close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Blood genetic systems in four Amazonian tribes.

код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 8551-60 (1991)
Blood Genetic Systems in Four Amazonian Tribes
F.M. SALZANO, F.L. BLACK, S.M. CALLEGARI-JACQUES,
S.E.B. SANTOS, T.A. WEIMER, M.A. MESTRINER, R.R. KUBO,
J.P. PANDEY, AND M.H. HUTZ
Departamento de Genetica, Instituto de BiociQncias,Universidade Federal
do Rio Grande do Sul, 90001 Porto Alegre, R S (F.M.S.,
S.M.C.-J..T.A.W..R.R.K..M.H.H.I.
DeDartamento de Genetica. Centro
de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade' Federal do Para, Campus
Uniuersitario do Guama, 66059 Belem, PA (S.E.B.S.), and De artamento
de Genetica, Faculdade de Medicina, 14049 Ribeirao Preto, Sf: (M.A.M.),
Brazil; Department of Epidemiolo y and Public Health, Yale University
School of Medicine, New Haven, gonnecticut 06510 (F.L.B.); Department
of Basic and Clinical Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina,
Charleston, South Carolina 29401 (J.P.P.1
KEY WORDS
Amerindians, Genetic distances, Polymorphisms,
Rare genetic variants
ABSTRACT
Data on 31 genetic systems were obtained for 421 individuals
belonging to the Arara, Arawete, Mundurucu, and Jamamadi tribes of northern Brazil. The Jamamadi depart farthest, and the Mundurucu least, from
South American Indian averages. These data are analyzed together with those
of 24 other Amazonian groups. Genetic distances and corresponding dendrograms indicate a cluster of 14 related tribes living north of the Amazon river.
These genetic results show only a modest correlation with linguistic and
geographic relationships among these groups.
Indians started only in 1981 (Carneiro,
1981). Their culture is distinct from those of
their neighbors, and they comprise two distinct breeding groups. The first (Kurambe,
total opulation 21) was contacted at
54"10'K, 4"20'S, while the second (Laranjal,
total PO ulation 52) was at 53"0'W, 3'30's.
Practica ly all members of these groups were
sampled in August, 1985. Due to their low
numbers and cultural similarities, the two
populations will be considered together.
2. Arawete
These Tupi-speaking Indians are the descendants of a opulation of hunter-gatherers and agricu turalists who moved about
26 years ago from the headwaters of the
Bacaja toward the Xingu river. It seems that
they had voluntarily approached nonIndians in the 1970s due to conflict with
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
other tribes. Presently they live in a single
The home territories of both new and pre- villa e of 151 inhabitants near 52"22'W,
viously studied tribes are shown in Figure 1. 5"9'! They were sampled in March 1986.
The four tribes not reviously studied can be General information about their first concharacterized as fo ows:
tacts with pioneer fronts, as well as about
their distinctive culture, can be obtained
1. Arara
The Amazon region holds within its 6 million km2 a tremendous diversity of life. Inhabiting this region we find a large Indian
population, living at different levels of acculturation. In the last two decades, as a part of
a general investigation of South American
Indians, we have collected data on these
groups. The present report describes findings from four new tribes on 31 genetic systems determinable in blood sam les. The
new information has been addeIp to data
already at hand for other groups, and analyzed with two rincipal questions in mind:
1) How does t e genetic profile of these
groups compare with Amerindians of other
parts of the continent? 2) Are there significant clusters of genetically similar
within the Amazon re 'on-and if so, ow do
they relate to geograp y and language?
P
g
f
PUPS
P
fi
This is a little-studied group that speaks a
Carib language. Peaceful contacts with non@
1991 WILEY-LISS. INC.
Received July 12,1989; accepted September 21,1990.
52
F.M. SALZANO ET AL.
Fig. 1. Geographic location of the 28 Amazonian
Indian groups considered in the present analysis. The
symbols refer to language families: trian les Carib;
circles, Tupi; squares, Arawak diamonds, otfer;. Key to
the tribes names: APA, Apalai; ARA, Arara; . m W ,
Arawete; ASK, Asurini, Koatinemo; AST, Asurini, Trocara; BAN, Baniwa; CAR, Carib; CAY, Cayapo; EME,
Emerillon; ICA Iqana; JAM, Jamamadi; MAC, Macushi;
MAK, Makiritare; MUN, Mundurucu; PAC, Pacaas Novos; PAN, Pano; PAR, Parakana; PIA, Piaroa; SAT,
Satere-Mawe; SHU, Shuara; SIR, Siriono; TIC, Ticuna;
TIR, Tiriyo; UKP, Urubu-Kaapor; WAI, Waiapi; WAF',
Wapishana; WAY, Wayana; YAN, Yanomama. Insert:
The region's location in South America's map.
from Muller (1981), Ribeiro (19831, and
Viveiros de Castro (1984/85, 1986).
