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Biology and culture in modern perspective. By Joseph G. Jorgensen. 441 pp. figures tables bibliographies index. W. H. Freeman San Francisco. 1972. $12.00 (cloth) $5

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cussed thoroughly from both its “lysoso- chemists, paleontologists, radiologists and
mal” angle induced by EM results and orthopedists.
from the point of view of chemical attack.
Many unsolved problems are brought out;
University of Stockholm
one of the most striking is how rock-hard
bone edge can be “dissolved by the osteoclast. The origin and fate of the osteoclast
is also dealt with in the light of modern
approaches such as cytoplasmatic labelling
with tritiated trymidine.
Chapter 13 is devoted to “humoral factors in resorption,” and is mainly con- BIOLOGY AND CULTUREIN MODERN PERSPECTIVE. By Joseph G. Jorgensen. 441
cerned with observation on the parathyroid
pp., figures, tables, bibliographies, inhormone which is treated more in detail in
the following pages both from a historicaldex. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.
1972. $12.00 (cloth), $5.95 (paper).
experimental viewpoint and more specially
as regards hyperparathyroidism in man.
When asked to review a new book, one is
Chapter 14 puts forward ideas of resorption by cells other than osteoclasts, and by nature prone to be critical. In reviewing
here the osteocytes come into the range of a book of readings, in this case a conglomsuspicion. The morphological, cyto- and eration of 41 Scientific American offprints,
biochemical studies in this field are care- one is confronted with a choice of level of
fully reviewed.
criticism - does one evaluate each article
Chapter 15, “unknown factors in bone or the book as a whole? I have chosen the
resorption,” mentions a series of patholog- latter course since almost all of these artiical, reversible, or irreversible changes in cles are written by distinguished scholars
bone resorption, e.g., disuse atrophy, “grey who are experts on the subject matter of
lethal” mutant in mice, cleido-cranial dys- their essays. It would be extremely preostosis in man, and many others; in some sumptuous to assume a knowledge of all
cases they cause aberrations in both bone the topics covered in these articles.
Unfortunately the title of this book imresorption and deposition showing that local factors must exist which exercise influ- plies, intentionally or not, that it will preence on both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, sent us with a synthetic view of man’s
as well as hormonal factors like parathor- biology and culture-the
grand wish of
mone and the recently synthetized calci- American Anthropology. It does not. What
we are presented with is an intellectual
Section 4 and its first chapter, 16, are grab bag, rather than a systemically orboth entitled “osteogenic stimuli.” The ganized group of articles. One must keep
most striking and informative example is in mind that the editor was limited to
taken from the healing of bone fractures, what had been published in Scientific
the formation of fibrocartillagenous callus, American at the time of his editorship.
the later appearance of osteoblasts and,
The book is divided into three parts:
the building up of woven bone trabeculae.
Part I: Biological Anthropology - HuThe two last chapters, 17 and 18, are de- man Origins and the History of Life, Huvoted to “bone induction by living implants man Genetics and Evolution, and Evolution
and by nonliving implants.”
of Animal Behavior.
Although the reviewer is a pure morPart 11: Human Prehistory -Tools and
phologist who did not master the biochem- the Development of Culture, The Rise of
ically oriented chapters of this volume, it Civilization in the Old World, and The
has for him been the most sublime delight Rise of Civilization in the New World.
Part 111: Cultural Anthropology - Trato follow the clear and instructive presentation of the deep knowledge of Dr. Hancox. ditional Concerns: Kinship, Polity, EkonThis textbook must be of paramount and omy, Society; A Variation on Traditional
lasting value not only for histologists but Concerns: The Neofunctional Ecology of
for all the categories of researchers men- Hunters; Farmers, and Pastoralists; and
tioned in the author’s preface: physicists, New Concerns: “Haves” and “Have-Nots.”
Part I takes up only 155 pages of the
total 431 of the book. The human origins
subsection is extremely weak (“Crises in
the history of life” by Newell, “The distribution of Man” and “Homo erectus” by
Howells, and Simons’ “The earliest apes.”
Simons’ “The earliest relatives of man”
and Napier’s “The antiquity of walking”
and “The evolution of the h a n d would
have added much to this section. The next
subsection includes Dobzhansky’s “The
present evolution of man,” “The gene” by
Horowitz, “The genetic code 111” by Crick,
and “Porphyria and King George 111” by
Macalpine and Hunter. More recent molecular genetics articles which have appeared
in recent years would have made for a
more currently correct view of this aspect
of genetics while Dobzhansky’s “The genetic basis of evolution” might have added a
unifying element to this brief subsection.
Some of the Scientific American articles
on climatic and geographic adaptation
would have also been of value. Unfortunately the editor’s forward only abstracts
articles rather than uniting them with
more current information and ideas.
The third subsection includes Lorenz’s
classic “The evolution of behavior,” “The
evolution of intelligence” by Nitterman,
“The social order of turkeys” by Watts and
Stokes, “Urban monkeys” by Singh, and
Washburn and DeVore’s well-known “The
social life of baboons.” This subsection
largely reflects the absence of primate behavior articles in Scientific American. The
Washburn and DeVore article is the pivotal point for a discussion of not only the
variability of baboon behavior but primate
behavior in general; unfortunately the
editor did not take this up in his forward,
although the urban monkey article does
touch upon this matter.
The biological anthropology section as a
whole is rather disjointed. It would appear
that physical anthropologists are either
not contributing many articles to this popular publication or their contributions are
not being accepted. The Scientific American reader by Laughlin and Osborne ( H u m a n Variation and Origins) stands as a
much superior contribution in subject matter and editorial comment.
