Blood groups and types hemoglobin variants and G-6-PD deficiency among Abu Dhabians in the United Arab Emirates.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 52:481-484( 1980) Blood Groups and Types, Hemoglobin Variants, and G-6-PD Deficiency Among Abu Dhabians in the United Arab Emirates K. KAMEL', R. CHANDY, H. MOUSA AND D. YUNIS Department of Pathology and Blood Transfusion Service, Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates KEY WORDS Abu Dhabi, Arabs, ABO, MNS, Rh,,, KkJs", Fy"Fyh,P,, Lea, Vex, Hb variants, G-6-PD deficiency ABSTRACT Some erythrocyte genetic factors were studied in the indigenous population of Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates, on the southeastern coast of the Arabian peninsula. Determinations carried out included blood groups and types ABO, MNS, Rh,,, KkJsI, Fy;'Fyl', P,, Led, Vel'l, hemoglobin variants, and screening for G-6-PD deficiency. Prevalence of most blood groups and types harmonized with that among neighboring Arabs and some Arabs elsewhere. The M S and N S gene complexes were noticeably high. African admixture was expressed by the presence ofJs" and Hb S and large numbers of Fy. G-6-PD deficiency was rather high. The southeastern coast of t h e Arabian Peninsula (Arabia) was settled in stone age periods (Ramahi, '73). Early migration waves of Qahtanis emanated from southwest Arabia (Yemen)probably over a period of several millenia. They were later joined by settlers from further north i n Arabia, the Nizaris or Adnanis, descendants of biblical Ismail. Probably between the second millenium B.C. and the sixth century A.D., the bulk of the tribes from both above main divisions of Arabia arrived in the eastern coast. They went there directly from Yemen or via the northern parts of the Peninsula (Heard, '78). Subsequent invasions, expansions, and trade exposed the people to contact with old civilizations of the region-viz, Assyrian, Mesopotamian, Sumerian, Babylonian, Persian, Canaanite, Phoenician, and in the last centuries to Omani, Portuguese, Ottoman, Dutch, Wahhabi, Egyptian and British influences (Ramahi, '73). The present Arabian oil Sheikhdoms (Emirates) of that coast, long known as the Trucial Coast, gained statehood in the last decade. The United Arab Emirates (UAE), the largest of them, was proclaimed in 1971. It is made up of seven Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Kuwain, Ras al-Khaimah, and Al-Fujairah. The U.A.E. extends over about 84,000 km2between 23"-26" north latitude and 51"-57" east longitude. It is bordered by Qatar 0002-948318015204-0481$01.10 0 1980 ALAN R. LISS. INC. on the northwest, Saudi Arabia on the west and south, and Oman on the east and northeast (Fig. 1).Two gulfs, the Persian (Arabian) Gulf and the Gulf of Oman separate Iran from the U.A.E. (United Arab Emirates, '76). Abu Dhabi, the major emirate and most populous, comprises 80% of the U.A.E. surface area and gives the federation its capital by the same name. In the 1976 census, the population of the country including the expatriate majority, was about half a million. Due to the oil boom and swift influx of aliens, the number of Abu Dhabians is not exactly defined. In 1968 they were estimated a t 80,000 (Ramahi, '73). People of the area had always had a strong Bedouin feeling of self preservation or unwillingness to assimilate outsiders; most marriages formerly (in tribal life) were between close relatives to guarantee the continuity of the economic unity of the family (Heard, '78). Significant admixture could have happened only with adjacent Arabs of the Peninsula, with Persians, and with East Africans of the Omani Empire territories. Persian intermixing resulted from the alternating Arab and Persian dominations of both gulf coasts (Abdullah, '78). 'Dr K. Kamel's present address IS 56 Muhammad Mazhar S t , Zamalek, Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt. Received January 19, 1979; accepted September 18, 1979 48 1 482 K. KAMEL, R. CHANDY, H. MOUSA AND D. YUNIS ous parameters are indicated in respective tables. The work was carried out in Abu Dhabi Military Hospital with minimal delay after sampling. RESULTS The results of blood groups and types and their genes are given in Table 1.Table 2 shows the types of Hb detected and the incidence of G-6-PD deficiency among the screenees. When the expected numbers of the phenotypes were compared to the observed numbers and the differences between them tested by chi-square, only one system, the ABO had xz (1 df) of some significance at a value of 4.433. This may be explained as caused by chance. I Fig. 1. Map of the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The United Arab Emirates is marked by the bold arrow a t the bottom of the figure. The slave traffic from Africa, which was outlawed by the British "General Treaty with the Arab Tribes of the Persian Gulf in 1820," later left many emancipated African slaves who were also absorbed into the local community (Ramahi, '73). Tribal life is gradually giving way to urbanization (Kamel