3. Mundurucu
When first identified at the end of the 18th
century, these Tupi-speaking Indians occupied a large territory delimited by the Amazon (north), Tapajos (east), Madeira (west),
and Juruena (south) rivers. Presently they
live in three areas in this general region,
identified by the names of Coata-Laranjal
(with 1,460 inhabitants), Mundurucu (2,010
individuals), and Sai Cinza (296 ersons;
Ricardo, 1986). Considered one o f t e more
bellicose of the Brazilian tribes, they were
known especially as head-hunters; after 200
years of contact, however, they are largely
adapted to the rural, neo-Brazilian way of
living, and are in permanent contact with
non-Indians. Material for the present study
was collected at Sai Cinza (59"9'W, 6'23'8
in August, 1985. This is a recently formed
village com osed of migrants from the other
areas, and ence reasonably representative
of the whole. Details of the history of these
Indians and of their conflicts with their
neighbors can be found in Arnaud (1974).
Their language was examined by Crofts
( 1967,1981/82].
4 . Jumumadi
These Arawa-speakers have a long history
of contact with non-Indians, but have been
little studied. The live in five different areas, near the bor er between the States of
Amazonas and Acre, and number about 450
persons (Ricardo, 1986).The village sampled
in March, 1986 had a population of about 70,
but many men were away, working as gum
collectors. Adjacent to the village there is a
Summer Institute of Linguistics mission, established 20 years ago. Geo aphical coordinates are 66'41'W, 7"15'g Despite their
many years of coexistence with non-Indians,
K
R
B
53
GENETIC TRAITS IN AMAZONIAN INDIANS
they retain distinctive cultural characteristics, such as a common sleeping house and
the custom of isolating the girls for 1year at
the time of their first menstruation.
All blood samples were collected in EDTA,
refrigerated as soon as possible, and transorted in this condition to the several typing
raboratories. The methods em loyed were
described or referenced in Sa zano et al.
(1988).
Nei's (1978) unbiased distances were used
in the generation of UPGMA (unweighted
pair- oup method with arithmetic averaging) endrograms (Sneath and Sokal, 19731,
employing the BIOSYS rogram as described in Swofford and elander (1981).
Similarity between matrices and dendrograms was evaluated through rco h, the
cophenetic correlation coefficient ( h e a t h
and Sokal, 1973). Pairwise matrix correlations among genetic, geographic, and linguistic distances were calculated using Mantel's (1967) test of matrix correspondence,
with the extensions proposed by Smouse
et al. (1986), using a program developed b
J.C. Long. Geographical distances were ca culated as straight-line map distances with a
scale of 1 em per 150 km. (Theoretically,
distances along rivers or other transportation corridors would be referable, but when
large distances are invo ved several alternative pathways present themselves, and there
is no way of determining which is the correct
one.) Linguistic distances were assessed at
three levels of similarity: 1)within the same
stock; 2) in different stocks; and 3) in different, larger subdivisions, the classification
used being that of Loukotka (1968).
P
f
8
r
P
RESULTS
New data
Phenotype and allele frequency distributions for 31 genetic systems on the four
newly studied tribes are given in Tables 1
and 2. The latter table also includes unwei hted averages for the same alleles based
on a out 11,500people representing 24 other
Amazonian groups (list of references available on request). The location of the 28
groups is shown in Figure 1.
The results on the new tribes can be summarized as follows.
Arara. Fourteen (42%)of 33 com arisons
yielded deviations of 10% or more r)rom the
South American Indian averages (Salzano
and Callegari-Jacques, 1988; only alleles
that showed variation in this ethnic group
B
were considered). The most marked divergence occurred among the erythrocyte enzymes (GLO*2, PGM1*1). One rare variant
(PGM2*11) was observed in this tribe, but
not in the other three. The HLA loci contributed with somewhat more than one-third of
the differences (alleles A31, B35, B15, A24,
B39). Four haplotypes were commonly found
in the Arara. One (A2B5C-) is also commonly found in groups living north of the
Amazon; two (A31B15C3and A2B15C3) are
shared with the Arawete and various other
tribes; and one (A31B35C3)shows uniquely
high levels in the Arara.
