AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 8 0 ~ 2 9 5 3 0 3(1989) Blood Genetic Markers in the Chinese of Two Eastern Provinces N.SAHA Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 0511 KEY WORDS Han Chinese, Population genetics, Blood groups, Serum proteins, Re11 cell enzymes, Electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing ABSTRACT A total of 205 Han Chinese from two eastern provinces (155 from Fujien and 50 from Hopeh) were tested for the distribution of six blood groups-A,A,BO, MN, Rhesus (CcDEe), Lewisa, Kell (Kk) and Fya-four serum proteins-albumin and haptoglobin types; transferrin and groupspecific component subtypes-haemoglobin, and twelve red cell enzyme systems-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, lactate and malate dehydrogenases; acid phosphatase, esterate-D, glyoxalase I, adenylate kinase, glucose-phosphate isomerase, phosphoglucomutase (locus 21, and superoxide dismutase types; and phosphoglucomutase (locus 1)subtypes. The frequencies of blood groups were more or less within the reported frequencies in the Chinese. However the frequency of le was much lower in the present series. The Chinese are characterized by low p', Ro, h, le, and a high Fy" in general. P2 was lacking in the Chinese. There were some differences in the blood group frequencies in the two provinces. The frequencies of H p alleles; Tf and Gc subtypes show characteristic mongoloid features with high Hp', ?IfD, and GcIF.The frequency of TF c2 was higher in the Fujien province than that in Hopeh. At the hemoglobin locus only one Hb AD was detected, while the frequency of the P-thalassemia trait was 0.03. No red cell G6PD deficiency or variant was detected. The distribution of red cell enzymes showed Mongoloid characteristics with low PGDc,AK2,ESD1,GLO', and higherp". PGM, subtypes also had Mongoloid characteristics with lower PGM2+ and higher PGM2-. The phenotypic distribution of all the fifteen polymorphic loci was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both the Chinese populations. The Chinese constitute about a fourth of the world's population. Ninety-three percent of the population of China are Han Chinese, while the remaining population is from 55 ethnic minorities. The term "Han" refers to the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. to 220 A.D.). Han form the great homogenous mass of the Chinese, having common history, culture, and written language. They speak the Sinitic language of the Sino-Tibetan language family. There has been very meagre work done on blood genetic markers in the Chinese. Most of the work has been carried out on overseas Chinese in US and the Malayan peninsular regions (Hawkins and Simons, 1973, 1976; Saha and Banerjee, 1973; Simmons et al., 1950; Sussman, 1956; Wiener et al., 1944; Mourant et al., 1976). Recently we @ 1989 ALAN R. LISS, INC. have reported on the distribution of transferrin (TO, group-specific component (Gc), and red cell phosphoglucomutase (PGM) subtypes among the overseas Chinese from different geographical regions of Asia (Saha, 1987, 1988a, 1989) and noted some differences in their distribution. Our laboratory has also reported on the distribution of tissue enzymes (malic enzyme, glucose dehydrogenase, and gamma amino butyric acid transaminase) in Singapore Chinese with report of new alleles at the later two loci (Bhattacharyya and Saha, 1984; Bhattacharyya et al., 1985; Saha et al., 1987). In Received July 25,1988; revision accepted March 23,1989 296 N. SAHA addition various authors