Blood groups phosphoglucomutase and cerumen types of the Anaham (Chilcotin) Indians.код для вставкиСкачать
Blood Groups, Phosphoglucomutase, and Cerumen Types of the Anaham (Chilcotin) Indians BRAXTON M. ALFRED, T. D. STOUT, MELVIN LEE, JOHN BIRKBECK AND NICHOLAS L. PETRAKIS Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of British Columbia; Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Vancouver, British Columbia; School of Home Economics, University of British Columbia; School of Home Economics, University of British Columbia and G . W. Hooper Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California ABSTRACT A survey of the blood groups of a Chilcotin band produced unexpected results for the ABO system (0.69 for allele 0, 0.31 for allele A), MNSs system (0.53 for antigen M, 0.47 for antigen N ) , P (0.36 for P I ) . Other loci surveyed were within the range of expectation. The frequency of phosphoglucomutase type PGM: was found to be 0.87, and for the dry cerumen allele 0.57. The frequency of the A allele was found to be decreasing among males, and several possibly distinctive characteristics of northern and southern Athapaskans are noted. The Anaham Reserve is located on the road connecting Williams Lake and Bella Coola in what is called the Chilcotin area of British Columbia (fig. 1) . The language of the group is Chilcotin, which is one of the most southerly, in Canada, of the Athapaskan group. The linguistic area of Chilcotin is bounded on the east and south by Salishan, on the southwest and northwest by Kwakiutl (Wakashan), and on the west by Bella Coola (Salishan). TO the north are Carrier and other Athapaskan languages. Geographically the area is roughly triangular with one vertex at Chilko Lake, another at Anahim Lake, and the third at a point about 20 miles northwest of the town of Williams Lake. The Reserve is at an altitude of 4000 feet in the British Columbia Dry Belt, annual precipitation about 10-15 inches. The climate is continental sub-arctic; temperatures range from a summer high of 50°F. about 102°F to a winter low of Ecologically the region is on the border of an “Alpine” zone and a n “Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir” zone (Krajina, ’65). Aboriginally “the Chilcotin hunted, fished, and gathered. . . . Probably the fishing was the more important subsistence activity in that, however, meagre the returns, some type of fish were always available . . . the subsistence economy was based upon lake fishing, with river salmon fishing or hunting and finally gathering ~ AM. J. PHYS. ANTHROP., 32: 329-338. following in that order” (Lane, ’53: 42-43). First white contact, though not recorded exactly, was probably in the late eighteenth century. Smallpox epidemics periodically depleted the population with the 1864 outbreak killing about one-third with a second third being killed soon after (Lane, ’53). Figure 2 presents the population curve for the Anaham Band. The curve is not fitted and is to be used only as a guide to the likely trend. In November 1968 a survey of health and nutritional status was conducted on the Reserve under the direction of Dr. Melvin Lee, University of British Columbia School of Home Economics. Blood was drawn routinely and typing carried out by the Blood Transfusion Service of the Canadian Red Cross in Vamouver. The blood was also studied for the phosphoglucomutase (PGM) polymorphism; this work was conducted by the G. W. Hooper Foundation of the University of California Medical School, San Francisco. METHODS A. Sampling Subjects were not randomly drawn and no attempt was made to exclude relatives. Of the 609 registered Indians on the Anaham Band