of the migrating population, as well
as the biological impact of the migration on
the rural population from which the migrants
derived. He concludes his thorouglh exegesis
with a flow-chart illustrating the processes
involved in current rural-to-urban adaptation. In chapter 7, Little and Baker analyze
numerous migration studies in various
geographic regions-Mexico, Central and
South America, Asia, Africa, and the
Pacific-in relation to three hypotheses that
refine our knowledge of the biological
implications of human migration. The role
of migration among migrant laborers as a factor in disease dissemination is the focus
of chapter 8, by Kaplan. Particularly noteworthy is Kaplan’s analysis of the Western
diseases, such a s obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, mental illness, and cancer, that are contracted by the
migrants to urban areas. In addition to a n
exhaustive review of the literature, each of
these chapters presents a critical analysis of
current models, methods, and data in relation
to rural-to-urban migration.
Two specific methodological issues in
studying the biology of human migration are
thoroughly covered in chapters 3 and 4.In
chapter 3, Roberts addresses the uses and
usefulness of official documents, such as
census records, for examining the demographic and genetic features of the migration
process. The enhanced genetic adaptability
of the Black Carib new hybrid population
and the importance of the size of the breeding
population in human evolution are the two
conclusions of this essay. Moreover, after
describing the properties of island-models of
migration, Raspe in chapter 4 applies the
models to the five islands of Scilly near
Cornwall, England.
An evolutionary perspective in relation to
human migration and human diversity is
provided in chapter 2. After comparing the
literature in relation to the diversity within
and between Australia and America, and the
time depth and nature of entry routes in
relation to the biological diversity that developed on the two continents, Laughlin and
Harper examine the question of evolution in
the two areas. They conclude that there is
presumptive evidence for continuity from Pithecanthropus to contemporary mongoloids
(and thus American Indians) and continuity
from Sinanthropus to Australian and New
Guinea aborigines. An evolutionary framework is also presented in chapter 6 by Weiss
in his exegesis on the types of migrationgene flow, invasion, and demic diffusion-in
the evolution of human diversity at six important time periods of human migration. Encompassing a time ranging from the expansion of hominids from Africa to Eurasia to
the mass migration and expansion of urbanized states, Weiss ends with a critique of the
literature on the origin of the major human
races. Weiss concludes that much of current
human diversity is directly traceable to recent large-scale migration.
In conclusion, the authors of this collection
describe and define theoretical insights,
methodological strategies, and substantive
data that are both current and important for
understanding the biological implications of
human migration on both the donor and
recipient populations. In addition, it is well
organized, clearly written, and full of
interesting data, ideas, and interpretations.
It is an important book that raises and
examines issues a t the forefront of physical
PEOPLE.By D. Brothwell. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press. 1987. 128 pp.,
figures, tables, index. $20.00 (cloth), $9.95
The “bog man” to which Brothwell’s title
refers is a body discovered in 1984 at Lindow
Bog in Cheshire, England. Lindow Man
consists of a body from the waist up and a
detached lower leg. Skin, hair, and nails were
Human Services Program
California State at Fullerton
Fullerton, California
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