have reported on the distribution of blood groups (Mourant et al., 19761, serum proteins, and red cell enzyme polymorphism. To our knowledge there has been no systemic population genetic study carried out on the mainland Chinese except the recent studies of blood genetic markers and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in three minorities of China namely Mongolians, Koreans and Zhuangs (Goedde et al., 1984a,b;Xu et al., 1986; Yuan et al., 1984). In addition a study on Gm and Km allotypes in five Chinese populations has also been reported by Matsumoto et al. (1986). In view of the paucity of data on blood genetic markers in the Chinese, we report here on the distribution of six blood groups, four serum protein; haemoglobin, and thirteen red cell enzyme polymorphisms in two groups of Han Chinese resident in the Fujien and Hopeh provinces in eastern China. similar methods as published recently (Saha, 1988b). The gene frequencies for all the blood groups except Rhesus, haemoglobin, serum proteins, and red cell enzymes were determined by gene counting method (Mourant et al., 1976). The gene frequency of the Rhesus system was estimated by the maximum-likelihood programme at the Department of Human Genetics, the University of Newscastle upon Tyne, England. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was estimated by the x21 (chisquare test). The difference in the gene frequency between the populations was also measured x21 (chi-square test) and P values. MATERIALS AND METHODS ABO The frequency ofpl was found to be 0.17 in both the groups, while p2 was completely lacking. None of the earlier studies reported the subtypes ofp in the Chinese. There was a marked difference in the frequency of q and r in these two groups of Chinese (x21 = 6.44 and 3.10,respectively) and they were respectively 0.15 and 0.28 for q; and 0.69 and 0.55 for r in Fujien and Hopeh provinces. In general, the frequencies of p , q, and r in the studied populations are within the range of allelic frequencies published in Han Chinese in China and overseas (Wiener et al., 1944; Simmons et al., 1950; Sussman, 1956; Hawkins and Simons, 1976; Saha et al., 1975; Mourant et al., 1976).The range ofp in the Chinese in the above studies has been reported to vary from 0.15 to 0.25; that of q from 0.17 to 0.24 and r from 0.54 to 0.67. The two of 55 national minorities of China (Mongolians and Zhuang) also have similar frequencies of ABO alleles (Yuan et al., 1984). MN The frequencies of m and n were found to be 0.62 and 0.38 in Fujien, while it was 0.50 for both the alleles in Hopeh Chinese. The reported frequency of m range from 0.51 to 0.63 in different studies in overseas Chinese. Differences in MN frequencies have been reported among the Han Chinese either north or south of the Yangtze river with a higher frequency in the south. (Chen et al., 1964; Nakajima et al., 1967; Yuan et al., Blood samples were collected from 205 Han Chinese of both sexes comprising 155 residents of Fujien province and 50 residents of Hopeh province of eastern China. They were attending the Singapore Anti-Tuberculosis Association (SATA) Chest and Heart Clinic for medical examination in connection with their employment as foreign workers. All the foreign workers in Singapore have to undergo a medical examination including a serological VDRL test and a chest X-ray a t SATA. They come to Singapore on a solely temporary work permit for 2 to 3 years and return to their native country on expiration of their work permit. Specimens of blood were collected