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Blood groups phosphoglucomutase and cerumen types of the Anaham (Chilcotin) Indians.

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Blood Groups, Phosphoglucomutase, and Cerumen
Types of the Anaham (Chilcotin) Indians
BRAXTON M. ALFRED, T. D. STOUT, MELVIN LEE,
JOHN BIRKBECK AND NICHOLAS L. PETRAKIS
Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of British Columbia;
Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Vancouver, British Columbia;
School of Home Economics, University of British Columbia; School of
Home Economics, University of British Columbia and G . W. Hooper
Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California
ABSTRACT
A survey of the blood groups of a Chilcotin band produced unexpected
results for the ABO system (0.69 for allele 0, 0.31 for allele A), MNSs system (0.53
for antigen M, 0.47 for antigen N ) , P (0.36 for P I ) . Other loci surveyed were within
the range of expectation. The frequency of phosphoglucomutase type PGM: was
found to be 0.87, and for the dry cerumen allele 0.57. The frequency of the A allele
was found to be decreasing among males, and several possibly distinctive characteristics of northern and southern Athapaskans are noted.
The Anaham Reserve is located on the
road connecting Williams Lake and Bella
Coola in what is called the Chilcotin area
of British Columbia (fig. 1) . The language
of the group is Chilcotin, which is one of
the most southerly, in Canada, of the
Athapaskan group. The linguistic area of
Chilcotin is bounded on the east and south
by Salishan, on the southwest and northwest by Kwakiutl (Wakashan), and on the
west by Bella Coola (Salishan). TO the
north are Carrier and other Athapaskan
languages. Geographically the area is
roughly triangular with one vertex at Chilko Lake, another at Anahim Lake, and
the third at a point about 20 miles northwest of the town of Williams Lake.
The Reserve is at an altitude of 4000
feet in the British Columbia Dry Belt,
annual precipitation about 10-15 inches.
The climate is continental sub-arctic; temperatures range from a summer high of
50°F.
about 102°F to a winter low of
Ecologically the region is on the border of
an “Alpine” zone and a n “Engelmann
Spruce-Subalpine Fir” zone (Krajina, ’65).
Aboriginally “the Chilcotin hunted,
fished, and gathered. . . . Probably the fishing was the more important subsistence
activity in that, however, meagre the returns, some type of fish were always
available . . . the subsistence economy was
based upon lake fishing, with river salmon
fishing or hunting and finally gathering
~
AM. J. PHYS. ANTHROP., 32: 329-338.
following in that order” (Lane, ’53:
42-43).
First white contact, though not recorded
exactly, was probably in the late eighteenth
century. Smallpox epidemics periodically
depleted the population with the 1864 outbreak killing about one-third with a second
third being killed soon after (Lane, ’53).
Figure 2 presents the population curve for
the Anaham Band. The curve is not fitted
and is to be used only as a guide to the
likely trend.
In November 1968 a survey of health
and nutritional status was conducted on
the Reserve under the direction of Dr.
Melvin Lee, University of British Columbia
School of Home Economics. Blood was
drawn routinely and typing carried out by
the Blood Transfusion Service of the
Canadian Red Cross in Vamouver. The
blood was also studied for the phosphoglucomutase (PGM) polymorphism; this
work was conducted by the G. W. Hooper
Foundation of the University of California
Medical School, San Francisco.
METHODS
A. Sampling
Subjects were not randomly drawn and
no attempt was made to exclude relatives.
Of the 609 registered Indians on the Anaham Band list, 524 were living on the
Reserve at the time of the survey. Two
329
330
ALFRED, STOUT, LEE, BIRKBECK AND PETRAKIS
Fig. 1
Anaham Reserve.
hundred and twenty people appeared for
examination and blood was drawn from
195, or 37% of the population officially
considered to be resident.
Figure 3 allows a comparison of the
age by sex distribution for the Band and
the sample. With regard to these two attributes, at least, it appears that the sample is not grossly different from the parent
population.
The anti-sera and grouping techniques
are given in table 1.
One hundred and six samples were
analyzed electrophoretically for phosphoglucomutase types employing methods described by Spencer, Hopkinson and Narris
('64).
RESULTS
In table 2 are presented allelic and
phenotypic frequencies for the blood
groups surveyed. The total number of
B. Laboratory
tested varies from one system to
All blood specimens were collected in bloods
the next due to the availability of antisera.
heparin. Most of the serum was removed
of the differences between observed
from each specimen for biochemical stud- None
and
expected
frequencies is statistically
ies and ACD was then added to the cells. significant allowing
the conclusion that
This was done within 24 hours of collec- the population is in Hardy-Weinberg
equition. The ACD specimens were then re- librium at all loci sampled.
frigerated and shipped to the Red Cross
In table 3 will be found the Rh and
Blood Transfusion Service in Vancouver. MNSs allelic gene frequencies.'
