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Blood groups and red cell enzymes of the Ross River (Northern Tuchone) and Upper Liard (Slave) Indians.

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Blood Groups and Red Cell Enzymes of the Ross River
(Northern Tuchone), and Upper Liard (Slave) Indians
BRAXTON M. ALFRED, T. D. STOUT, MELVIN LEE, RICHARD
TIPTON, NICHOLAS L. PETRAKIS A N D JOHN BIRKBECK
Department of Anthropology, U.B.C., Red Cross Blood Transfusion
Serwice, Vancouver, B.C., School of Home Economics, U.B.C.,
Department of Anthropology, U.B.C., G. W . Hooper
Foundation, University of Calzfornia, S a n
Francisco a n d School of H o m e
Economics, U.B.C.
KEY WORDS Blood Groups . Red Cell Enzymes . Indians
Athapaskan . Gene Frequencies.
A survey of nine blood group systems was conducted as part
ABSTRACT
of a study of health and nutrition among two Athapsakan groups of the Yukon
Territory, Canada. Most of the samples were also analyzed for hemoglobin
patterns and G-6-PD variants. The only significant difference in allelic frequencies between the two populations occurred at the P locus. An apparent
deficit in the observed frequency of type Al, and hence a departure from equilibrium, at Upper Laird could not be tested for significance due to insufficient
degrees of freedom.
The phenotype and allele frequencies
of blood groups, hemoglobin and G-6-PD
on two Indian populations of the Yukon
are reported here. The Upper Liard Reserve is located near Watson Lake in the
southeastern region of the Yukon Territory; the Ross River Reserve is about 300
air miles to the northwest in the south
central part of the Territory (fig. 1). Both
groups are Athapaskan language stock,
Slave being the language of the Liard
band and Northern Tuchone that of the
Ross River band.
In December 1969, as part of a survey
of health and nutritional status conducted
on these two reserves, routine blood samples were drawn and the red cells were
typed by the Blood Transfusion Service of
the Canadian Red Cross in Vancouver.
Some of the sera were also studied for
hemoglobin, G-6-PD and PGM. This latter
work was conducted by the G. W. Hooper
Foundation of the University of California
Medical Center, San Francisco.
METHODS
A. Sampling and estimation
Subjects were not randomly drawn and
no attempt was made to exclude relatives.
AM. J. PHYS. ANTHRDP., 36: 161-164.
All allele frequencies were estimated by
maximum likelihood.
B. Laboratory
All specimens were collected in heparin.
About 60% of the bloods drawn at Upper
Liard were hemolyzed by the time typing
began. The likely cause was defective
heparin.
Most of the serum was removed for biochemical studies and ACD was then
added to the red cells within 24 hours of
collection. The ACD specimens were then
refrigerated and shipped to the Red Cross
Blood Transfusion Service in Vancouver
where the cells were grouped during the
next four days. There was no appreciable
hemolysis during the test period. The
anti-sera and grouping techniques may
be found in Alfred et al. (‘70).
Electrophoretic analysis for hemoglobin and G-6-PD types was done on 80
Ross River and 106 Upper Liard specimens; phosphoglucomutase typing was
done on 30 Ross River and 14 Upper Liard
specimens. The methods employed were
those of Briere et al. (’65), Kirkman and
Hendrickson (‘63), and Spencer et al.
(‘64) respectively.
161
162
ALFRED ET AL.
Figure I
BLOOD FACTORS OF NORTHERN TUCHONE AND SLAVE
163
TABLE 1
Phenotype a n d ullele frequencies
Observed phenotypic
frequencies
Allele frequency
System
Ross
Phenotype
AlAiBO
27
1
19
B
0
1
63
1
62
92
83
12
12
26
3
11
26
1
1
0
12
10
21
92
83
2
14
44
0
2
30
0
CcDee ( R h l r h )
CCDee ( R h l R h l )
CcDEe (RhlRhn)
CCDEE (RhZRhz)
ccDEe (Rh2rh)
CCDEE(RhzRhz)
ccDee (RhoRh,)
CCDEe ( R h z R h l )
ccdee ( r h )
Total
MNSs
MS
MSs
Ms
NSs
Ns
MNSs
MNs
Total
P
P1
P2
Total
Lewis
L e (a + b + )
Le (a - b + )
L e (a b - )
L e (a - b -1
+
Total
Duffy
Total
Kell
k
Total
Kidd
+ +
+
+
Jk (a b )
Jk (a - b )
Jk ( a b - )
Total
Diego
Total
Upper
Liard
A2
A1
Total
Rhesus
River
+ +
D i (a b )
Di ( a - b + )
1
1
Allele
River
Upper
Liard
A1
AZ
B
0
0.241
0.012
0.011
0.736
0.241
0.012
0.012
0.735
C
D
E
0.364
1.000
0.521
0.319
o.98a
0.445
M
S
0.805
0.141
0.860
0.047
0.700
0.503
ROSS
0
21
16
1
0
2
3
1
7
2
21
a
92
43
47
45
62
21
92
a3
1
Lea
0.016
0.020
Leb
0.819
0.732
1
76
2
4
92
83
4
88
4
79
Fya
0.792
0.780
92
83
92
83
k
1.000
1.000
92
83
29
22
13
32
17
34
Jk"
0.415
0.485
Jkb
0.550
0.360
64
a3
1
90
2
80
Di a
Di
0.005
1.000
0.002
1.000
91
82
0
89
2
164
ALFRED ET AL.