Arawete. Nineteen (53%) of 36 comparisons showed differences of 10%or more from
the South American Indian averages. Of
these, nine occurred in the HLA system
( B E , C3, C4, B40, B39, B5,A31, A28,A2).
These Indians also show marked divergence
from mean blood group frequencies (Rh*Rl,
Rh"R2, P*2, L*Ms, and L*MS). The most
common HLA haplotypes (A2B15C3; A31B15C3; A31B35C4; A24B15C3) were shared
with the Arara or Mundurucu. Two rare Gm
haplotypes that are ordinarily indicative of
non-Amerind admixture occurred here
(Gm*1,3;21;Gm*1,17;5)in low frequency.
Mundurucu. Nine (33%)of27 comparisons
diverged from the mean by 10% or more. Of
these, four (44%) involved HLA (B39, B40,
B15, A28). Four rare variants were detected
among the Mundurucu (Cp*A CAY1;
Gm*1,2,17;5,13,21; Gm*1,3,17,23;5,13,21;
Gm*1,17;6).Two of the most common HLA
haplotypes (A24B15C3; A31B35C4) were
also common among the Arawete. The commonly registered haplotype A2B39C- may
actually represent the more widely encountered A2B39C7, the C7 antigen being difficult to detect. However, if so, this antigen
was expressed even more weakly than usual
in the Mundurucu.
Jamamadi. This tribe departed most frequently from the South American Indian
avera es. Twenty-two (61%)of 36 com arisons $verged by 10% or more. It shou d be
noted, however, that half of these were in the
HLA system (deviatin alleles, in order of
decreasin departure rom the means: C1,
B35, A2, g39, A31, C3, B40, B15, B5, A28,
C4). Large deviations (above 30%) also occurred in the essentially com lementary
Gm*1,2,17;21 and Gm*1,17;21 aplotypes.
The frequency of Km*3 was also high (22%
above the mean). The HLA haplotype most
commonly observed in the Jamamadi
f
B
R
54
F.M. SALZANO ET AL.
TABLE 1 . Phenotype distribution in 31 genetic systems on four Amazonian Indian tribes’
System
ABO
MNSs
Phenotypes
0
B
M+
S
ss
S
P
Rh
Kell
Duffy
Diego
Hemoglobin
Glucose-6phosphate
dehydrogenase
Phosphogluconate
dehydrogenase
Phosphoglucomutase 1
Phosphoglucomutase 2
Adenylate kinase
Acid phosphatase
Glutamate
pyruvate
transaminase
Esterase A
Esterase D
Glyoxalase 1
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Peptidase A
Peptidase B
Peptidase C
Haptoglobin
MS
MSs
Ms
MNSs
MNs
Ns
M
MN
N
P1
P2
CDEe
CDe
CcDE
CcDEe
CcDe
cDE
cDEe
cDe
D+
Ka+
aa+
aA
A2
B
Arara
60
0
45
3
17
40
-
52
8
1
35
1
19
2
1
1
0
Number of individuals in each class
Arawetk
Mundurucu
Jamamadi
110
0
-
-
0
0
51
0
33
5
15
2
4
16
73
0
1
1
35
2
55
15
1
-
-
30
48
12
107
104
6
11
-
49
59
59
M 22
F 20
167
1
38
0
-
-
-
-
-
143
25
-
168
-
11
-
-
29
9
3
27
I
0
5
2
0
0
-
38
35
3
109
109
44
168
168
38
38
19
-
145
1-1
2-1
2-2
1-1
11-1
11-11
1-1
A
AB
B
17
29
12
49
8
1
59
0
12
46
12
18
24
58
36
19
3
22
23
8
58
58
58
58
50
13
0
5
46
44
18
108
0
0
108
0
5
103
31
51
18
101
65
30
9
4
46
42
108
46
108
108
56
49
6
2
94
58
9
162
0
0
159
4
31
128
65
69
24
161
81
65
14
0
68
42
162
163
163
163
65
84
21
26
1-1
5
8
-
49
108
2-1
2-2
0
2
7
5
-
49
1-1
-
-
A
2-1
2-2
1-1
1-1
2-1
2-2
1-1
2-1
2-2
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1