The cells were grouped during the next
1These estimates are obtained from an iterated a p
four days. There was no appreciable plication
of conditional probabilities. The details of
hemolysis during the test period.
the method will be described elsewhere.
I
I
0
2
/- \
I
1884
I
1894
I
1904
I
I
1914
1924
1
1934
I
I
1944
1954
1964
1974
Y E A R
Fig,2 Population trend of registered members of the Anaham band.
P RO P O R T f O N S
Male
Female
Band
Sompk
Bond Sample
Age
0-10
10-20
20 -30
30 -40
40 50
-
50 -60
60 6 above
.364
,243
-138
*I14
.513
*205
.028
-074
.065
.02a
.oa4
.064
.ow
.047
-355
.306
.121
.389
.238
,097
-076
,106
.076
.088
.a4
.038
,024
.ox
AGE
SAMPLE
-
60&aboG
50-65
BAND
I
I
40-50
0
30-40
t
L
20-30
I
I
10-20
I
0- 10
r
1.0
I
1
d
05
M
A
L
E
I
1
0.5
F E M A L E
Fig. 3 Age by sex proportional distribution for Anaham band and sample.
I
I
1.0
332
ALFRED, STOUT, LEE, BIRKBECK AND PETRAKIS
One hundred and six samples were
tested for PGM with the following result:
Phenotype
PGM 1-1
PGM 2-1
PGM 2-2
Observed
100 (0.943)
4(0'037)
2
(0.018)
Allele
Frequency
PGM:
0.866
PGM:
0.134
The PGM: frequency is high (0.87)
and similar to that reported for Athapaskans by Scott et al. ('66) and for Ainu
Sex
Male
Female
Male
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Anti-serum
reported by Giblette ('67). The frequency
of dry cerumen is likewise high and similar to other Amerindian frequencies reported by Petrakis ('69).
In table 4 will be found the age by sex
breakdown for the frequency of positive
reactions to various anti-sera.
There are some very interesting and
puzzling features in table 4. For example
there are statistically significant linear
trends in the proportion of positive responses to anti-sera as follows :
Regression
coefficient
Chi-square due to
linear regression,
1" of freedom
Significance
level of
Chi-square
0.155
0.069
0.068
- 0.060
0.050
-0.084
-0.053
-0.122
8.095
3.424
1.657
2.273
1.472
3.508
1.369
0.699
0.100
0.250
0.100
0.250
0.100
0.250
0.010
A
E
e
M
N
S
S
Jk(a)
0.005
TABLE 1
Anti-seraand grouping techniques
Anti-sera
Anti-A1
Anti-A
Anti-B
Anti-A and B
Anti-D
Antic
Anti-E
Anti-c'
Anti+
Anti-M
Anti-N
Anti-S
Anti-P
Anti-Lea
Anti-Leb
Anti-K
Anti-FyP
Anti-Jka
Anti-Ma
Anti-Vel
Anti-Vel
Anti-Human
Globulin
30% BovineAlb.
Source
Test
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
inc. Can. Red Cross B.T.S.Toronto
Ortho Pharmaceutical Corp.
Ortho Pharmaceutical Corp.
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver
Dr. Bruce Chown, Winnipeg
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Toronto
Can. Red Cross B.T.S. Vancouver
Pfizer
Saline capillary
Saline capillary
Saline capillary
Saline capillary
Saline capillary
Saline capillary
Saline capillary
Lows pap. capillary
Saline capillary
Saline capillary
Saline capillary
Ind. Coombs cap.
Saline capillary
Saline capillary
Saline tube
Capillary Lows pap.
Ind. Coombs capillary
Ind. Coombs capillary
Ind. Coombs capillary
Ind. Coombs capillary
Ind. Coombs capillary
Capillary
Pfizer
Method for
recheck neg.