by venepuncture in EDTA. A 3% suspension of red cells was made in isotonic saline. Plasma was separated by centrifugation. Both the plasma and packed cells were stored at -80°C until use. The AlA2B0, MN, Rhesus, and Lewisablood groups were determined by saline agglutination tests on blood grouping tile using commercial antisera (A, Al, B; M, N; D, C, c, E, e, and Lewisa); Lewis blood grouping was carried out at 4°C in a humid chamber. Kell and Duffy blood groups were determined by indirect Coomb's test in tubes at 37°C using Anti-K, k, and Fy". The phenotyping of the serum proteins (albumin, haptoglobulin types; transferrin and group-specific subtypes; haemoglobin; red cell enzymes types; and phosphoglucomutase subtypes) was determined by essentially RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The distribution of blood groups in the Han Chinese from the Fujien and Hopeh provinces of eastern China is presented in Table 1. BLOOD GROUPS 297 GENETIC MARKERS IN CHINESE T A B L E 1. Distribution of blood groups in the Chinese from two eastern provinces Systems Phenotypes ABO AI A2 B AiB A2B 0 All Fujien province No. obs. No. exp. 40 M MN N All RIR, (CCDEe) RlRi (CCDee) R I R (CcDEe) ~ RIR, (CcDEE) Rlr (CcDee) RzR:! (ccDEE) Rgr (ccDEe) Ror (ccDee) rr (ccdee) All 17 16 17 50 3.57 65.91 51.77 1.39 14.69 1 14 22 1 3 0.06 60 72 22 154 3 63 60 2 13 5 7 1 0 154 10.29 .00 19.18 4.57 .OO 14.96 49.00 P' P2 12.5 25.0 12.5 50.0 Gene frequencies Fujien Hopeh r ,1667 .0000 .1474 .6859 .0000 ,2822 .5525 m n .6234 ,3766 ,5000 ,5000 Rz (CDE) ,0174 .6420 ,2502 ,0716 ,0123 9 .1651 6.48 10.01 4 5.73 0.82 0.00 153.89 3 0 1 49 1.22 14.76 18.72 0.76 4.49 5.82 2.83 0.00 0.34 48.94 rv (CdE) .0048 .0003 r (cde) .0014 .0226 5465 ,3445 .0000 .0020 .0020 .0000 ,0839 Ri (CDe) R:! (cDE) Ro (cDe) r' (Cde) r" (cdE) 3.08 4.82 X2 Alleles 0.75 0.003 XZ Khesus 59.84 72.31 21.84 153.99 n 35 7 0 72 154 x2 MN 34.48 7.57 0 72.45 154.00 9 0 18 6 0 16 49 39.50 n Hopeh province No. obs. No. exp. Lewis Lea' LeaAll 13 141 154 2 48 50 Le le ,7095 ,2905 ,8000 ,2000 Kell Kk kk All 5 1 49 50 K 149 154 k .016'2 .9838 ,0100 ,9900 149 5 49 1 FY a ,8198 ,1802 ,8586 Duffy Fy"' Fy"- 1984; Chen and Yuan, 1983). The minority Zhuan have a much higher m (0.74)than the Mongolians or Han (Yuan et al., 1984). Rhesus The frequencies of R1, R2, and Ro were found to be 0.64,0.25, and 0.07 in Fujien and 0.55, 0.34, and 0.00 in Hopeh provinces. More-or-less similar frequencies of these Rhesus alleles have been reported in overseas Chinese and the Han and minority Chinese in mainland China. A low frequency of Rz had also been reported in the Chinese before as in the present series (0.02). The frequency of r was higher in Hopeh (0.08) than in the Fujien (0.001) province in the present investigation (xZ1 = 5.82). A low frequency of r', r", and ry (0.01, 0.005,and 0.0003)was also present in the Hopeh series. A low frequency of r has also been reported among the Chinese in Singapore (0.07) and Calcutta (0.04) by Hawkins and Simons 4n Fyh ,1414 (1976) and Chaudhuri et al. (1967). A low frequency of r' (0.03)also has been observed in the Singapore Chinese (Hawkins and Simons, 1973). It seems that Rhesus-negative alleles are present in the Chinese, though very rarely. Lewis, Kell, and Duffi The frequency of le was found to be 0.29 in the Fujien and 0.20 in the Hopeh province. A much higher frequency of le has been reported in the Chinese in Malaya (0.39) and NewYork (0.50)(Simmons et al., 1950; Saha, 1973; Mourant et al., 1976). The frequency of k was 0.02 