-
18
37
15
14
8
37
0
0
36
0
2
35
4
13
18
37
23
12
2
0
2
35
37
37
37
37
8
23
6
0
(Continued)
55
GENETIC TRAITS IN AMAZONIAN INDIANS
TABLE 1. (Continued)
System
Phenotypes
A
Usual
112
113
0
112
113
196
190
6
195
194
37
37
0
37
37
c5C5f
1,2,17;21
1,17;21
1,2,17;5,21
1,3,17;21
1,2,17;5,13,21
1,3,17;23;5,13,21
1,2,17;6,21
lf.31+,3+
1-,3+
2
24
28
31
5
15
35
39
40
1
3
4
7
Blank
68
0
40
24
0
0
0
0
0
9
33
17
46
12
4
50
14
34
49
5
11
0
53
31
2
0
90
23
65
29
1
1
0
0
0
11
63
22
21
8
0
17
0
30
14
0
0
0
31
11
0
0
172
22
60
52
0
0
1
3
2
22
69
26
75
76
6
78
20
58
65
86
12
0
88
59
72
11
37
0
36
8
0
0
0
0
0
1
15
28
35
21
0
1
1
0
37
27
0
28
11
25
0
0
C
B
A-Cay 1/B
Albumin
Serum
cholinesterase 12
Serum
cholinesterase 22
Gm
HLA-A
HLA-B
HLA-C
Number of individuals in each class
Arawetb
Mundurucu
Jamamadi
68
60
0
61
68
Transferrin
Ceruloplasmin
Km
Arara
'Thedashindicates thatthetesthadnot heendone,orthatitwasdoneat adifferentlevel;azero,thatit
wasdonewithnegativeresults.To
avoid an excessive lengthening of the table, negative resultsfor the HLA antigens are not recorded;they can be obtained by subtracting the
positive results from the totals studied for that system, namely Arara: 62; Arawete: 31; Mundurucu: 126; Jamamadi: 36.
2Resultsreported in Santos and Guerreiro (1986), Guerreiro and Santos (1987), and Santos et al. (1987).
(A2B39Cl) was essentially unique to the
tribe, but haplotype data on American PO ulations that carry C1 are scarce. The ot er
common Jamamadi ha loty es have been
observed elsewhere, alt oug they did not
appear in the three other tribes described
here. No rare variants were found in this
population.
Amazonia us all South America
A comparison of the averages given in
Table 2 with those of South American Indians as a whole shows few distinguishing
characteristics (see Salzano and Calle ariJacques, 1988; less than one-fourth o the
samples used in the earlier comprehensive
survey were from Amazonian o ulations).
Only two alleles (5%) showe ifferences
above 10% in 38 comparisons. They are
GL0*2 (average in South America: 81%;in
Amazonia: 68%)and HLA*C3(35%and 46%,
respectively). It should be remembered that
R
K R
P
Ei
with a sample of 28 groups and gene frequencies of the order observed in these two loci,
the magnitude of two standard errors is
about 16%.
Subgroups within Amazonia
Due to the fact that the Mundurucu could
not be tested for five blood groups (MNSs,
full Rh set, Kell, Duffy, Diego) and GGPD,
two types of genetic distance analyses were
performed: one without this tribe, and another including it. The two dendrograms,
however, showed basically the same relationships, and only the one without this tribe
is presented in Figure 2. The matrices of
enetic distances are too large to be reprouced here, but copies of them can also be
furnished on request.
Data from 60 alleles in 20 genetic svstems
(ABO,MNSs,P, Rh, Kell, Durfy, Die G,HBA,
GGPD, PGD, PGM1, PGM2, AK, At P, ESD
HP, TF, ALB, GM, and KM) were considered
9
56
F.M. SALZANO ET AL.