results
I.C. tube
sal.tube
sal. tube
sal. tube
I.C. tube
I.C. tube
I.C. tube
I.C. tube
Tube
BLOOD GROUPS, PGM, AND CERUMEN TYPES OF THE CHILCOTIN
TABLE
333
a
Blood group frequencies
System
Phenotype
ABO
A
B
(1)
AB
0
Rhesus
MNSs
CcDee
ccDEe
CcDEe
CCDee
ccDEE
CcDEE
Observed
phenotypic
frequency
Observed
photypic
proportion
101
0
0
94
195
0.518
20
45
44
8
62
7
186
0.107
0.241
0.236
0.043
0.333
0.037
Allele, antigen
or reaction
A
A%:e;;t;n,
frequency
0
0.306
0.694
C
0.125
0.875
0.482
C
D
E
e
1 .om
0.610
0.390
M
N
0.527
0.472
0.118
0.882
MNSS
96
NNSS
23
MNSS)
29
0.518
0.124
0.156
25
10
0.135
5
0.054
5
2
0.010
MNSS )
MMss
MMSS)
MMSs )
NNSS)
NNSs )
185
P1
Ps
P
Lewis
Kell
0.588
0.411
P1
2
27
140
18
187
0.010
0.144
0.748
0.096
Le ( a + )
Kiaa
Jk (at-)
Jk (a- 1
Vel
Vel
Vel-
Diego
Di ( a + 1
Di (a-)
+
Pz
JA
(a-)
0.392
0.608
1.000
K
k
0.000
1.000
177
11
188
0.941
0.058
Fy (a+)
FY ( a - 1
0.759
0.241
165
23
188
0.877
0.122
Jk ( a + )
Jk (a- 1
0.651
0.349
158
2
160
0.987
0.012
Vel
Vel-
0.891
0.109
0
Di ( a + 1
Di ( a - )
0.000
0
190
190
K+
K-
0.359
0.641
113
79
192
0
85
85
1.0
+
1 .ooo
(1) Of the 101 type A phenotypes, only one reacted positively with anti-As.
The independent variable involved in the
regression coefficients is age running from
young to old. Therefore a positive coefficient indicates that the proportion of posi-
tive responses is lower among the young
than among the old and vice-versa for
negative coefficients. The most striking result is with the frequency of positive re-
334
ALFRED, STOUT, LEE, BIRKBECK AND PETRAKIS
TABLE 3
Rh and MNSs allelic gene frequencies
CDe (R1j
MNSs
MS
Ms
NS
N8
and it is hoped that some elucidation of
these peculiarities will be forthcoming. At
the moment, however, all that is possible
is to call attention to them.
Two-hundred and sixty-one subjects
were examined for cerumen type (Matsunaga, '62; Petrakis, '69; Petrakis et al., '67).
The results are given below:
0.001
0.020
0.154
0.588
0.024
0.002
0.000
0.211
0.106
0.421
0.089
0.383
Dry
Sticky
sponses to anti-A and Jk ( a ) . In the former
the young males carry the allele much
less frequently than the old, and in the
latter the reverse is true. Data from projects relating to nutrition, health, and
demography are currently coming available
87 (0.333)
174 (0.666)
Allele
Frequency
Dry
Sticky
0.570
0.430
DISCUSSION
Some years ago, one of us (T. D. S . ) obtained a small sample of bloods from
Indians of various bands of Carrier speakers (Takla, Necoslie, Portage, and Tachi)
in the Ft. Saint James area of British
TABLE 4
Age by sex breakdown of the frequency of positive reactions to various anti-sera
~~~d
Sex
Less than
20 years
2040
40-60
years
Greater than
60 years
A
Male
Female
0.367
0.608
0.875
0.370
0.727
0.615
0.714
0.500
0.488
0.541
C
Male
Female
0.421
0.378
0.500
0.481
0.545
0.230
0.570
0.500
0.457
0.393
Male
Female
0.822
0.821
0.876
0.850
0.910
1.000
0.856
E
1.000
0.841
0.860
C
Male
Female
0.949
0.949
1.000
0.962
1.000
1 .OD0
0.860
1.000
0.954
0.960
e
Male
Female
0.590
0.620
0.750
0.630
0.635
0.461
0.860
1.000
0.633
0.626
M
Male
Female
0.896
0.869
0.625
0.814
0.818
0.923
0.714
1.000
0.845
0.867
N
Male
Female
0.787
0.794
0.875
0.847
0.818
0.846
0.857
1.000
0.807
0.825
S
Male
Female
0.280
0.263
0.000
0.222
0.181
0.230
0.000
0.000
0.217
0.235
P
Male
Female
0.510
0.660
0.375
0.703
0.636
0.615
0.285
0.666
0.495
0.665
Male
Female
0.178
0.150
0.375
0.074
0.272
Le ( a)
0.000
0.142
0.333
0.205
0.122
(b)
Male
Female
0.810
0.763
0.625
0.777
0.636
0.769
0.875
0.500
0.772
0.750
Male
Female
0.960
Fy ( a )
0.900
1.000
0.960
1.ooo
1.000
1.000
0.835
0.965
0.921
Jk ( a )
Male
Female
0.840
0.866
0.750
0.888
0.636
0.923
0.428
0.833
0.770
0.879
AntiSerum
years
335
BLOOD GROUPS, PGM, AND CERUMEN TYPES O F THE CHILCOTIN
Columbia which is about 200 air miles tween these data and those from Anaham
north of the Anaham Reserve. The results it is difficult to think of these two groups
have not been published previously due as having shared a common gene pool in
to the small N, but insofar as they give the recent past. Lane ('53) notes that
suggestive evidence of the genetic com- aboriginally contact between the Chilcotin
plexity of the Athapaskans, they are pre- and Carrier was rare, but that considersented in table 5 (N = 43 except as noted). able intermixture has occurred since white
Given the magnitude of the differences be- contact. Whatever intermixture has occurred is certainly not reflected in the samTABLE 5
ples considered here. Allowing fur samBlood group allele, antigen or reaction frequencies pling variability under the assumption of
from Fort Saint James
random sampling, the probability of observing a frequency of the A allele of 0.05
Allele,
antigen
Frequency
N
or reaction
if the true frequency is 0.31 is virtually
zero for 42 observations.
