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Blood genetic markers in the Chinese of two eastern provinces.

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 8 0 ~ 2 9 5 3 0 3(1989)
Blood Genetic Markers in the Chinese of Two Eastern Provinces
N.SAHA
Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, National University of
Singapore, Singapore 0511
KEY WORDS
Han Chinese, Population genetics, Blood groups,
Serum proteins, Re11 cell enzymes, Electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing
ABSTRACT
A total of 205 Han Chinese from two eastern provinces (155
from Fujien and 50 from Hopeh) were tested for the distribution of six blood
groups-A,A,BO, MN, Rhesus (CcDEe), Lewisa, Kell (Kk) and Fya-four
serum proteins-albumin and haptoglobin types; transferrin and groupspecific component subtypes-haemoglobin, and twelve red cell enzyme systems-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, lactate and malate dehydrogenases; acid phosphatase, esterate-D,
glyoxalase I, adenylate kinase, glucose-phosphate isomerase, phosphoglucomutase (locus 21, and superoxide dismutase types; and phosphoglucomutase
(locus 1)subtypes.
The frequencies of blood groups were more or less within the reported
frequencies in the Chinese. However the frequency of le was much lower in the
present series. The Chinese are characterized by low p', Ro, h, le, and a high
Fy" in general. P2 was lacking in the Chinese. There were some differences in
the blood group frequencies in the two provinces.
The frequencies of H p alleles; Tf and Gc subtypes show characteristic
mongoloid features with high Hp', ?IfD, and GcIF.The frequency of TF c2 was
higher in the Fujien province than that in Hopeh.
At the hemoglobin locus only one Hb AD was detected, while the frequency of
the P-thalassemia trait was 0.03. No red cell G6PD deficiency or variant was
detected. The distribution of red cell enzymes showed Mongoloid characteristics with low PGDc,AK2,ESD1,GLO', and higherp". PGM, subtypes also had
Mongoloid characteristics with lower PGM2+ and higher PGM2-. The phenotypic distribution of all the fifteen polymorphic loci was at Hardy-Weinberg
equilibrium in both the Chinese populations.
The Chinese constitute about a fourth of
the world's population. Ninety-three percent
of the population of China are Han Chinese,
while the remaining population is from 55
ethnic minorities. The term "Han" refers to
the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. to 220 A.D.). Han
form the great homogenous mass of the Chinese, having common history, culture, and
written language. They speak the Sinitic
language of the Sino-Tibetan language family. There has been very meagre work done
on blood genetic markers in the Chinese.
Most of the work has been carried out on
overseas Chinese in US and the Malayan
peninsular regions (Hawkins and Simons,
1973, 1976; Saha and Banerjee, 1973; Simmons et al., 1950; Sussman, 1956; Wiener et
al., 1944; Mourant et al., 1976). Recently we
@
1989 ALAN R. LISS, INC.
have reported on the distribution of transferrin (TO, group-specific component (Gc), and
red cell phosphoglucomutase (PGM) subtypes among the overseas Chinese from different geographical regions of Asia (Saha,
1987, 1988a, 1989) and noted some differences in their distribution. Our laboratory
has also reported on the distribution of tissue enzymes (malic enzyme, glucose dehydrogenase, and gamma amino butyric acid
transaminase) in Singapore Chinese with
report of new alleles at the later two loci
(Bhattacharyya and Saha, 1984; Bhattacharyya et al., 1985; Saha et al., 1987). In
Received July 25,1988; revision accepted March 23,1989
296
N. SAHA
addition various authors have reported on
the distribution of blood groups (Mourant et
al., 19761, serum proteins, and red cell enzyme polymorphism. To our knowledge there
has been no systemic population genetic
study carried out on the mainland Chinese
except the recent studies of blood genetic
markers and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
polymorphism in three minorities of China
namely Mongolians, Koreans and Zhuangs
(Goedde et al., 1984a,b;Xu et al., 1986; Yuan
et al., 1984). In addition a study on Gm and
Km allotypes in five Chinese populations
has also been reported by Matsumoto et al.