TABLE 2. Allele frequencies in 31 genetic systems on four Amazonian Indian tribes
Allele or haplotype frequencies
System and
allele or
haplotype
Average
Amazonian
Indians
Arara
Arawete
Mundurucu
Jamamadi
1.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
>0.99
<0.01
1.00
0.00
0.998
0.001
-
0.00
0.76
0.24
-
0.21
0.33
0.46
0.231
0.525
0.179
P*l
0.64
0.09
0.61
0.51
0.475
RH*RZ
RH*R1
RH*R2
RH*RO
0.02
0.77
0.19
0.02
0.01
0.17
0.72
0.10
-
-
0.05
0.81
0.07
0.07
0.059
0.521
0.362
0.041
1.00
1.00
-
1.00
0.999
0.55
0.77
-
0.72
0.681
0.10
-
-
-
0.158
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.oo
1.00
0.999
0.994
1.oo
1.oo
-
1.00
0.996
1.00
1.00
1.oo
1.00
0.989
0.54
0.63
0.76
0.59
0.791
0.91
0.09
1.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.989
0.004
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.999
0.10
0.02
0.12
0.03
0.106
0.39
0.56
0.63
0.30
0.498
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.996
0.78
0.77
0.71
0.78
0.722
0.37
0.71
0.69
0.97
0.683
1.oo
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.996
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.oo
0.999
1.oo
1.00
1.oo
1.00
0.999
1.00
1.oo
1.00
1.00
1.000
0.90
0.72
0.63
0.53
0.607
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.989
1.00
0.00
1.oo
0.00
0.99
0.01
1.00
0.00
0.971
0.029
1.00
1.oo
1.00
1.00
0.994
(Continued)
ABO
ABO*O
ABO*B
MNSs
L*MS
L*Ms
L*Ns
P
Rh
Kell
KELL*KDuffy
FY*A
Diego
DI*A
Hemoglobin
HB*A
HB*A2
Glucose-6-phosphatase
dehydrogenase
G6PD*B
Phosphogluconate
dehydrogenase
PGD*A
Phosphoglucomutase 1
PGM1*1
Phosphoglucomutase 2
PGM2*1
PGM2*11
Adenylate kinase
AK*1
Acid phosphatase
ACP*A
Glutamate pyruvate
transaminase
GPT*1
Esterase A
ESA*1
Esterase D
ESD*1
Glyoxalase 1
GLO*2
Carbonic anhydrase 2
CA2*1
Peptidase A
PEPA*l
Peptidase B
PEPB'1
Peptidase C
PEPC*l
Haptoglobin
HP*1
Transferrin
TF*C
Ceruloplasmin
CP*B
CP*ACAY 1
Albumin
ALB*A
57
GENETIC TRAITS IN AMAZONIAN INDIANS
TABLE 2. lCantinuedJ
Allele or haplotype frequencies
System and
allele or
haplotype
Serum cholinesterase 1
CHEl*U
Serum cholinesterase 2
CHE2*C5Gm
GM*1,17;21
GM*1,2,17:21
GM*1.3:21
Average
Amazonian
Indians
Arara
Arawet6
1.00
1.oo
1.00
1.00
0.998
1.00
0.89
0.94
1.00
0.943
0.61
0.39
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.55
0.43
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.66
0.32
0.00
0.00
<0.01
0.01
0.01
0.43
0.57
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.667
0.297
<0.001
0.57
0.56
0.52
0.81
0.571
0.13
0.11
0.06
0.07
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.056
0.073
0.012
0.091
0.020
0.058
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.10
0.03
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.18
0.02
0.14
0.00
0.03
0.01
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.05
0.17
0.03
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.20
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.07
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.05
0.17
0.04
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.012
0.004
0.010
0.013
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.061
0.014
0.142
0.002
0.50
0.16
0.00
0.34
0.00
0.78
0.22
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.83
0.17
0.00
0.00
0.32
0.34
0.02
0.32
0.07
0.25
0.27
0.37
0.04
0.00
0.43
0.23
0.12
0.22
0.68
0.31
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.59
0.40
0.00
0.41
0.16
0.43
0.00
0.00
0.400
0.282
0.061
0.268
0.144
0.206
0.305
0.174
0.134
0.041
0.459
0.285
0.070
0.167
Mundurucu
Jamamadi
-
-
Km
KM*3
HLA1
Haplotypes
A2B5CA2B15C3
A2B35C3
A2B35C4
A2B39C1
A2B39C7
A2B39CA2B40C3
A2B40C4
A24B5C1
A24B5CA24B15C3
A24B35C3
A24B35C4
A24B39C3
A24B39C7
A24B40C4
A28B15C3
A28B35C4
A28B39C3
A31B5C4
A31B5CA31B15C3
A31B35C3
A31 B35C4
A31B39C3
A31B39CAlleles
HLA*A2
HLA*A24
HLA*A28
HLA*A31
HLA*B5
HLA*B15
HLA*B35
HLA*B39
HLA*B40
HLA*Cl
HLA*C3
HLA*C4
HLA*C7
HLA*C-
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.07
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.18
0.18
0.09
0.00
0.01
0.42
0.10
0.03
0.45
0.13
0.31
0.43
0.04
0.09
0.00
0.57
0.26
0.03
0.14
0.00
0.00
0.00
-
-
0.07
0.21
0.40
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.09
0.21
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-
-
0.032
0.012
0.001
0.010
0.087
0.032
0.035
-
-
INo. of haplotypes considered: Arara. 124; Araweti., 62; Mundurucu,252; Jamamadi, 72. Allele frequencies calculated from the haplotype
prevalences.