TABLE 2
Rliesus a n d M N S s allele frequencies
Allele
Ross River
Upper Liard
Cde (r')
CDE (Rz)
cDe (Ro)
cDE (R2)
cde (r)
CdE (rY)
cdE (r")
CDe (Rd
0.000
0.022
0.136
0.497
0.002
0.003
0.000
0.340
0.000
0.000
0.048
0.446
0.187
MS
0.141
0.690
0.162
0.007
0.027
0.833
0.019
0.120
Ms
NS
Ns
0.000
0.000
0.319
At Ross River, 27 (90%) were PGM
type 1-1, 2 ( 6 % ) were type 2-1, and 1
( 3 % ) was type 2-2; at Upper Liard, 12
(86%) were type 1-1, and 2 (14%) were
type 2-1. These results give allele frequencies of 0.945 and 0.925 for PGM: at
Ross River and Upper Liard respectively;
this range is characteristic of Athapaskans (Scott et al., '66).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
RESULTS
In table 1 are phenotypic and allelic
frequencies. Other than the rather high
frequencies for C and PI there are no surprises. From table 2, Rh and MNSs allelic
frequencies, the frequency of cDe (RO)
at Ross River and of cde (r) at Upper
Liard are both somewhat higher than
anticipated.
There is an apparent disequilibrium in
the AIAzBO system at Upper Laird with
the deficit of type A, contributing most
to the observation. A test of significance
cannot be made, however, due to insufficient degrees of freedom.
The frequency of positive reactions to
each of the anti-sera was subdivided by
age categories and by sex to determine
if any trends were present, but none of
the results were conclusive due to an
excess of low expected values in each of
the tables.
All hemoglobins were normal A Az;
all specimens were type B positive for
G-6-PD and no deficiency was found.
+
We thank Dr. L. Black, Zone Director
(Yukon), Medical Services Branch of the
Department of National Health and Welfare for his cooperation. Initial processing
of specimens was performed by Miss Ilse
Borgen. Typing of specimens was done by
Miss Irene Voigt, B.Sc., R. T. and Miss
Deanna Epp, R. T. This work was partially supported by National Health grant
609-7-263, a grant from the U.B.C. Arctic
Research Committee, and a grant from
the Department of Indian Affairs and
Northern Development.
LITERATURE CITED
Alfred, B., T. D. Stout, M. Lee, J. Birkbeck and
N. L. Petrakis 1970 Blood groups, phosphoglucomutase, and cerumen types of the Anah a m (Chilcotin) Indians. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop.,
32: 329-337.
Briere, R. O., T. Golias and J. G. Batsakis 1965
Rapid qualitative hemoglobin fractionation.
American Journal of Clin. Path., 44: 695-701.
Kirkman, N. H., and E. M. Hendrickson 1963
Sex-linked electrophoretic difference i n glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Am. J. Hum.
Gem, 1 5 : 241-258.
Scott, E. M., E. W. Duncan, V. E. Skstrand and
R. C. Wright 1966 Frequency of polymorphic
types of red cell enzyme and serum factors i n
Alaskan Eskimos and Indians. Am. J. Hum.
Genet., 18: 408-411.
Spencer, N., D. A. Hopkinson and H. Harris 1964
Phosphoglucomutase polymorphism in Man.
Nature, 204: 742.
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slava, rivers, group, ross, red, upper, indian, blood, cells, liars, northern, enzymes, tuchone
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