Blood groups and red cell enzymes of the Ross River (Northern Tuchone) and Upper Liard (Slave) Indians.код для вставкиСкачать
Blood Groups and Red Cell Enzymes of the Ross River (Northern Tuchone), and Upper Liard (Slave) Indians BRAXTON M. ALFRED, T. D. STOUT, MELVIN LEE, RICHARD TIPTON, NICHOLAS L. PETRAKIS A N D JOHN BIRKBECK Department of Anthropology, U.B.C., Red Cross Blood Transfusion Serwice, Vancouver, B.C., School of Home Economics, U.B.C., Department of Anthropology, U.B.C., G. W . Hooper Foundation, University of Calzfornia, S a n Francisco a n d School of H o m e Economics, U.B.C. KEY WORDS Blood Groups . Red Cell Enzymes . Indians Athapaskan . Gene Frequencies. A survey of nine blood group systems was conducted as part ABSTRACT of a study of health and nutrition among two Athapsakan groups of the Yukon Territory, Canada. Most of the samples were also analyzed for hemoglobin patterns and G-6-PD variants. The only significant difference in allelic frequencies between the two populations occurred at the P locus. An apparent deficit in the observed frequency of type Al, and hence a departure from equilibrium, at Upper Laird could not be tested for significance due to insufficient degrees of freedom. The phenotype and allele frequencies of blood groups, hemoglobin and G-6-PD on two Indian populations of the Yukon are reported here. The Upper Liard Reserve is located near Watson Lake in the southeastern region of the Yukon Territory; the Ross River Reserve is about 300 air miles to the northwest in the south central part of the Territory (fig. 1). Both groups are Athapaskan language stock, Slave being the language of the Liard band and Northern Tuchone that of the Ross River band. In December 1969, as part of a survey of health and nutritional status conducted on these two reserves, routine blood samples were drawn and the red cells were typed by the Blood Transfusion Service of the Canadian Red Cross in Vancouver. Some of the sera were also studied for hemoglobin, G-6-PD and PGM. This latter work was conducted by the G. W. Hooper Foundation of the University of California Medical Center, San Francisco. METHODS A. Sampling and estimation Subjects were not randomly drawn and no attempt was made to exclude relatives. AM. J. PHYS. ANTHRDP., 36: 161-164. All allele frequencies were estimated by maximum likelihood. B. Laboratory All specimens were collected in heparin. About 60% of the bloods drawn at Upper Liard were hemolyzed by the time typing began. The likely cause was defective heparin. Most of the serum was removed for biochemical studies and ACD was then added to the red cells within 24 hours of collection. The ACD specimens were then refrigerated and shipped to the Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service in Vancouver where the cells were grouped during the next four days. There was no appreciable hemolysis during the test period. The anti-sera and grouping techniques may be found in Alfred et al. (‘70). Electrophoretic analysis for hemoglobin and G-6-PD types was done on 80 Ross River and 106 Upper Liard specimens; phosphoglucomutase typing was done on 30 Ross River and 14 Upper Liard specimens. The methods employed were those of Briere et al. (’65), Kirkman and Hendrickson (‘63), and Spencer et al. (‘64) respectively. 