(1986).
In view of the paucity of data on blood
genetic markers in the Chinese, we report
here on the distribution of six blood groups,
four serum protein; haemoglobin, and thirteen red cell enzyme polymorphisms in two
groups of Han Chinese resident in the Fujien
and Hopeh provinces in eastern China.
similar methods as published recently
(Saha, 1988b).
The gene frequencies for all the blood
groups except Rhesus, haemoglobin, serum
proteins, and red cell enzymes were determined by gene counting method (Mourant et
al., 1976). The gene frequency of the Rhesus
system was estimated by the maximum-likelihood programme at the Department of Human Genetics, the University of Newscastle
upon Tyne, England. The Hardy-Weinberg
equilibrium was estimated by the x21 (chisquare test). The difference in the gene frequency between the populations was also
measured x21 (chi-square test) and P values.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
ABO
The frequency ofpl was found to be 0.17 in
both the groups, while p2 was completely
lacking. None of the earlier studies reported
the subtypes ofp in the Chinese. There was a
marked difference in the frequency of q and r
in these two groups of Chinese (x21 = 6.44
and 3.10,respectively) and they were respectively 0.15 and 0.28 for q; and 0.69 and 0.55
for r in Fujien and Hopeh provinces. In general, the frequencies of p , q, and r in the
studied populations are within the range of
allelic frequencies published in Han Chinese
in China and overseas (Wiener et al., 1944;
Simmons et al., 1950; Sussman, 1956;
Hawkins and Simons, 1976; Saha et al.,
1975; Mourant et al., 1976).The range ofp in
the Chinese in the above studies has been
reported to vary from 0.15 to 0.25; that of q
from 0.17 to 0.24 and r from 0.54 to 0.67. The
two of 55 national minorities of China (Mongolians and Zhuang) also have similar frequencies of ABO alleles (Yuan et al., 1984).
MN
The frequencies of m and n were found to
be 0.62 and 0.38 in Fujien, while it was 0.50
for both the alleles in Hopeh Chinese. The
reported frequency of m range from 0.51 to
0.63 in different studies in overseas Chinese.
Differences in MN frequencies have been
reported among the Han Chinese either
north or south of the Yangtze river with a
higher frequency in the south. (Chen et al.,
1964; Nakajima et al., 1967; Yuan et al.,
Blood samples were collected from 205
Han Chinese of both sexes comprising 155
residents of Fujien province and 50 residents
of Hopeh province of eastern China. They
were attending the Singapore Anti-Tuberculosis Association (SATA) Chest and Heart
Clinic for medical examination in connection
with their employment as foreign workers.
All the foreign workers in Singapore have to
undergo a medical examination including a
serological VDRL test and a chest X-ray a t
SATA. They come to Singapore on a solely
temporary work permit for 2 to 3 years and
return to their native country on expiration
of their work permit.
Specimens of blood were collected by
venepuncture in EDTA. A 3% suspension of
red cells was made in isotonic saline. Plasma
was separated by centrifugation. Both the
plasma and packed cells were stored at
-80°C until use. The AlA2B0, MN, Rhesus,
and Lewisablood groups were determined by
saline agglutination tests on blood grouping
tile using commercial antisera (A, Al, B; M,
N; D, C, c, E, e, and Lewisa); Lewis blood
grouping was carried out at 4°C in a humid
chamber. Kell and Duffy blood groups were
determined by indirect Coomb's test in tubes
at 37°C using Anti-K, k, and Fy". The phenotyping of the serum proteins (albumin, haptoglobulin types; transferrin and group-specific subtypes; haemoglobin; red cell
enzymes types; and phosphoglucomutase
subtypes) was determined by essentially
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The distribution of blood groups in the
Han Chinese from the Fujien and Hopeh
provinces of eastern China is presented in
Table 1.