et al., '791, and oil affluence is leading to increasing intermarriage with neighboring Middle Easterners, Asians, and Europeans. This is a study of some hereditary blood factors of a long isolated Arab community which was suddenly opened to wide contact with the world populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS Unrelated healthy adult males from various military institutions in Abu Dhabi were sampled. They were local Abu Dhabians and belonged to all tribes without selection. The following determinations were carried out: Blood groups and types ABO, MNS, P , , Rh,,, KkJsc', Le", Fy"Fy", and Vc' by standard test tube techniques, and Coombs test when required. Hemoglobin (Hb)types were assessed by a) cellulose acetate electrophoresis in TrisEDTA-borate buffer at pH 8.9 as described by Dacie and Lewis ('75); b) alkaline denaturation for Hb F (Singer et al., '51); and c) sickling preparation and solubility test for Hb S (Dacie and Lewis, '75) when required. Glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD)deficiency was screened by a commercial kit from Sigma" based on the fluorescent spot test of Beutler ('66). The numbers of specimens tested for vari- DISCUSSION By comparing the gene frequency distributions found here to those reported in the comprehensive monograph on the subject (Mourant e t al., '76) t h e following observations a r e drawn. The gene frequencies of ABO, Rh,,, KkJs.', and PIP, are similar to those cited from different parts of the Arabian Peninsula and some other Arab populations in southwest Asia; i.e., geographical harmony exists in these systems distributions. The MNSs system in Abu Dhabian people manifests a rather high N S gene combination, the highest thus far recorded in the Arabian Peninsula. Also, there is a high incidence of t h e M S complex, which is in agreement with the same conclusion by Moura n t et al. ('76) among people of Arabia. Data available in the literature are insufficient for comparison with results on incidences of the Duffy and Vel systems or of proportions of Le ( a + ) in neighboring communities. Hb S frequency is similar to that in some foci of the Arab world elsewhere (Kamel et al., '751, but is less than that reported for this part of the Arabian coast (Barnhart, '74). Together with the presence of Js;' and significant numbers of Fy, these blood markers indicate some Negro admixture in the Abu Dhabian population. G-6-PD deficiency is significantly elevated, as it is in some Arab populations (Gelpi, '67; Kamel et al., '75). G-6-PD deficient individuals screened, did not manifest a n y sign of hemolysis. CONCLUSION The incidence of most of the blood factors assessed here homogenize with that in Arab people a t large. Indigenous inhabitants of Abu 483 BLOOD FACTORS AMONG ABU DHABIANS TABLE 1 . Abu Dhabian blood groups and types Phenotype ABO Rh,, Number expected 208 86 12 318 624 200.7 78.3 20.1 324.9 624 25 14 25 19 24.0 13.2 26.9 20.7 8 7.1 8.1 100 A B AB 0 Total MNS Number observed ~ MMS MM MNS MN NNS NN Total 9 ~100 Rh,: a,; ~ Total KkJs" Fy"Fy " p, Ve.' L.& Gene A B 0 0.196 0.082 0.722 1.000 ~ ~ MS Ms + MS" NS N s + NS' 0.247 0.363 0.105 0.285 1.000 R 0.726 0.274 1.000 .~ 577 47 624 r - - K Jsb 0.25 0.15 9.35 2.83 87.42 __ 100 k Js" k Js" kk Js(a-1 Total 2 1 5 2 90 100 Fy(a+b-) Fy(a+b+) Fy(a-b+ 1 Fy(a-b-) Total 28 6 19 47 100 28.90 4.99 19.93 46.18 PI+ P, Total 71 29 100 p, Ve(a+) Ve(a-) Total 98 2 100 Ve Le(a + 1 1 99 100 KK J s ( a + j KK Js(a-1 Kk Js(a+1 Kk J s ( a - ) kk J s ( a + ) ~ Le(a-1 Total ~~~ Frequency 0.050 0.015 0.935 1.000 ~ Fy a Fy " FV 0.187 0.133 0.680 1.000 ~ 100 PZ*" 0.461 0.539 1.000 ~ Ve" 0.859 0.141 ~ 1.000 *Because of the genetic complexity of the Lewis factor, its gene frequency is not calculated TABLE 2. H b types and G-6-PD deficiency among male Abu Dhabians Hb G-6-PD AA AS Total Deficient Nondeficient Total Number Frequency Gene Frequency 488 12 500 0.976 0.024 1.000 S 0.012 10 90 100 0.100 0.900 1.000 Gd ~ ~ ~~ ~ 0.100 484 K. KAMEL, R. CHANDY, H. MOUSA AND D. YUNIS Dhabi have the highest N S gene combination frequency in the Arabian Peninsula and a high M S complex. The presence of Js;' and Hb S, though in small numbers, and a high incidence of Fy demonstrate the expression of previous African links with Arabia. The incidence of G-6-PD deficiency is elevated. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS U.A.E. Armed Forces Medical Corps supported this research. Doctors L.E. Nijenhuis of the Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, D. Tills and A. Kopec of the British Museum, and F. Gaballah of Cairo University carried out various gene calculations. Doctor L. Nijenhuis, in addition, offered valuable suggestions. LITERATURE CITED Abdullah, M.M. (1978) The United Arab Emirates. A Modern History. Harper and Row, New York, pp. 221-243. Barnhart, M.I., R.L. Henry, and J.M. Lusher (1974) Sickle Cell. Scope Publication, Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, p. 69. Beutler, E. 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