58
F.M. SALZANO ET AL
CAR
SHU
MAC
WAP
BAN
MAK
CAY
TIC
SAT
r =0.94
coph
r-'
-
ASK
ICA
UKP
ARW
€ME
PAC
ARA
JAM
YAN
PIA
I
L
//
//
0.12
SIR
I
0.04
L
1
0.03
0.02
1
I
0.01
I
0.00
NEI'S UNBIASED STANDARD DISTANCE
Fig. 2. Dendrogram obtained for 27 Amazonian Indian groups considering 60 alleles in 20
genetic systems. Abbreviations of tribes' names as in Figure 1.
to obtain, amon the 27 Amazonian Indian
oups, the den?!c rogram of Figure 2. In the
cases where data for specific markers
were missing for one or more tribes (80 out of
1,620,or 5%)averages from the other groups
were used.
The Siriono are clearly separated from all
other populations; after that, a cluster of 14
tribes, indicated at the u per part of the
figure, can be distinguishe c f,determined at a
dissimilarity level of 0.015. The remaining
tribes showed distinct, stepwise levels of
differences with this cluster, with no obvious
larger sets.
gw
Of the 14 groups in the cluster, 10 (Carib,
Shuara, Macushi, Wapishana, Baniwa, Makiritare, Tiriyo, A alai, Waiapi, and Wayanal live north o f t e Amazon river (Fig. 1).
This group includes six of the seven Caribspeaking tribes. The seventh, Arara, uses a
language that shows clear differences from
those spoken in the north (Rodrigues, 1986).
The average genetic distance between these
10 groups is 0.010, while that considering
the remaining 17 is 0.044. The total average
is 0.031. The Arara, Arawete, and Jamamadi
were clearly differentiated from the indicated cluster and did not show marked simi-
R
59
GENETIC TRAITS IN AMAZONIAN INDIANS
larities among themselves at this level ei- Salzano et al., 1972, 1988);Kirk et al., 1974;
Neel, 1978; Black et al., 1988). It appeared
ther.
When the Mundurucu were included, us- with frequencies lower than 1%among the
ing only 14 markers, the dendrogram adds Macushi and Wapishana, also Amazonian
them, plus three other groups (Asurini of groups (Neel et al., 19771, but was absent
Koatinemo, Igana Indians and Urubu-Kaa- elsewhere. PGM2 *ll showed a prevalence
por) to the set of 14 described above. The of 9% among the Arara. While it has been
Arara, Arawete, and Jamamadi remain sep- found previously, its frequency has always
been much lower (1%among the Urubuarated.
The relationship among genetic, geo- Kaapor and less than 1%in the Parakana;
gra hic, and linguistic distances was evalu- Salzano et al., 1988). A revious report of a
ate using Mantel’s test. (As in the case of high frequency of this a lele among the Mauche ofArgentina (Haas et al., 1985) should
the genetic matrix, these matrices are too
e viewed with caution, since there were
lar e to be reproduced here, but can be furnis ed on request.) The correlation coeffi- problems of cell preservation in this sample.
How representative are the samples studcients between genetic and geogra hic distances had a value of 0.15; that etween ied here in relation to the tribes’ total popugenetic and linguistic distances was 0.16 lations? Ricardo (1986) presents the follow(both non-significant). The geographic and ing total populations for them: Arara: 77;
linguistic distances showed a moderate level Arawete: 151; Mundurucu: 3,766; Jamamadi: 450. Therefore, our samples of the
of agreement (r: 0.26; P .02).