BLOOD GROUPS
297
GENETIC MARKERS IN CHINESE
T A B L E 1. Distribution of blood groups in the Chinese from two eastern provinces
Systems
Phenotypes
ABO
AI
A2
B
AiB
A2B
0
All
Fujien province
No. obs.
No. exp.
40
M
MN
N
All
RIR, (CCDEe)
RlRi (CCDee)
R I R (CcDEe)
~
RIR, (CcDEE)
Rlr (CcDee)
RzR:! (ccDEE)
Rgr (ccDEe)
Ror (ccDee)
rr (ccdee)
All
17
16
17
50
3.57
65.91
51.77
1.39
14.69
1
14
22
1
3
0.06
60
72
22
154
3
63
60
2
13
5
7
1
0
154
10.29
.00
19.18
4.57
.OO
14.96
49.00
P'
P2
12.5
25.0
12.5
50.0
Gene frequencies
Fujien
Hopeh
r
,1667
.0000
.1474
.6859
.0000
,2822
.5525
m
n
.6234
,3766
,5000
,5000
Rz (CDE)
,0174
.6420
,2502
,0716
,0123
9
.1651
6.48
10.01
4
5.73
0.82
0.00
153.89
3
0
1
49
1.22
14.76
18.72
0.76
4.49
5.82
2.83
0.00
0.34
48.94
rv (CdE)
.0048
.0003
r (cde)
.0014
.0226
5465
,3445
.0000
.0020
.0020
.0000
,0839
Ri (CDe)
R:! (cDE)
Ro (cDe)
r' (Cde)
r" (cdE)
3.08
4.82
X2
Alleles
0.75
0.003
XZ
Khesus
59.84
72.31
21.84
153.99
n
35
7
0
72
154
x2
MN
34.48
7.57
0
72.45
154.00
9
0
18
6
0
16
49
39.50
n
Hopeh province
No. obs.
No. exp.
Lewis
Lea'
LeaAll
13
141
154
2
48
50
Le
le
,7095
,2905
,8000
,2000
Kell
Kk
kk
All
5
1
49
50
K
149
154
k
.016'2
.9838
,0100
,9900
149
5
49
1
FY a
,8198
,1802
,8586
Duffy
Fy"'
Fy"-
1984; Chen and Yuan, 1983). The minority
Zhuan have a much higher m (0.74)than the
Mongolians or Han (Yuan et al., 1984).
Rhesus
The frequencies of R1, R2, and Ro were
found to be 0.64,0.25, and 0.07 in Fujien and
0.55, 0.34, and 0.00 in Hopeh provinces.
More-or-less similar frequencies of these
Rhesus alleles have been reported in overseas Chinese and the Han and minority Chinese in mainland China. A low frequency of
Rz had also been reported in the Chinese
before as in the present series (0.02). The
frequency of r was higher in Hopeh (0.08)
than in the Fujien (0.001) province in the
present investigation (xZ1 = 5.82). A low
frequency of r', r", and ry (0.01, 0.005,and
0.0003)was also present in the Hopeh series.
A low frequency of r has also been reported
among the Chinese in Singapore (0.07) and
Calcutta (0.04) by Hawkins and Simons
4n
Fyh
,1414
(1976) and Chaudhuri et al. (1967). A low
frequency of r' (0.03)also has been observed
in the Singapore Chinese (Hawkins and Simons, 1973). It seems that Rhesus-negative
alleles are present in the Chinese, though
very rarely.
Lewis, Kell, and Duffi
The frequency of le was found to be 0.29 in
the Fujien and 0.20 in the Hopeh province. A
much higher frequency of le has been reported in the Chinese in Malaya (0.39) and
NewYork (0.50)(Simmons et al., 1950; Saha,
1973; Mourant et al., 1976).
The frequency of k was 0.02 in the Fujien
and 0.01 in the Hopeh provinces. A similarly
low frequency of k has been reported in the
Han Chinese, Mongolian and Zhuang of
mainland (Yuan et al., 1984) and in overseas
Chinese (Sussman, 1956; and Chaudhuri et
al., 1967; Mourant et al., 1976).