list, 524 were living on the Reserve at the time of the survey. Two 329 330 ALFRED, STOUT, LEE, BIRKBECK AND PETRAKIS Fig. 1 Anaham Reserve. hundred and twenty people appeared for examination and blood was drawn from 195, or 37% of the population officially considered to be resident. Figure 3 allows a comparison of the age by sex distribution for the Band and the sample. With regard to these two attributes, at least, it appears that the sample is not grossly different from the parent population. The anti-sera and grouping techniques are given in table 1. One hundred and six samples were analyzed electrophoretically for phosphoglucomutase types employing methods described by Spencer, Hopkinson and Narris ('64). RESULTS In table 2 are presented allelic and phenotypic frequencies for the blood groups surveyed. The total number of B. Laboratory tested varies from one system to All blood specimens were collected in bloods the next due to the availability of antisera. heparin. Most of the serum was removed of the differences between observed from each specimen for biochemical stud- None and expected frequencies is statistically ies and ACD was then added to the cells. significant allowing the conclusion that This was done within 24 hours of collec- the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equition. The ACD specimens were then re- librium at all loci sampled. frigerated and shipped to the Red Cross In table 3 will be found the Rh and Blood Transfusion Service in Vancouver. MNSs allelic gene frequencies.' The cells were grouped during the next 1These estimates are obtained from an iterated a p four days. There was no appreciable plication of conditional probabilities. The details of hemolysis during the test period. the method will be described elsewhere. I I 0 2 /- \ I 1884 I 1894 I 1904 I I 1914 1924 1 1934 I I 1944 1954 1964 1974 Y E A R Fig,2 Population trend of registered members of the Anaham band. P RO P O R T f O N S Male Female Band Sompk Bond Sample Age 0-10 10-20 20 -30 30 -40 40 50 - 50 -60 60 6 above .364 ,243 -138 *I14 .513 *205 .028 -074 .065 .02a .oa4 .064 .ow .047 -355 .306 .121 .389 .238 ,097 -076 ,106 .076 .088 .a4 .038 ,024 .ox AGE SAMPLE - 60&aboG 50-65 BAND I I 40-50 0 30-40 t L 20-30 I I 10-20 I 0- 10 r 1.0 I 1 d 05 M A L E I 1 0.5 F E M A L E Fig. 3 Age by sex proportional distribution for Anaham band and sample. I I 1.0 332 ALFRED, STOUT, LEE, BIRKBECK AND PETRAKIS One hundred and six samples were tested for PGM with the following result: Phenotype PGM 1-1 PGM 2-1 PGM 2-2 Observed 100 (0.943) 4(0'037) 2 (0.018) Allele Frequency PGM: 0.866 PGM: 0.134 The PGM: frequency is high (0.87) and similar to that reported for Athapaskans by Scott et al. ('66) and for Ainu Sex Male Female Male Male Female Male Female Male Anti-serum reported by Giblette ('67). The frequency of dry cerumen is likewise high and similar to other Amerindian frequencies reported by Petrakis ('69). In table 4 will be found the age by sex breakdown for the frequency of positive reactions to various anti-sera. There are some very interesting and puzzling features in table 4. For example there are statistically significant linear trends in the proportion of positive responses to anti-sera as follows : Regression coefficient Chi-square due to linear regression, 1" of freedom Significance level of Chi-square 0.155 0.069 0.068 - 0.060 0.050 -0.084 -0.053 -0.122 8.095 3.424 1.657 2.273 1.472 3.508 1.369 0.699 0.100 0.250 0.100 0.250 0.100 0.250 0.010 A E e M N S S Jk(a) 0.005 TABLE 1 Anti-seraand grouping techniques Anti-sera Anti-A1 Anti-A Anti-B Anti-A and B Anti-D Antic Anti-E Anti-c' Anti+ Anti-M Anti-N Anti-S Anti-P Anti-Lea Anti-Leb Anti-K Anti-FyP Anti-Jka Anti-Ma Anti-Vel Anti-Vel Anti-Human Globulin 30% BovineAlb. Source Test Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto inc. Can. Red Cross B.T.S.Toronto Ortho Pharmaceutical Corp. Ortho Pharmaceutical Corp. Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver Dr. Bruce Chown, Winnipeg Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver Pfizer Saline capillary Saline capillary Saline capillary Saline capillary Saline capillary Saline capillary Saline capillary Lows pap. capillary Saline capillary Saline capillary Saline capillary Ind. Coombs cap. Saline capillary Saline capillary Saline tube Capillary Lows pap. Ind. Coombs capillary Ind. Coombs capillary Ind. Coombs capillary Ind. Coombs capillary Ind. Coombs capillary Capillary Pfizer Method for recheck neg. results I.C. tube sal.tube sal. tube sal. tube I.C. tube I.C. tube I.C. tube I.C. tube Tube BLOOD GROUPS, PGM, AND CERUMEN TYPES OF THE CHILCOTIN TABLE 333 a Blood group frequencies System Phenotype ABO A B (1) AB 0 Rhesus MNSs CcDee ccDEe CcDEe CCDee ccDEE CcDEE Observed phenotypic frequency Observed photypic proportion 101 0 0 94 195 0.518 20 45 44 8 62 7 186 0.107 0.241 0.236 0.043 0.333 0.037 Allele, antigen or reaction A A%:e;;t;n, frequency 0 0.306 0.694 C 0.125 0.875 0.482 C D E e 1 .om 0.610 0.390 M N 0.527 0.472 0.118 0.882 MNSS 96 NNSS 23 MNSS) 29 0.518 0.124 0.156 25 10 0.135 5 0.054 5 2 0.010 MNSS ) MMss MMSS) MMSs ) NNSS) NNSs ) 185 P1 Ps P Lewis Kell 0.588 0.411 P1 2 27 140 18 187 0.010 0.144 0.748 0.096 Le ( a + ) Kiaa Jk (at-) Jk (a- 1 Vel Vel Vel- Diego Di ( a + 1 Di (a-) + Pz JA (a-) 0.392 0.608 1.000 K k 0.000 1.000 177 11 188 0.941 0.058 Fy (a+) FY ( a - 1 0.759 0.241 165 23 188 0.877 0.122 Jk ( a + ) Jk (a- 1 0.651 0.349 158 2 160 0.987 0.012 Vel Vel- 0.891 0.109 0 Di ( a + 1 Di ( a - ) 0.000 0 190 190 K+ K- 0.359 0.641 113 79 192 0 85 85 1.0 + 1 .ooo (1) Of the 101 type A phenotypes, only one reacted positively with anti-As. The independent variable involved in the regression coefficients is age running from young to old. Therefore a positive coefficient indicates that the proportion of posi- tive responses is lower among the young than among the old and vice-versa for negative coefficients. The most striking result is with the frequency of positive re- 334 ALFRED, STOUT, LEE, BIRKBECK AND PETRAKIS TABLE 3 Rh and MNSs allelic gene frequencies CDe (R1j MNSs MS Ms NS N8 and it is hoped that some elucidation of these peculiarities will be forthcoming. At the moment, however, all that is possible is to call attention to them. Two-hundred and sixty-one subjects were examined for cerumen type (Matsunaga, '62; Petrakis, '69; Petrakis et al., '67). The results are given below: 0.001 0.020 0.154 0.588 0.024 0.002 0.000 0.211 0.106 0.421 0.089 0.383 Dry Sticky sponses to anti-A and Jk ( a ) . In the former the young males carry the allele much less frequently than the old, and in the latter the reverse is true. Data from projects relating to nutrition, health, and demography are currently coming available 87 (0.333) 174 (0.666) Allele Frequency Dry Sticky 0.570 0.430 DISCUSSION Some years ago, one of us (T. D. S . ) obtained a small sample of bloods from Indians of various bands of Carrier speakers (Takla, Necoslie, Portage, and Tachi) in the Ft. Saint James area of British TABLE 4 Age by sex breakdown of the frequency of positive reactions to various anti-sera ~~~d Sex Less than 20 years 2040 40-60 years Greater than 60 years A Male Female 0.367 0.608 0.875 0.370 0.727 0.615 0.714 0.500 0.488 0.541 C Male Female 0.421 0.378 0.500 0.481 0.545 0.230 0.570 0.500 0.457 0.393 Male Female 0.822 0.821 0.876 