0.048
A
In table 6 are presented some compara0.952
0
0.512
C
tive data for several of the systems sur04954
C
veyed. Sampling problems obviate drawing
1.000
D
any conclusions, but it seems apparent
0.930
E
that southern Athapaskans have a higher
17
0.412
e
1 .ooo
M
frequency of the A allele than do northern
0.302
N
Athapaskans, suggesting the possibility of
0.193
S
a latitudinal gradient. However, it has re0.284
P1
cently been shown in Africa that the fre0.243
34
Le ( a + 1
K
0.000
quency of blood group A is positively
1.000
FY ( a + )
correlated with percent dependence of
hunting (Weisenfeld and Petrakis, '69).
The Le (b+) phenotype had frequency 0.581.
TABLE 6
Comparative blood type and allele frequencies
A*
:!;!
M allele
MNSs allelic genes
MS
Ms
NS
RH allelic genes
Ns
lb
RI
r
R.
R"
Northern Athapaskan
Anaham
Arctic village *
Fort Yukon
Beaver
Athapaskan *
Beaver z*
Beaver f b
Non-Beaver*
Kutchin 3
0.52
0.05
0.16
0.17
0.15
0.48
0.21
0.38
0.00
0.53
0.96
0.82
0.11 0.42 0.09 0.38
0.12 0.85 0.00 0.37
0.16 0.65 0.07 0.12
0.59 0.21 0.02 0.02 0.00
0.58 0.33 0.06 0.03 0.00
0.62 0.29 0.08 0.01 0.00
0.80
0.13
0.64 0.05 0.29
0.60 0.28 0.05 0.02
0.51 0.03 0.15
0.45 0.47 0.00 0.02
0.45 0.44 0.00 0.03
0.53 0.34
0.00
Average
0.24
Southern Athapaskan
Apache 4
Mescalero
Navaho
Ramah Navaho
0.48
0.46
0.27
0.23
0.82
0.92
Average
0.37
0.88
0.48 0.42 0.00 0.02
Washington Athapaskan
Hupa
0.23
0.61
0.29 0.47 0.15 0.06
0.31
Corcoran et al. ('59).
Mourant et al. ( ' 5 8 ) ; 2a is Alberta Peace River; 2b i s Alberta Boyer River.
3 Lems et ,al. ('61 ).
4 Gershountz ('59).
6 Boyd and Boyd ('49).
5 Corcoran et al. ('62).
7 Hulse ('60).
1
*
0.00
336
ALFRED, STOUT, LEE, BIRKBECK AND PETRAKIS
On the surface these two observations
seem contradictory. It does seem clear,
however, that some selective pressure is
being exerted, possibly through the dietary,
at this locus and this hypothesis does not
seem to be contradicted by the data from
Anaham or other Athapaskans; it is the
nature and direction of the selectivity
which is in question.
Another interesting aspect of the ABO
system is that, given the Anaham observation, there appears to be an almost linear
decline in the frequency of the A allele
from east of the Rocky Mountains toward
the coast. (Dr. Chown has called to our
attention that this cannot be considered
a cline due to the fact that ". . , these are
unrelated semi-isolates . . .") This observation is apparent from other sources
(Mourant et al., '58), but due to the
general dearth of information on the intermontane corridor of British Columbia
it came as something of a surprise. Hulse
('571, among others, has noted that the
proportion decreases from east to west,
but, to our knowledge, the (emphermeral?)
linearity of the trend has not been noted.