The frequency of Fy" was found to be 0.82
298
N. SAHA
TABLE 2. Distribution of serum proteins in the Chinese from two eastern provinces
Systems
Haptoglobin
Phenotypes
1-1
2-1
2-2
0'
All
Fujien province
No. obs.
No. exp.
13
62
77
1
153
Cl-l
c2-1
c2-2
C3-1
85
52
9
1
c3-3
1
1
C1-R
C2-B
2
c2-n
AJl
3
155
ci-n
1
1F
lFlS
1s
1F2
1s2
n
z
All
2
6
13
30
81.65
54.43
9.07
2.18
0.02
2.18
0.73
2.90
2.17
155.33
34
9
3
2
0
1
0
25
28
19
47
25
10
154
25.36
36.93
13.45
37.33
27.19
13.74
154.00
9
9
3
11
11
7
50
3.19
18.62
27.19
1.00
50.00
1
50
Alleles
Gene frequencies
Fujien
Hopeh
2895
,7105
,0065
,2551
,7449
.0200
T p
TfB
Tf
,7258
.2419
,0097
.0097
,0129
,8100
.I500
.0200
,0100
,0100
Gc"
Gc"
Gc2
.4058
.2955
.2987
,3800
,2600
.3600
HP1
Hp2
HP'
4.46
32.81
12.15
1.13
1.62
0.02
0.81
0.15
0.81
0.15
49.65
1
0
50
5.29
XL
Group-specific
component
subtypes
12.74
62.53
76.74
1.00
153.01
0.01
X2
Transferrin
subtypes
Hopeh province
No. obs.
No. exp.
Tfc'
Tfc2
4.30
7.22
9.88
3.38
13.68
9.36
6.48
50.00
1.41
8.15
~
'Not considered for gene frequency calculation due to uncertain genetic origin.
The distribution of plasma haptoglobin
types, transferrin, and group-specific component subtypes in the Chinese from Fujien
and Hopeh province is shown in Table 2.
and Ong, 1984). The Chinese of Hong Kong
have a higher frequency of Hp' (0.38) (Mourant et al., 1976). Hp' frequency of 0.27 has
been reported in the Han Chinese from Beijing and Shanghai, respectively, by Liang et
al. (1983) and Kong et al. (1983). Variable
frequencies ofHp' have also been reported in
ethnic minorities of China (Xu et al., 1986).A
low percentage of Hp" (<2%) has been observed in both the groups. A similar low
percentage of Hp" has been observed in overseas Chinese and Chinese in Beijing. However, Kong et al. (1983)have reported a much
higher percentage of Hp" (7.8%)in subjects
from Shanghai.
Haptoglobin
The frequency of Hp' was found to be 0.29
in the Fujien and 0.25 in the Hopeh Chinese.
A low percentage of Hp" was also detected in
both the populations (0.01 and 0.02, respectively). A similarly low frequency of Hpl has
been reported in the Chinese of mainland
and overseas (Kirk et al., 1960; Blackwell et
al., 1962).We reported earlier frequencies of
Hp' ranging from 0.29 to 0.38 in the different
dialect groups of Chinese of Singapore (Saha
Transferrin
The rare variants of transferrin TfDChi
and Tf were present at low frequencies
(0.01) in both the provinces. A higher frequency of T f (0.04)has been observed in the
Chinese of Malaya (0.02 to 0.04) and US
(Kirk and Lai, 1961, Giblett, 1962).A similar
frequency of llfD (0.03) was observed in
Hong Kong and Taiwan Chinese (Mourant
et al., 1976; Shih and Hsia, 1969). Chinese
minorities (Mongolian and Zhuang) have
and 0.86 in the Fujien and Hopeh provinces.