0.850 0.910 1.000 0.856 E 1.000 0.841 0.860 C Male Female 0.949 0.949 1.000 0.962 1.000 1 .OD0 0.860 1.000 0.954 0.960 e Male Female 0.590 0.620 0.750 0.630 0.635 0.461 0.860 1.000 0.633 0.626 M Male Female 0.896 0.869 0.625 0.814 0.818 0.923 0.714 1.000 0.845 0.867 N Male Female 0.787 0.794 0.875 0.847 0.818 0.846 0.857 1.000 0.807 0.825 S Male Female 0.280 0.263 0.000 0.222 0.181 0.230 0.000 0.000 0.217 0.235 P Male Female 0.510 0.660 0.375 0.703 0.636 0.615 0.285 0.666 0.495 0.665 Male Female 0.178 0.150 0.375 0.074 0.272 Le ( a) 0.000 0.142 0.333 0.205 0.122 (b) Male Female 0.810 0.763 0.625 0.777 0.636 0.769 0.875 0.500 0.772 0.750 Male Female 0.960 Fy ( a ) 0.900 1.000 0.960 1.ooo 1.000 1.000 0.835 0.965 0.921 Jk ( a ) Male Female 0.840 0.866 0.750 0.888 0.636 0.923 0.428 0.833 0.770 0.879 AntiSerum years 335 BLOOD GROUPS, PGM, AND CERUMEN TYPES O F THE CHILCOTIN Columbia which is about 200 air miles tween these data and those from Anaham north of the Anaham Reserve. The results it is difficult to think of these two groups have not been published previously due as having shared a common gene pool in to the small N, but insofar as they give the recent past. Lane ('53) notes that suggestive evidence of the genetic com- aboriginally contact between the Chilcotin plexity of the Athapaskans, they are pre- and Carrier was rare, but that considersented in table 5 (N = 43 except as noted). able intermixture has occurred since white Given the magnitude of the differences be- contact. Whatever intermixture has occurred is certainly not reflected in the samTABLE 5 ples considered here. Allowing fur samBlood group allele, antigen or reaction frequencies pling variability under the assumption of from Fort Saint James random sampling, the probability of observing a frequency of the A allele of 0.05 Allele, antigen Frequency N or reaction if the true frequency is 0.31 is virtually zero for 42 observations. 0.048 A In table 6 are presented some compara0.952 0 0.512 C tive data for several of the systems sur04954 C veyed. Sampling problems obviate drawing 1.000 D any conclusions, but it seems apparent 0.930 E that southern Athapaskans have a higher 17 0.412 e 1 .ooo M frequency of the A allele than do northern 0.302 N Athapaskans, suggesting the possibility of 0.193 S a latitudinal gradient. However, it has re0.284 P1 cently been shown in Africa that the fre0.243 34 Le ( a + 1 K 0.000 quency of blood group A is positively 1.000 FY ( a + ) correlated with percent dependence of hunting (Weisenfeld and Petrakis, '69). The Le (b+) phenotype had frequency 0.581. TABLE 6 Comparative blood type and allele frequencies A* :!;! M allele MNSs allelic genes MS Ms NS RH allelic genes Ns lb RI r R. R" Northern Athapaskan Anaham Arctic village * Fort Yukon Beaver Athapaskan * Beaver z* Beaver f b Non-Beaver* Kutchin 3 0.52 0.05 0.16 0.17 0.15 0.48 0.21 0.38 0.00 0.53 0.96 0.82 0.11 0.42 0.09 0.38 0.12 0.85 0.00 0.37 0.16 0.65 0.07 0.12 0.59 0.21 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.58 0.33 0.06 0.03 0.00 0.62 0.29 0.08 0.01 0.00 0.80 0.13 0.64 0.05 0.29 0.60 0.28 0.05 0.02 0.51 0.03 0.15 0.45 0.47 0.00 0.02 0.45 0.44 0.00 0.03 0.53 0.34 0.00 Average 0.24 Southern Athapaskan Apache 4 Mescalero Navaho Ramah Navaho 0.48 0.46 0.27 0.23 0.82 0.92 Average 0.37 0.88 0.48 0.42 0.00 0.02 Washington Athapaskan Hupa 0.23 0.61 0.29 0.47 0.15 0.06 0.31 Corcoran et al. ('59). Mourant et al. ( ' 5 8 ) ; 2a is Alberta Peace River; 2b i s Alberta Boyer River. 3 Lems et ,al. ('61 ). 4 Gershountz ('59). 6 Boyd and Boyd ('49). 5 Corcoran et al. ('62). 7 Hulse ('60). 