in the Fujien and 0.01 in the Hopeh provinces. A similarly low frequency of k has been reported in the Han Chinese, Mongolian and Zhuang of mainland (Yuan et al., 1984) and in overseas Chinese (Sussman, 1956; and Chaudhuri et al., 1967; Mourant et al., 1976). The frequency of Fy" was found to be 0.82 298 N. SAHA TABLE 2. Distribution of serum proteins in the Chinese from two eastern provinces Systems Haptoglobin Phenotypes 1-1 2-1 2-2 0' All Fujien province No. obs. No. exp. 13 62 77 1 153 Cl-l c2-1 c2-2 C3-1 85 52 9 1 c3-3 1 1 C1-R C2-B 2 c2-n AJl 3 155 ci-n 1 1F lFlS 1s 1F2 1s2 n z All 2 6 13 30 81.65 54.43 9.07 2.18 0.02 2.18 0.73 2.90 2.17 155.33 34 9 3 2 0 1 0 25 28 19 47 25 10 154 25.36 36.93 13.45 37.33 27.19 13.74 154.00 9 9 3 11 11 7 50 3.19 18.62 27.19 1.00 50.00 1 50 Alleles Gene frequencies Fujien Hopeh 2895 ,7105 ,0065 ,2551 ,7449 .0200 T p TfB Tf ,7258 .2419 ,0097 .0097 ,0129 ,8100 .I500 .0200 ,0100 ,0100 Gc" Gc" Gc2 .4058 .2955 .2987 ,3800 ,2600 .3600 HP1 Hp2 HP' 4.46 32.81 12.15 1.13 1.62 0.02 0.81 0.15 0.81 0.15 49.65 1 0 50 5.29 XL Group-specific component subtypes 12.74 62.53 76.74 1.00 153.01 0.01 X2 Transferrin subtypes Hopeh province No. obs. No. exp. Tfc' Tfc2 4.30 7.22 9.88 3.38 13.68 9.36 6.48 50.00 1.41 8.15 ~ 'Not considered for gene frequency calculation due to uncertain genetic origin. The distribution of plasma haptoglobin types, transferrin, and group-specific component subtypes in the Chinese from Fujien and Hopeh province is shown in Table 2. and Ong, 1984). The Chinese of Hong Kong have a higher frequency of Hp' (0.38) (Mourant et al., 1976). Hp' frequency of 0.27 has been reported in the Han Chinese from Beijing and Shanghai, respectively, by Liang et al. (1983) and Kong et al. (1983). Variable frequencies ofHp' have also been reported in ethnic minorities of China (Xu et al., 1986).A low percentage of Hp" (<2%) has been observed in both the groups. A similar low percentage of Hp" has been observed in overseas Chinese and Chinese in Beijing. However, Kong et al. (1983)have reported a much higher percentage of Hp" (7.8%)in subjects from Shanghai. Haptoglobin The frequency of Hp' was found to be 0.29 in the Fujien and 0.25 in the Hopeh Chinese. A low percentage of Hp" was also detected in both the populations (0.01 and 0.02, respectively). A similarly low frequency of Hpl has been reported in the Chinese of mainland and overseas (Kirk et al., 1960; Blackwell et al., 1962).We reported earlier frequencies of Hp' ranging from 0.29 to 0.38 in the different dialect groups of Chinese of Singapore (Saha Transferrin The rare variants of transferrin TfDChi and Tf were present at low frequencies (0.01) in both the provinces. A higher frequency of T f (0.04)has been observed in the Chinese of Malaya (0.02 to 0.04) and US (Kirk and Lai, 1961, Giblett, 1962).A similar frequency of llfD (0.03) was observed in Hong Kong and Taiwan Chinese (Mourant et al., 1976; Shih and Hsia, 1969). Chinese minorities (Mongolian and Zhuang) have and 0.86 in the Fujien and Hopeh provinces. Similar frequencies of Fy" have been reported in the Han Chinese of Taiwan by Fraser et al. (1965) and in the Chinese of Calcutta (Chaudhuri et al., 1967). However, a higher frequency of Fy" has been reported in the Chinese of Hong Kong (Mourant et al., 1976)and Mongolians and Zhuangs of mainland China (Yuan et al., 1984). SERUM PROTEINS GENETIC MARKERS IN CHINESE vD frequencies of 0.01 and 0.03, respectively (Goedde et al., 1984a). The earlier studies in the Chinese did not reveal any except an isolated