Similar frequencies of Fy" have been reported in the Han Chinese of Taiwan by
Fraser et al. (1965) and in the Chinese of
Calcutta (Chaudhuri et al., 1967). However,
a higher frequency of Fy" has been reported
in the Chinese of Hong Kong (Mourant et al.,
1976)and Mongolians and Zhuangs of mainland China (Yuan et al., 1984).
SERUM PROTEINS
GENETIC MARKERS IN CHINESE
vD
frequencies of 0.01 and 0.03, respectively (Goedde et al., 1984a). The earlier
studies in the Chinese did not reveal any
except an isolated example in the Mongolians in China (Goedde et al., 1984a).The
frequency of Tf 13 was 0.01 in the Chinese of
both the provinces. T f B has also been observed a t a low frequency in the Chinese of
Malaysia and Taiwan (Saha, 1987).
The frequencies of transferrin subtype alleles T f ", Tf
and T f c3 were found to be
0.73, 0.24, and 6.01 in the Fujien, and 0.81,
0.15, and 0.02 in the Hopeh province. The
frequency of Tfc' in the Chinese of different
overseas localities varied from 0.73 t o 0.79,
while that of TfC2c2 ranged from 0.18 to
0.24. A low frequency of Tfc3 has been reported in the Chinese of Malaysia (0.03) and
Taiwan (0.01) (Tan et al., 1982; Saha, 1987).
The Japanese also have similar frequencies
of transferrin alleles (Beckman et al., 1980;
Kamboh and Kirk, 1983).
Group-specific component
The frequency of Gc2 was found to be 0.30
and 0.36 in the Fujien and Hopeh, respectively. Nakajima and Ohkura (1971) observed a frequency of 0.31 in Northern China
and 0.27 in Southern Chinese for Gc2. Chinese in Taiwan has a much lower frequency
of Gc2 (0.21) (Nakajima and Ohkura, 1971).
A lower frequency of Gc2 has also been reported in the overseas Chinese ranging from
0.20 to 0.26 (Mourant et al., 1976). The lowest frequency of Gc2(0.16)has been observed
in the Chinese in Malaysia by Tan et al.
(1982).A wide variation of Gc subtypes have
been reported in the Chinese from different
localities. The Chinese of Hong Kong have a
higher frequency of GclF (0.45) compared to
that in Malaysian Chinese (0.431, Singapore
(0.39), Taiwan (0.40 to 0.44), and Fouzhou
(0.49). The frequency of GclF in the present
series was almost similar in Fujien and
Hopeh province (0.41 and 0.38, respectively).
The frequency of Gels was found to be 0.30
and 0.26, respectively, in these two provinces. A similar frequency of Gels has been
reported in the Chinese of Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China (Saha,
1989; Kamboh et al., 1984; Matsumoto et al.,
1980; Kim and Lewis, 1981; Zeng and
Omoto, 1987). However, Tan et al. (1982J
reported a much lower frequency of Gc'
(0.16) in the Malaysian Chinese. Similar
frequencies of Gc alleles have also been observed in the Japanese.
vB,
299
Haemoglobin
A single example of haemoglobin AD was
observed in 155 Chinese from Fujien rovince (Table 3). The frequency of HbPtha'was
0.03 in the same province. No abnormal
haemoglobin was detected in 50 subjects
from Hopeh province. Earlier series of 111
Chinese from Hopeh province also did not
show any abnormal haemoglobin (Livingstone, 1985). In general, the incidence of
variant haemoglobin is very low in the Chinese (Vella, 1960; Zeng, 1981; Livingstone,
1985).
RED CELL ENZYMES
Glucose-&phosphate dehydrogenase
(GGPD)
G6PD deficiency was not present in the
205 samples from the eastern China provinces. All the subjects had GdB+ phenotype.