The section on human prehistory is basically articles on the Paleo-, Meso- and Neolithic. Included is Washburn’s “Tools and
human evolution.” While one cannot completely agree with this now classic article,
it is one still worth reading, especially for
insight into how one can approach difficult
problems in human evolution. It might
have been better placed in the biological
anthropology section. The Binfords’ article, “Stone tools and human behavior,” is
a very important one, especially in its illustration of the early application of factor
analysis to tool assemblages. The Mulvaney
(“The prehistory of the Australian Aborigine”) and De Heinzelin (“Ishango”) articles seem to have been included to represent something of the Upper Paleolithic
and the Mesolithic. The remaining articles
by such authorities as Braidwood, MacNeish, Lamberg-Karlovsky, Renfrew, and
Adams do by and large represent a “modern perspective” of archaeology. Jorgensen’s comments serve to tie the articles
together better than in the biological section although they still tend to be abstracts.
The recent Lamberg-Karlovskyreader is by
far a superior work.
The last section of the reader is on cultural anthropology. The selection is spotty
even for a supplementary readings text.
Again integrating comments are not presented by the editor. The major contribution is the diagrams, maps, and photos
which are well-done and convey a mass of
information. Some of the articles (Fortes
on “Primitive kinship” and Lewis on “The
culture of poverty” and “The possessions
of the poor”) are very general and elementary reading designed for non-anthropologists. Other articles such as Kemp’s on
“The flow of energy in a hunting society”
are very specialized. The article by Mintz
on peasant markets is an excellent summary of what he has been doing on the
subject for years. Most of the articles are
not trivial with the possible exception of
“The dimensions of world poverty” by
David Simpson. None of the cultural articles are out of date, as in the case of some
of the articles in the biological section.
The book as a whole does not really cover
many aspects of modern anthropology.
None of the essays present anything really
new or highly controversial in anthropology; this is especially true of the biological
side of the science. If one were to use this
text as a supplementary reader in a course,
considerable guidance to the student would
be necessary for it to be a worthwhile experience.
University of Maryland
PHYSICALANTHROPOLOGY. Technical Editor and Faculty Consultant, William
E. Haney. lvii + 624 pp. (11 units
supplement), figures, tables, bibliography, test set, instructor’s manual. Individual Learning Systems, San Rafael,
Calif. 1971. $12.95 (paper).
The ILS text in Physical Anthropology is
designed to be used in Personalized Systems
of Instruction (PSI). This new method of
teaching has had significant impact on
innovative educators, as i t offers attractive
solutions to competency-based instruction
while reducing staff costs. Staff advantages
are that PSI puts responsibility for the student’s performance on the student, allows
great flexibility in development of teaching
materials, and close specification of what is
to be learned and mastered. Students appreciate having clear responsibility for their
learning and lack of pressure resulting
from repeatable mastery quizzes. My experience with three PSI courses of my own
design in physical anthropology is that
students learn more, with greater satisfaction, than in similar lecture courses.
PSI courses generally share (1) student
self-pacing, (2) individual achievement of
data mastery, (3) use of a text as information source, with lectures and demonstrations to stimulate interest and motivate
students, (4) administration of written
quizzes to assess mastery and (5) student
proctors who provide immediate grading
of quizzes and tutoring.
Information on the use of this teaching
method is found in the PSI Newsletter (Department of Psychology, Georgetown University, Washington, D. C. 20007).
Because of this approach, the use of a
textbook which relates concepts to data
with clarity and substance is extremely
important. Without a text with which both
staff and students are comfortable the PSI
approach is doomed.
Three approaches to PSI instruction are
open: use a standard text and develop
29 1
your own materials, write to Technological
Applications Project (P. 0. Box 1028, Corvallis, Oregon 97330) for similar instructional systems which can be adapted to
your course, or use the ILS system, which
includes both text and study guides.
The advantage of personalizing your
PSI course should not be underestimated.
When the instructor comes to grips with
what his students should be learning and
designs a program so that his students can
learn, the results can be excellent.
The ILS text breaks down its view of
physical anthropology into four basic sections: (1) The field of anthropology, (2)
genetics, (3) human evolution, and (4)
evolution of behavior. These sections are
arranged into 11 units and subdivided into
43 modules. The modules are brief and liberally illustrated. Self-administered progress tests are keyed back into the text,
helping organize and make explicit what
the student is expected to learn. When the
student can pass the progress tests, he
takes the unit test, included among the instructor’s materials, administered by staff.
In my judgement, the ILS system is short
on flexibility, weak on modern concepts and
not designed for university level courses.
Flexibility is difficult to maintain with
the ILS system. Your own study guides may
reflect more directly the range of interests
and abilities of the students in your class.
When student performance or other feedback suggests alterations in a unit, a revision can be introduced at once without
waiting for a new edition of the whole
The material presented lacks the depth
and breadth for a first-class university
course. At best the ILS system is an outline
of physical anthropology. For example, the
section on “individual traits or clusters of
traits” is ten paragraphs long with the
longest paragraph having eight sentences.
Richness of detail is sacrificed to poverty of brevity and students are immediate
Finally, the text represents an old fashioned view of physical anthropology, more
concerned with skeletal anatomy than the
evolution of biosocial behavior. Of the suggested readings for lectures and discussions, 15 of 19 are in 1965 or 1966. The
average date of 38 citations in the reference section between 1950 and 1970 was
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1972, cloth, 441, freeman, figuren, modern, index, francisca, bibliographie, jorgensen, joseph, culture, tablet, san, biologya, perspectives
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