161 162 ALFRED ET AL. Figure I BLOOD FACTORS OF NORTHERN TUCHONE AND SLAVE 163 TABLE 1 Phenotype a n d ullele frequencies Observed phenotypic frequencies Allele frequency System Ross Phenotype AlAiBO 27 1 19 B 0 1 63 1 62 92 83 12 12 26 3 11 26 1 1 0 12 10 21 92 83 2 14 44 0 2 30 0 CcDee ( R h l r h ) CCDee ( R h l R h l ) CcDEe (RhlRhn) CCDEE (RhZRhz) ccDEe (Rh2rh) CCDEE(RhzRhz) ccDee (RhoRh,) CCDEe ( R h z R h l ) ccdee ( r h ) Total MNSs MS MSs Ms NSs Ns MNSs MNs Total P P1 P2 Total Lewis L e (a + b + ) Le (a - b + ) L e (a b - ) L e (a - b -1 + Total Duffy Total Kell k Total Kidd + + + + Jk (a b ) Jk (a - b ) Jk ( a b - ) Total Diego Total Upper Liard A2 A1 Total Rhesus River + + D i (a b ) Di ( a - b + ) 1 1 Allele River Upper Liard A1 AZ B 0 0.241 0.012 0.011 0.736 0.241 0.012 0.012 0.735 C D E 0.364 1.000 0.521 0.319 o.98a 0.445 M S 0.805 0.141 0.860 0.047 0.700 0.503 ROSS 0 21 16 1 0 2 3 1 7 2 21 a 92 43 47 45 62 21 92 a3 1 Lea 0.016 0.020 Leb 0.819 0.732 1 76 2 4 92 83 4 88 4 79 Fya 0.792 0.780 92 83 92 83 k 1.000 1.000 92 83 29 22 13 32 17 34 Jk" 0.415 0.485 Jkb 0.550 0.360 64 a3 1 90 2 80 Di a Di 0.005 1.000 0.002 1.000 91 82 0 89 2 164 ALFRED ET AL. TABLE 2 Rliesus a n d M N S s allele frequencies Allele Ross River Upper Liard Cde (r') CDE (Rz) cDe (Ro) cDE (R2) cde (r) CdE (rY) cdE (r") CDe (Rd 0.000 0.022 0.136 0.497 0.002 0.003 0.000 0.340 0.000 0.000 0.048 0.446 0.187 MS 0.141 0.690 0.162 0.007 0.027 0.833 0.019 0.120 Ms NS Ns 0.000 0.000 0.319 At Ross River, 27 (90%) were PGM type 1-1, 2 ( 6 % ) were type 2-1, and 1 ( 3 % ) was type 2-2; at Upper Liard, 12 (86%) were type 1-1, and 2 (14%) were type 2-1. These results give allele frequencies of 0.945 and 0.925 for PGM: at Ross River and Upper Liard respectively; this range is characteristic of Athapaskans (Scott et al., '66). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS RESULTS In table 1 are phenotypic and allelic frequencies. Other than the rather high frequencies for C and PI there are no surprises. From table 2, Rh and MNSs allelic frequencies, the frequency of cDe (RO) at Ross River and of cde (r) at Upper Liard are both somewhat higher than anticipated. There is an apparent disequilibrium in the AIAzBO system at Upper Laird with the deficit of type A, contributing most to the observation. A test of significance cannot be made, however, due to insufficient degrees of freedom. The frequency of positive reactions to each of the anti-sera was subdivided by age categories and by sex to determine if any trends were present, but none of the results were conclusive due to an excess of low expected values in each of the tables. All hemoglobins were normal A Az; all specimens were type B positive for G-6-PD and no deficiency was found. + We thank Dr. L. Black, Zone Director (Yukon), Medical Services Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare for his cooperation. Initial processing of specimens was performed by Miss Ilse Borgen. Typing of specimens was done by Miss Irene Voigt, B.Sc., R. T. and Miss Deanna Epp, R. T. This work was partially supported by National Health grant 609-7-263, a grant from the U.B.C. Arctic Research Committee, and a grant from the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. LITERATURE CITED Alfred, B., T. D. Stout, M. Lee, J. Birkbeck and N. L. Petrakis 1970 Blood groups, phosphoglucomutase, and cerumen types of the Anah a m (Chilcotin) Indians. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 32: 329-337. Briere, R. O., T. Golias and J. G. Batsakis 1965 Rapid qualitative hemoglobin fractionation. American Journal of Clin. Path., 44: 695-701. Kirkman, N. H., and E. M. Hendrickson 1963 Sex-linked electrophoretic difference i n glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Am. J. Hum. Gem, 1 5 : 241-258. Scott, E. M., E. W. Duncan, V. E. Skstrand and R. C. Wright 1966 Frequency of polymorphic types of red cell enzyme and serum factors i n Alaskan Eskimos and Indians. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 18: 408-411. Spencer, N., D. A. Hopkinson and H. Harris 1964 Phosphoglucomutase polymorphism in Man. Nature, 204: 742.