However, there have not been many studies
carried out for red cell G6PD in overseas or
inland Chinese by starch-gel electrophoresis. In one study in 100 Chinese of Taiwan no
G6PD deficiencywas detected. In our earlier
electrophoretic study of GGPD in the Chinese
of Singapore the rate of G6PD was about
8.0%, which corresponds well with the results of the dye-decolouration screening test
(Vella, 1962;Saha and Banerjee, 1971; Saha,
1984). Further, two types of non-deficient
G6PD variant with 95% and 80% electrophoretic mobility were encountered in the
Chinese of Singapore. It appears that G6PD
deficiency in the overseas Chinese might be
a recent development due to high endemicity
of malaria. In mainland China and Hong
Kong the G6PD deficiency as detected by the
screening test varied from 0% to 6.0% in
different areas (Livingstone, 1985).
6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
The common variant of GPGD (PGD")was
present at low frequencies in the Chinese of
both the provinces (0.04 and 0.07, respectively). Two cases of a fast variant of GPGD
were detected, which was similar in electrophoretic mobility to that described earlier in
Singapore Chinese (Blake et al., 1973). A
much higher frequency of PGD" (0.15) has
been reported in the Taiwanese by Fong
(1974). The frequency ofPGD" of 0.10 in the
Chinese in Taiwan and 0.07 in the mainland
was reported by Shih et al. (1968) and Shih
and Hsia (1969). The Chinese in Singapore
and Malaysia have a PGD" frequency compa-
300
N. S4H.4
TABLE 3. Distribution
Systems
Haemoglobin
haemoglobin and red cell enzyme polymorphisms in the Chinese
from two eastern provinces
of
Phenotypes
Fujien province
No.
No.
obs.
exp.
A
AAz
146
8
AD
A,”
A
AC
AF
‘Q”’
All
12
B
AB
CB
All
89
53
2-1
2-2
All
1
155
Phosphoglucomutase
subtypes
(locus 1)
1-1
2-1
2-2
A,”
X
1+
1+111+2+
1+21-2+
1-22+
2+22-
2+6
1+7
2+vs
$1
X
9.56
86.82
57.63
0.74
154.75
1.13
1
Alleles
Gene frequencies
Fujien - Hopeh
50.
.OO
.OO
50.00
Hb A
HbA2
HbD
,9710
.0258
.0032
1.000
.000
,000
43.24
6.51
.OO
.00
.OO
PGD~
PGD~
PGD~
PGD
,9545
.0390
.0065
,0065
.9300
,0700
,000
0.98
36.98
12.04
.OO
50.00
Pa
Ph
PC
.2484
,7484
,0031
,1400
3600
.0000
21.78
22.44
5.78
50.00
ESD‘
ESD~
,6903
.3097
.6600
,3400
0.00
,000
0.04
37
12
0
50
0.00
75
64
16
155
74.07
66.24
14.86
155.17
0.18
23
20
7
50
13
41
101
155
7.24
52.51
95.24
154.99
7.45
0
16
34
50
1.28
13.44
35.28
50.00
1.82
GLO’
GLO~
.2161
.7839
.1600
,8400
58
23
8
26
13
3
2
5
6
6
52.93
25.88
3.16
27.05
19.40
6.61
4.74
3.46
4.96
1.78
0.15
1.17
0.00
151.29
30.16
17
7
4
9
3
14.05
9.54
1.62
10.07
4.77
3.42
1.62
1.81
1.71
0.41
0
0
0.19
49.21
11.37
PGM‘+
PGM’PGm”
PG?&
PGM6
PGfl
PGWs
,5882
.1438
.1503
,1078
,0033
,0065
.0000
.5300
,1800
,1900
,0900
.0000
.0000
.0100
X2
Glyoxalase I
43
7
0
0
50
0.02
A
1-1
140.30
11.47
1.91
1.00
154.68
0.00
140
12
2
1
155
X2
Esterase D
50
0
0
50
1
X2
Acid
phosphatase
146.14
7.77
0.96
154.87
155
x
6-phosphogluconate
dehydrogenase
Hopeh province
No.
No.
obs.
exp.