With regard to this particular trend, it
will probably not be evident much longer
as the A allele among males at Anaham
is disappearing rapidly (b = 0.15) while
the same allele at Ahousat (on the coast;
Alfred et al., '69; HuIse, '55) is apparently
remaining constant (b = 0.02) ; among
females at Anaham and at Ahousat the
allele is constant (b = - 0.02 and b = 0.01
respectively). Mourant ('54) suggests a
frequency of between 0.75 and 0.85 for
the allele M in B. C. This emerges rather
clearly from the few studies surveyed here
but there is great variability in frequencies
for local groups.
One will also note the difference, again
statistically unreliable, between northern
and southern Athapaskans for the Rh
allelic gene cDE(R2); but the Hupa,
geographically intermediate, carry the
allele much less frequently and therefore
the trend, if any, is decidedly non-linear.
With regard to some of the other systems studied table 7 presents some interesting comparisons.
The results at the P locus are similar
to other findings in B. C., but these allele
frequencies seem to be quite different from
most of the rest of the world, the exception being southeast Asia.
It will be noted that the frequency of
the Le(a+) reaction is similar to other
results from interior western Canada
(Montagu, '60) and these are quite different from coastal frequencies, e.g., Ahousat,
Masset, Skidegate.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We wish to thank Dr. Bruce Chown, Rh
Laboratory, Winnepeg, for reading and
commenting on an earlier draft. Blood
typing was carried out by Mrs. Isabella
Horvath, R. T. and Mrs. Judith Decker,
R. T. of the Red Cross Blood Transfusion
Service, Vancouver, British Columbia. Mr.
Robert Mossberger of the G. W. Hooper
Foundation, University of California Medical Center, assisted in the electrophoretic
studies. This part of the work was partially
supported by a gift from Viola K. Schroeder
in memory of Walter Schroeder.
TABLE 7
Comparisons of alklic frequencies for P I , Fy ( a ) , J k (a),and Le ( a + )
Anaham
Ahousat
0.36
0.21
0.16
0.10
0.18
0.16
0.25
0.35
0.63
0.60
0.37
Kutchin
Arctic village 3
Fort Yukon
Tlingit a
Masset *
Skidegate
Mescalerd
Chiricahua
Navaho
Alfred et al. ('69).
* Lewis et al. ('61 ).
Corcoran et al. ('59).
1
*
4
5
8
Thomas et al. ('64).
Gershowitz ('59).
Corcoran ('62).
0.76
0.73
0.65
0.36
0.89
1.00
1 .oo
0.87
0.76
0.32
0.42
0.72
0.52
0.47
0.54
0.39
0.76
0.13
0.12
0.53
BLOOD GROUPS, PGM, AND CERUMEN TYPES OF THE CHILCOTIN
LITERATURE CITED
Alfred, B., T. D. Stout, J. Birkbeck, M. Lee, N.
Petrakis 1969 Blood groups, red cell enzymes, and cerumen types of the Ahousat
(Nootka) Indians. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 31:
391-398.
Boyd, W. C., and L. G. Boyd 1949 Blood groups
and tfpes of Ramah Navaho. Am. J. Phys.
Anthrop., 7: 569-574.
Chown, B. 1969 Personal Communication.
Corcoran, P. A., F. H. Allen, Jr., A. C. Allison, B.
S. Blumberg 1959 Blood groups of Alaskan
Eskimos and Indians. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop.,
17: 187-193.
Corcoran, P. A., D. L. Rabin and F. H. Allen, Jr.
1962 Blood ~ o u p of
s 237 Navaho school children at Pinon Boarding School, Pinon, Arizona.
Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 20: 389-390.
Gershowitz, H. 1959 The Diego factor among
Asiatic Indians, Apaches and West African
Negroes; blood types of Asiatic Indians and
Apaches. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 17: 195-200.
Giblett, E. R. 1967 Variant phenotypes: Haptoglobin, transferrin, and red cell enzymes. In:
Advances in Immunogenetics. T. J. Greenwalt,
ed. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia.
Hulse, F. S. 1955 Blood types and mating patterns among Northwest Coast Indians. Southwest J. Anthrop., 11: 93-104.
1960 Ripples on a gene pool: The
shifting frequencies of blood-types alleles
among the Indians of the Hupa Reservation.
Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 18: 141-152.
1957 Linguistic barriers to gene flow.
The blood groups of the Yakima, Okanagan and
Swinomish Indians, Am. J. Phys. Anthmp.,
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anaham, phosphoglucomutase, chilcotin, group, cerumen, indian, typed, blood
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