1 * 0.00 336 ALFRED, STOUT, LEE, BIRKBECK AND PETRAKIS On the surface these two observations seem contradictory. It does seem clear, however, that some selective pressure is being exerted, possibly through the dietary, at this locus and this hypothesis does not seem to be contradicted by the data from Anaham or other Athapaskans; it is the nature and direction of the selectivity which is in question. Another interesting aspect of the ABO system is that, given the Anaham observation, there appears to be an almost linear decline in the frequency of the A allele from east of the Rocky Mountains toward the coast. (Dr. Chown has called to our attention that this cannot be considered a cline due to the fact that ". . , these are unrelated semi-isolates . . .") This observation is apparent from other sources (Mourant et al., '58), but due to the general dearth of information on the intermontane corridor of British Columbia it came as something of a surprise. Hulse ('571, among others, has noted that the proportion decreases from east to west, but, to our knowledge, the (emphermeral?) linearity of the trend has not been noted. With regard to this particular trend, it will probably not be evident much longer as the A allele among males at Anaham is disappearing rapidly (b = 0.15) while the same allele at Ahousat (on the coast; Alfred et al., '69; HuIse, '55) is apparently remaining constant (b = 0.02) ; among females at Anaham and at Ahousat the allele is constant (b = - 0.02 and b = 0.01 respectively). Mourant ('54) suggests a frequency of between 0.75 and 0.85 for the allele M in B. C. This emerges rather clearly from the few studies surveyed here but there is great variability in frequencies for local groups. One will also note the difference, again statistically unreliable, between northern and southern Athapaskans for the Rh allelic gene cDE(R2); but the Hupa, geographically intermediate, carry the allele much less frequently and therefore the trend, if any, is decidedly non-linear. With regard to some of the other systems studied table 7 presents some interesting comparisons. The results at the P locus are similar to other findings in B. C., but these allele frequencies seem to be quite different from most of the rest of the world, the exception being southeast Asia. It will be noted that the frequency of the Le(a+) reaction is similar to other results from interior western Canada (Montagu, '60) and these are quite different from coastal frequencies, e.g., Ahousat, Masset, Skidegate. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We wish to thank Dr. Bruce Chown, Rh Laboratory, Winnepeg, for reading and commenting on an earlier draft. Blood typing was carried out by Mrs. Isabella Horvath, R. T. and Mrs. Judith Decker, R. T. of the Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Vancouver, British Columbia. Mr. Robert Mossberger of the G. W. Hooper Foundation, University of California Medical Center, assisted in the electrophoretic studies. This part of the work was partially supported by a gift from Viola K. Schroeder in memory of Walter Schroeder. TABLE 7 Comparisons of alklic frequencies for P I , Fy ( a ) , J k (a),and Le ( a + ) Anaham Ahousat 0.36 0.21 0.16 0.10 0.18 0.16 0.25 0.35 0.63 0.60 0.37 Kutchin Arctic village 3 Fort Yukon Tlingit a Masset * Skidegate Mescalerd Chiricahua Navaho Alfred et al. ('69). * Lewis et al. ('61 ). Corcoran et al. ('59). 1 * 4 5 8 Thomas et al. ('64). Gershowitz ('59). Corcoran ('62). 0.76 0.73 0.65 0.36 0.89 1.00 1 .oo 0.87 0.76 0.32 0.42 0.72 0.52 0.47 0.54 0.39 0.76 0.13 0.12 0.53 BLOOD GROUPS, PGM, AND CERUMEN TYPES OF THE CHILCOTIN LITERATURE CITED Alfred, B., T. D. Stout, J. Birkbeck, M. Lee, N. 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