1
2
0
153
0.62
1
2
3
2
1
0
0
1
50
‘Not considered for gene frequency calculation.
rable to that of the present study (Blake et
al., 1973; Lie-Injo and Welch, 1972). One
isolated case of 6PGD deficiency (PGD”)was
detected in 155 samples from Fujien in the
present study.
Acid phosphutase
The frequencies of pa, pb, and pc were
found to be 0.25, 0.76, and 0.003 in the
Chinese of the Fujien province. Similar frequencies of pa and pb were observed in the
ethnic minorities of China (Goedde et al.,
1984a); Chinese in Malaya and Singapore
(Blake et al., 1973; Lai and Kwa, 1968; Chan
1971) and in Japanese (Toyomasu, 1974).
The frequency ofp” was much lower (0.14) in
the Chinese of Hopeh province, but the sample was rather small. A low frequency of pa
(0.19) has also been reported in the Chinese
in Taiwan by Shih and Hsia (1969). A low
frequency ofpc (0.05)has only been reported
in the same study in Taiwan.
Esteruse D
The frequency of ESD’ was found to be
0.69 in Fujien and 0.66 in the Hopeh prov-
GENETIC MARKERS IN CHINESE
ince. Similar frequencies of ESD' have been
reported in the Japanese (0.661, Nepalese
(0.62), and Mongolians and Zhuangs (0.70
and 0.60, respectively) (Sensabagh and
Golden, 1976; Goedde et al., 1984a). The
Europeans and Africans have a much higher
frequency of ESD' (Papiha and Nahar,
1977).
Glyoxalase I
The frequency of GLO' was found to be
0.22 in the Fujien and 0.16 in the Hopeh
provinces. A similar GLO' frequency has
been observed in the Mongolians and
Zhuang and the Chinese in Singapore
(Goedde et al., 1984a; Ghosh, 1977). The
Japanese have a much lower frequency of
GLO' (0.09). The GLO' frequency ranges
from 0.11to 0.25 among the six ethnic groups
of Chinese (Li et al., 1986). The frequency of
GLO' is much higher in the Europeans and
Africans.
301
casians and Blacks (Saha, 1988). The
Japanese have more-or-less similar frequencies of PGMl subtypes (Kamboh and Kirk,
1984).
Monomorphic systems
No variation was observed in the distribution of serum albumin, adehylate kinase,
glucose-phosphate isomerase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase-2, and superoxide dismutase in
either the Fujien or Hopeh provinces. No
variation of adenylate kinase has been reported in the Chinese of Singapore, the
United States, Malaya (Chan, 1971; Welch
et al., 1971). Only one example ofAK2-1 has
been reported in Taiwan Chinese (by Shih et
al., 1968). The Japanese also have no @.
No variation of MDH has been reported in
the Chinese of Singapore or Malaya, while
two new variants of LDH have been reported
in Singapore Chinese in an earlier studyChinese-1 and Chinese-2 (Blake et al., 1973;
Blake, 1978; Yip et al., 1979).
Phosphoglucomutase 1
The frequency of PGM' and P G P was
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
found to be 0.73 and 0.26 in the Fujien
province and 0.71 and 0.19 in the Hopeh
The author is grateful to the Medical Diprovince. A similar frequency of PGM' has rector, Singapore Anti-Tuberculosis Associbeen reported in the Chinese from Singapore ation (SATA) Chest and Heart Clinic, for
and Malaya (Blake et al., 1974,1975) and in providing facilities for collection of blood.
the Chinese in the United States (Mourant et The technical assistance of the staff of SATA,
al., 1976). However, a much lower frequency Mdm. C.H. Ho and Miss Jumiah Bte El
of PGM' has been observed in the Mongo- Basair, and the secretarial help of Mrs Jina
lians and Zhuangs of China (Goedde et al. Loh is thankfully recorded. The project was
1984a).A low frequency of P G W and PGMf generously supported by the Shaw Foundahas been observed in the Fujien province, tion, Singapore.
while only one instance of a probable new
variant of P G P (PI 6.5) has been observed
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