example in the Mongolians in China (Goedde et al., 1984a).The frequency of Tf 13 was 0.01 in the Chinese of both the provinces. T f B has also been observed a t a low frequency in the Chinese of Malaysia and Taiwan (Saha, 1987). The frequencies of transferrin subtype alleles T f ", Tf and T f c3 were found to be 0.73, 0.24, and 6.01 in the Fujien, and 0.81, 0.15, and 0.02 in the Hopeh province. The frequency of Tfc' in the Chinese of different overseas localities varied from 0.73 t o 0.79, while that of TfC2c2 ranged from 0.18 to 0.24. A low frequency of Tfc3 has been reported in the Chinese of Malaysia (0.03) and Taiwan (0.01) (Tan et al., 1982; Saha, 1987). The Japanese also have similar frequencies of transferrin alleles (Beckman et al., 1980; Kamboh and Kirk, 1983). Group-specific component The frequency of Gc2 was found to be 0.30 and 0.36 in the Fujien and Hopeh, respectively. Nakajima and Ohkura (1971) observed a frequency of 0.31 in Northern China and 0.27 in Southern Chinese for Gc2. Chinese in Taiwan has a much lower frequency of Gc2 (0.21) (Nakajima and Ohkura, 1971). A lower frequency of Gc2 has also been reported in the overseas Chinese ranging from 0.20 to 0.26 (Mourant et al., 1976). The lowest frequency of Gc2(0.16)has been observed in the Chinese in Malaysia by Tan et al. (1982).A wide variation of Gc subtypes have been reported in the Chinese from different localities. The Chinese of Hong Kong have a higher frequency of GclF (0.45) compared to that in Malaysian Chinese (0.431, Singapore (0.39), Taiwan (0.40 to 0.44), and Fouzhou (0.49). The frequency of GclF in the present series was almost similar in Fujien and Hopeh province (0.41 and 0.38, respectively). The frequency of Gels was found to be 0.30 and 0.26, respectively, in these two provinces. A similar frequency of Gels has been reported in the Chinese of Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China (Saha, 1989; Kamboh et al., 1984; Matsumoto et al., 1980; Kim and Lewis, 1981; Zeng and Omoto, 1987). However, Tan et al. (1982J reported a much lower frequency of Gc' (0.16) in the Malaysian Chinese. Similar frequencies of Gc alleles have also been observed in the Japanese. vB, 299 Haemoglobin A single example of haemoglobin AD was observed in 155 Chinese from Fujien rovince (Table 3). The frequency of HbPtha'was 0.03 in the same province. No abnormal haemoglobin was detected in 50 subjects from Hopeh province. Earlier series of 111 Chinese from Hopeh province also did not show any abnormal haemoglobin (Livingstone, 1985). In general, the incidence of variant haemoglobin is very low in the Chinese (Vella, 1960; Zeng, 1981; Livingstone, 1985). RED CELL ENZYMES Glucose-&phosphate dehydrogenase (GGPD) G6PD deficiency was not present in the 205 samples from the eastern China provinces. All the subjects had GdB+ phenotype. However, there have not been many studies carried out for red cell G6PD in overseas or inland Chinese by starch-gel electrophoresis. In one study in 100 Chinese of Taiwan no G6PD deficiencywas detected. In our earlier electrophoretic study of GGPD in the Chinese of Singapore the rate of G6PD was about 8.0%, which corresponds well with the results of the dye-decolouration screening test (Vella, 1962;Saha and Banerjee, 1971; Saha, 1984). Further, two types of non-deficient G6PD variant with 95% and 80% electrophoretic mobility were encountered in the Chinese of Singapore. It appears that G6PD deficiency in the overseas Chinese might be a recent development due to high endemicity of malaria. In mainland China and Hong Kong the G6PD deficiency as detected by the screening test varied from 0% to 6.0% in different areas (Livingstone, 1985). 