Arara and Arawete cover 73-7892 of their
DISCUSSION
total sizes. The 168 Mundurucu studies may
The four tribes for which data are provided not be wholly representative, but numerihere for the first time show varied degrees of cally this is a reasonable sample. The 38
departure from the South American means. Jamamadi account for 8%of this tribe. ConThe Jamamadi depart most markedly, but sidering the difficulties of working with such
low sample size (modal number of individu- remote groups, and the fact that marriages
als studied: 37) may explain this. The Mun- are generally intratribal, the sampling may
durucu diverge least from these avera es. It be considered appropriate.
Our results may be compared with previshould be remarked that most of the 8ifferences occur in relation to HLA; the high level ous analyses that used Nei’s (1978) genetic
of polymorphism in this s stem permits distance method. Such studies have included
greater variation in individyual allele fre- analyses of the three major human races
uency at comparable homozy osity levels. (Nei and Roychoudhury, 19821,of 42 populahe HLA system was not incuded in the tions distributed over all continents (Cavdistance analyses because these data are alli-Sforza et al., 19881, and of 12 South and
current1 available for only 14 of the 27 Central American Indian tribes (Chakraborty et al., 19881,as well as South American
groups t at were considered.
With regard to rare variants, none was tribes from the Tupi (Black et al., 1988) and
found among the Jamamadi. One occurs Carib (Salzano et al., 1988)linguistic groups.
Apart from those of our previous studies,
among the Arara, two among the Arawete,
and four among the Mundurucu. Of these the dendrogram in Figure 2 can be most
seven, five are in the Gm system, but strict readily compared to that obtained by
comparison between our findings and those Chakraborty et al. (1988). The relationshi s
reported by other investigators is hampered revealed by the two studies are basica ly
by the variable number of reagents employed similar, except that the Cayapo occupied a
in the different surveys. Some of these vari- more peri heral lace in the other, earlier
ants may have been introduced by non-In- analysis. hus, espite the fact that the
dian admixture. Cp*A Cay1 occurred with a number of groups studied by Chakprevalence of 1% among the Mundurucu, raborty et al. (1988) is much smaller than
and has also been found in polymorphic fre- ours, their analysis agrees with that preuencies in eight other South American In- sented here concerning the presence of a
%an populations, six Amazonian (Apalai northern Amazonian cluster. Only a modest
Asurini of Koatinemo, Asurini of Trocara: correlation was obtained here between the
Cayapo, Parakana and Urubu-Kaapor) and genetic and linguistic or geogra hical distwo from other regions (Ingano and Xavante; tances. It should be rememberel however,
B
P
r&
a
\
g,
P
K
r
+
B
60
F.M. SALZANO ET AL
that only crude assessments of these two
latter sets of variables could be used.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank the Fundacao Nacional do Indio
(Funai) for permission to study the Indians
and for logistic assistance. This research was
financed by the National Institute of Allergy
and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes
of Health, USA, as well as by the Conselho
Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e
Tecnologico (Programa Integrado de Genetical and Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (Finep),Brazil.
LITERATURE CITED
Arnaud E (1974) 0 s indios Munduruku e o Serviqo de
Proteqao aos Indios. Bol. Museu Paraense Emilio
Goeldi 54:l-60.
Black FL, Santos SEB, Salzano FM, Callegari-Jacques
SM, Weirner TA, Franco MHPL, Hutz MH, Rieger TT,
Kubo RR. Mestriner MA. and Pandey J P (1988) Genetic varlation within the Tupi linguistic group: new
data on three Amazonian tribes. Ann. Hum. Biol.
15:337-351.
Carneiro B (1981) 0 longo. dificil. e uerieoso namoro do
Brasil civilizado com & arredios i i d i o sAraras. Atualidade Indigena 21:6-17.
Cavalli-Sforza LL. Piazza A. Menozzi P. and Mountain J
(1988) Reconstruction of’human evolution: bringmg
together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85:6002-6006.
Chakraborty R, Smouse PE, and Neel JV (1988)Population amalgamation and genetic variation: observations on artificially agglomerated tribal populations of
Central and South America. Am. J . Hum. Genet.
43:709-725.
Crofts M (1967)Notas sobre dois dialetos do Munduruku.
Atas, Simposio Sobre a Biota Amazonica 235-91.