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase The common variant of GPGD (PGD")was present at low frequencies in the Chinese of both the provinces (0.04 and 0.07, respectively). Two cases of a fast variant of GPGD were detected, which was similar in electrophoretic mobility to that described earlier in Singapore Chinese (Blake et al., 1973). A much higher frequency of PGD" (0.15) has been reported in the Taiwanese by Fong (1974). The frequency ofPGD" of 0.10 in the Chinese in Taiwan and 0.07 in the mainland was reported by Shih et al. (1968) and Shih and Hsia (1969). The Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia have a PGD" frequency compa- 300 N. S4H.4 TABLE 3. Distribution Systems Haemoglobin haemoglobin and red cell enzyme polymorphisms in the Chinese from two eastern provinces of Phenotypes Fujien province No. No. obs. exp. A AAz 146 8 AD A,” A AC AF ‘Q”’ All 12 B AB CB All 89 53 2-1 2-2 All 1 155 Phosphoglucomutase subtypes (locus 1) 1-1 2-1 2-2 A,” X 1+ 1+111+2+ 1+21-2+ 1-22+ 2+22- 2+6 1+7 2+vs $1 X 9.56 86.82 57.63 0.74 154.75 1.13 1 Alleles Gene frequencies Fujien - Hopeh 50. .OO .OO 50.00 Hb A HbA2 HbD ,9710 .0258 .0032 1.000 .000 ,000 43.24 6.51 .OO .00 .OO PGD~ PGD~ PGD~ PGD ,9545 .0390 .0065 ,0065 .9300 ,0700 ,000 0.98 36.98 12.04 .OO 50.00 Pa Ph PC .2484 ,7484 ,0031 ,1400 3600 .0000 21.78 22.44 5.78 50.00 ESD‘ ESD~ ,6903 .3097 .6600 ,3400 0.00 ,000 0.04 37 12 0 50 0.00 75 64 16 155 74.07 66.24 14.86 155.17 0.18 23 20 7 50 13 41 101 155 7.24 52.51 95.24 154.99 7.45 0 16 34 50 1.28 13.44 35.28 50.00 1.82 GLO’ GLO~ .2161 .7839 .1600 ,8400 58 23 8 26 13 3 2 5 6 6 52.93 25.88 3.16 27.05 19.40 6.61 4.74 3.46 4.96 1.78 0.15 1.17 0.00 151.29 30.16 17 7 4 9 3 14.05 9.54 1.62 10.07 4.77 3.42 1.62 1.81 1.71 0.41 0 0 0.19 49.21 11.37 PGM‘+ PGM’PGm” PG?& PGM6 PGfl PGWs ,5882 .1438 .1503 ,1078 ,0033 ,0065 .0000 .5300 ,1800 ,1900 ,0900 .0000 .0000 .0100 X2 Glyoxalase I 43 7 0 0 50 0.02 A 1-1 140.30 11.47 1.91 1.00 154.68 0.00 140 12 2 1 155 X2 Esterase D 50 0 0 50 1 X2 Acid phosphatase 146.14 7.77 0.96 154.87 155 x 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase Hopeh province No. No. obs. exp. 1 2 0 153 0.62 1 2 3 2 1 0 0 1 50 ‘Not considered for gene frequency calculation. rable to that of the present study (Blake et al., 1973; Lie-Injo and Welch, 1972). One isolated case of 6PGD deficiency (PGD”)was detected in 155 samples from Fujien in the present study. Acid phosphutase The frequencies of pa, pb, and pc were found to be 0.25, 0.76, and 0.003 in the Chinese of the Fujien province. Similar frequencies of pa and pb were observed in the ethnic minorities of China (Goedde et al., 1984a); Chinese in Malaya and Singapore (Blake et al., 1973; Lai and Kwa, 1968; Chan 1971) and in Japanese (Toyomasu, 1974). The frequency ofp” was much lower (0.14) in the Chinese of Hopeh province, but the sample was rather small. A low frequency of pa (0.19) has also been reported in the Chinese in Taiwan by Shih and Hsia (1969). A low frequency ofpc (0.05)has only been reported in the same study in Taiwan. Esteruse D The frequency of ESD’ was found to be 0.69 in Fujien and 0.66 in the Hopeh prov- GENETIC MARKERS IN CHINESE ince. Similar frequencies of ESD' have been reported in the Japanese (0.661, Nepalese (0.62), and Mongolians and Zhuangs (0.70 and 0.60, respectively) (Sensabagh and Golden, 1976; Goedde et al., 1984a). The Europeans and Africans have a much higher frequency of ESD' (Papiha and Nahar, 1977). Glyoxalase I The frequency of GLO' was found to be 0.22 in the Fujien and 0.16 in the Hopeh provinces. A similar GLO' frequency has been observed in the Mongolians and Zhuang and the Chinese in Singapore (Goedde et al., 1984a; Ghosh, 1977). The Japanese have a much lower frequency of GLO' (0.09). The GLO' frequency ranges from 0.11to 0.25 among the six ethnic groups of Chinese (Li et al., 1986). The frequency of GLO' is much higher in the Europeans and Africans. 301 casians and Blacks (Saha, 1988). The Japanese have more-or-less similar frequencies of PGMl subtypes (Kamboh and Kirk, 1984). Monomorphic systems No variation was observed in the distribution of serum albumin, adehylate kinase, glucose-phosphate isomerase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase-2, and superoxide dismutase in either the Fujien or Hopeh provinces. No variation of adenylate kinase has been reported in the Chinese of Singapore, the United States, Malaya (Chan, 1971; Welch et al., 1971). Only one example ofAK2-1 has been reported in Taiwan Chinese (by Shih et al., 1968). The Japanese also have no @. No variation of MDH has been reported in the Chinese of Singapore or Malaya, while two new variants of LDH have been reported in Singapore Chinese in an earlier studyChinese-1 and Chinese-2 (Blake et al., 1973; Blake, 1978; Yip et al., 1979). Phosphoglucomutase 1 The frequency of PGM' and P G P was ACKNOWLEDGMENTS found to be 0.73 and 0.26 in the Fujien province and 0.71 and 0.19 in the Hopeh The author is grateful to the Medical Diprovince. A similar frequency of PGM' has rector, Singapore Anti-Tuberculosis Associbeen reported in the Chinese from Singapore ation (SATA) Chest and Heart Clinic, for and Malaya (Blake et al., 1974,1975) and in providing facilities for collection of blood. the Chinese in the United States (Mourant et The technical assistance of the staff of SATA, al., 1976). However, a much lower frequency Mdm. C.H. Ho and Miss Jumiah Bte El of PGM' has been observed in the Mongo- Basair, and the secretarial help of Mrs Jina lians and Zhuangs of China (Goedde et al. Loh is thankfully recorded. The project was 1984a).A low frequency of P G W and PGMf generously supported by the Shaw Foundahas been observed in the Fujien province, tion, Singapore. while only one instance of a probable new variant of P G P (PI 6.5) has been observed LITERATURE CITED in the Hopeh province. P G W has been reBeckman G, Beckman L, and Sikstrom C (1980) Transported in the Chinese in Malaya and the ferrin C subtypes in different ethnic groups. Hereditas Japanese (Welch et al., 1972; Mourant et al., 92:189-192. 1976). On subtqing, the frequencies of Bhattacharyya SP, and Saha N (1984) Mitochondria1 malic enzyme polymorphism among different ethnic PGM'+ and PGM - were found to be 0.59 groups of Singapore. Hum. Hered. 3 4 ~ 3 9 3 3 9 5 . and 0.14 in the Fujien province, while they Bhattacharyya SP, Saha N, and Wee KF' (1985) Gamma were 0.53 and 0.18 in the Hopeh province. Aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABAT) polymorThe frequencies of P G P + and PGM2- were phism among ethnic groups in Singapore with report found to be 0.15 and 0.11 in the former as of a new allele. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 37:358-361. compared to 0.19 and 0.09 in the latter Blackwell RQ, Lin TY, and Shiano DDF (1962) Distribution of haptoglobins among Chinese in Taiwan. Nature group. 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