Crofts M (1981/82)Um comentario sobre 0s verbos cognitivos e emotivos Munduruku. Arq. Anat. Antropol.
6/7:208-287.
Guerreiro JF, and Santos SEB (1987) Studies on serum
cholinesterase (CHE1 and CHEZ loci) among Indians
from the Amazon region of Brazil: Munduruku and
Parakana tribes. Rev. Bras. Genet. 10:559-563.
Haas EJC, Salzano FM, Arau’o HA, Grossman F, Barbetti A, Weimer TA, Franco bHPL, Verruno L, Nassif
0, Morales VH, and Arienti R (1985) HLA antigens
and other genetic markers in the Mapuche Indians of
Argentina. Hum. Hered. 35:306-313.
Kirk RL, McDermid EM, Blake MM, Gajdusek DC,
Leysbon WC, and MacLennan R (1974). Blood group,
serum protein and red cell enzyme groups of Amerindian populations in Colombia. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
41 :301-316.
Loukotka C (1968) Classification of .South American
Indian Languages. Los Angeles: Latin American Center, University of California.
Mantel N (1967)The detection of disease clustering and
a generalized regression approach. Cancer Res. 27:
209-220.
Muller R (1981) 0 s ultimos Tupi da Amazonia. Atualidade Indigena 21:28-41.
Neel JV (1978) Rare variants, private polymorphisms,
and locus heterozygosity in Amerindian populations.
Am. J. Hum. Genet. 30:465490.
Neel JV,Tanis RJ, Migliazza EC, Spielman RS, Salzano
FM, Oliver WJ, Morrow M, and Bachofer S (1977)
Genetic studies of the Macushi and Wapishana Indians. I. Rare variants and a “private polymorphism” of
esterase A. Hum. Genet. 36:81-107.
Nei M (1978) Estimation of average heterozygosity and
genetic distance from a small number of individuals.
Genetics 89:583-590.
Nei M, and Roychoudhury AK (1982) Genetic relationship and evolution ofhuman races. Evol. Biol. 14:l-59.
Ribeiro BG (1983) Arawete: a India vestida. Rev.
Antropol. 26:l-38.
Ricardo CA (1986) Povos Indigenas no Brasil-85/86.
Sao Paulo: Centro Ecumenico de Documentacao e
Informaqao.
Rodrigues AD (1986) Linguas Brasileiras. Para o Conhecimento das Linguas Indigenas. Sao Paulo: Ediqoes
Loyola.
Salzano FM, Black FL, Callegari-Jacques SM, Santos
SEB, Weimer TA, Mestriner MA, Pandey JP, Hutz
MH, and Rieger TT (1988) Genetic variation within,a
linguistic grou Apalai-Wayana and other Carib
tribes. Am. J. Psys. Anthropol. 75:347-356.
Salzano FM, and Callegari-Jacques SM (1988) South
American Indians. A Case Study in Evolution. Oxford:
Clarendon Press.
Salzano FM, Neel JV,Weitkamp LR, and Woodall J P
(1972) Serum proteins, hemoglobins and erythrocyte
enzymes of Brazilian Cayapo Indians. Hum. Biol.
44:44345a.
Santos SEB. and Guerreiro J F (1986) Polimorfismos
geneticos em indigenas da Amazonia. Cienc. Cult.
[Suppl.l38:863-864.
Santos SEB. Guerreiro JF. and Apuiar GFS (1987) Polimorfismos proteicos em indigenas da Amazonia: tribos
Arawete, Kararao e Karitiana. Cienc. Cult 1Suppl.J
39:757.
Smouse PE, Long JC, and Sokal RR (1986) Multiple
regression and correlation extensions of the Mantel
test of matrix correspondence. Syst. Zool. 35:627-632.
Sneath PHA, and Sokal RR(1973)NumericalTaxonomy.
The Principles and Practice of Numerical Classification. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
Swofford DL, and Selander RB (1981) BIOSYS. A Computer Program for the Analysis of Allelic Variation in
Genetics. Urbana: De artment of Genetics and Development, University oPIllinois.
Viveiros de Castro EB (1984/85)0 s deuses canibais-a
morte e o destino da alma entre 0s Arawete. Rev.
Antropol. 27/28:55-90.
Viveiros de Castro EB (1986)Arawete. 0 s Deuses Canibais. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
675 Кб
Теги
amazonian, four, tribe, system, genetics, blood
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа