close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Blood groups and types hemoglobin variants and G-6-PD deficiency among Abu Dhabians in the United Arab Emirates.

код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 52:481-484( 1980)
Blood Groups and Types, Hemoglobin Variants, and
G-6-PD Deficiency Among Abu Dhabians in the United
Arab Emirates
K. KAMEL', R. CHANDY, H. MOUSA AND D. YUNIS
Department of Pathology and Blood Transfusion Service, Military Hospital,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
KEY WORDS Abu Dhabi, Arabs, ABO, MNS, Rh,,, KkJs",
Fy"Fyh,P,, Lea, Vex, Hb variants, G-6-PD deficiency
ABSTRACT
Some erythrocyte genetic factors were studied in the indigenous
population of Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates, on the southeastern coast of the Arabian peninsula. Determinations carried out included blood
groups and types ABO, MNS, Rh,,, KkJsI, Fy;'Fyl', P,, Led, Vel'l, hemoglobin
variants, and screening for G-6-PD deficiency.
Prevalence of most blood groups and types harmonized with that among neighboring Arabs and some Arabs elsewhere. The M S and N S gene complexes were
noticeably high. African admixture was expressed by the presence ofJs" and Hb S
and large numbers of Fy. G-6-PD deficiency was rather high.
The southeastern coast of t h e Arabian
Peninsula (Arabia) was settled in stone age
periods (Ramahi, '73). Early migration waves
of Qahtanis emanated from southwest Arabia
(Yemen)probably over a period of several millenia. They were later joined by settlers from
further north i n Arabia, the Nizaris or Adnanis, descendants of biblical Ismail. Probably
between the second millenium B.C. and the
sixth century A.D., the bulk of the tribes from
both above main divisions of Arabia arrived in
the eastern coast. They went there directly
from Yemen or via the northern parts of the
Peninsula (Heard, '78). Subsequent invasions,
expansions, and trade exposed the people to
contact with old civilizations of the region-viz,
Assyrian, Mesopotamian, Sumerian, Babylonian, Persian, Canaanite, Phoenician, and in
the last centuries to Omani, Portuguese, Ottoman, Dutch, Wahhabi, Egyptian and British
influences (Ramahi, '73).
The present Arabian oil Sheikhdoms (Emirates) of that coast, long known as the Trucial
Coast, gained statehood in the last decade. The
United Arab Emirates (UAE), the largest of
them, was proclaimed in 1971. It is made up of
seven Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah,
Ajman, Umm al-Kuwain, Ras al-Khaimah, and
Al-Fujairah. The U.A.E. extends over about
84,000 km2between 23"-26" north latitude and
51"-57" east longitude. It is bordered by Qatar
0002-948318015204-0481$01.10 0 1980 ALAN R. LISS. INC.
on the northwest, Saudi Arabia on the west and
south, and Oman on the east and northeast
(Fig. 1).Two gulfs, the Persian (Arabian) Gulf
and the Gulf of Oman separate Iran from the
U.A.E. (United Arab Emirates, '76). Abu
Dhabi, the major emirate and most populous,
comprises 80% of the U.A.E. surface area and
gives the federation its capital by the same
name. In the 1976 census, the population of the
country including the expatriate majority, was
about half a million. Due to the oil boom and
swift influx of aliens, the number of Abu Dhabians is not exactly defined. In 1968 they were
estimated a t 80,000 (Ramahi, '73).
People of the area had always had a strong
Bedouin feeling of self preservation or unwillingness to assimilate outsiders; most marriages formerly (in tribal life) were between
close relatives to guarantee the continuity of
the economic unity of the family (Heard, '78).
Significant admixture could have happened
only with adjacent Arabs of the Peninsula, with
Persians, and with East Africans of the Omani
Empire territories. Persian intermixing resulted from the alternating Arab and Persian
dominations of both gulf coasts (Abdullah, '78).
'Dr K. Kamel's present address IS 56 Muhammad Mazhar S t ,
Zamalek, Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt.
Received January 19, 1979; accepted September 18, 1979
48 1
482
K. KAMEL, R. CHANDY, H. MOUSA AND D. YUNIS
ous parameters are indicated in respective tables. The work was carried out in Abu Dhabi
Military Hospital with minimal delay after
sampling.
RESULTS
The results of blood groups and types and
their genes are given in Table 1.Table 2 shows
the types of Hb detected and the incidence of
G-6-PD deficiency among the screenees. When
the expected numbers of the phenotypes were
compared to the observed numbers and the differences between them tested by chi-square,
only one system, the ABO had xz (1 df) of some
significance at a value of 4.433. This may be
explained as caused by chance.
I
Fig. 1. Map of the southeastern coast of the Arabian
Peninsula. The United Arab Emirates is marked by the bold
arrow a t the bottom of the figure.
The slave traffic from Africa, which was outlawed by the British "General Treaty with the
Arab Tribes of the Persian Gulf in 1820," later
left many emancipated African slaves who
were also absorbed into the local community
(Ramahi, '73). Tribal life is gradually giving
way to urbanization (Kamel et al., '791, and oil
affluence is leading to increasing intermarriage with neighboring Middle Easterners,
Asians, and Europeans.
This is a study of some hereditary blood factors of a long isolated Arab community which
was suddenly opened to wide contact with the
world populations.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Unrelated healthy adult males from various
military institutions in Abu Dhabi were sampled. They were local Abu Dhabians and belonged to all tribes without selection.
The following determinations were carried
out: Blood groups and types ABO, MNS, P , ,
Rh,,, KkJsc', Le", Fy"Fy", and Vc' by standard
test tube techniques, and Coombs test when
required. Hemoglobin (Hb)types were assessed
by a) cellulose acetate electrophoresis in TrisEDTA-borate buffer at pH 8.9 as described by
Dacie and Lewis ('75); b) alkaline denaturation
for Hb F (Singer et al., '51); and c) sickling
preparation and solubility test for Hb S (Dacie
and Lewis, '75) when required. Glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD)deficiency
was screened by a commercial kit from Sigma"
based on the fluorescent spot test of Beutler
('66). The numbers of specimens tested for vari-
DISCUSSION
By comparing the gene frequency distributions found here to those reported in the comprehensive monograph on the subject (Mourant
e t al., '76) t h e following observations a r e
drawn.
The gene frequencies of ABO, Rh,,, KkJs.',
and PIP, are similar to those cited from different parts of the Arabian Peninsula and some
other Arab populations in southwest Asia; i.e.,
geographical harmony exists in these systems
distributions. The MNSs system in Abu Dhabian people manifests a rather high N S gene
combination, the highest thus far recorded in
the Arabian Peninsula. Also, there is a high
incidence of t h e M S complex, which is in
agreement with the same conclusion by Moura n t et al. ('76) among people of Arabia. Data
available in the literature are insufficient for
comparison with results on incidences of the
Duffy and Vel systems or of proportions of Le
( a + ) in neighboring communities.
Hb S frequency is similar to that in some foci
of the Arab world elsewhere (Kamel et al., '751,
but is less than that reported for this part of the
Arabian coast (Barnhart, '74). Together with
the presence of Js;' and significant numbers of
Fy, these blood markers indicate some Negro
admixture in the Abu Dhabian population.
G-6-PD deficiency is significantly elevated,
as it is in some Arab populations (Gelpi, '67;
Kamel et al., '75). G-6-PD deficient individuals
screened, did not manifest a n y sign of
hemolysis.
CONCLUSION
The incidence of most of the blood factors
assessed here homogenize with that in Arab
people a t large. Indigenous inhabitants of Abu
483
BLOOD FACTORS AMONG ABU DHABIANS
TABLE 1 . Abu Dhabian blood groups and types
Phenotype
ABO
Rh,,
Number
expected
208
86
12
318
624
200.7
78.3
20.1
324.9
624
25
14
25
19
24.0
13.2
26.9
20.7
8
7.1
8.1
100
A
B
AB
0
Total
MNS
Number
observed
~
MMS
MM
MNS
MN
NNS
NN
Total
9
~100
Rh,:
a,;
~
Total
KkJs"
Fy"Fy "
p,
Ve.'
L.&
Gene
A
B
0
0.196
0.082
0.722
1.000
~
~
MS
Ms + MS"
NS
N s + NS'
0.247
0.363
0.105
0.285
1.000
R
0.726
0.274
1.000
.~
577
47
624
r
-
-
K Jsb
0.25
0.15
9.35
2.83
87.42
__
100
k Js"
k Js"
kk Js(a-1
Total
2
1
5
2
90
100
Fy(a+b-)
Fy(a+b+)
Fy(a-b+ 1
Fy(a-b-)
Total
28
6
19
47
100
28.90
4.99
19.93
46.18
PI+
P,
Total
71
29
100
p,
Ve(a+)
Ve(a-)
Total
98
2
100
Ve
Le(a + 1
1
99
100
KK J s ( a + j
KK Js(a-1
Kk Js(a+1
Kk J s ( a - )
kk J s ( a + )
~
Le(a-1
Total
~~~
Frequency
0.050
0.015
0.935
1.000
~
Fy a
Fy "
FV
0.187
0.133
0.680
1.000
~
100
PZ*"
0.461
0.539
1.000
~
Ve"
0.859
0.141
~
1.000
*Because of the genetic complexity of the Lewis factor, its gene frequency is not calculated
TABLE 2. H b types and G-6-PD deficiency among male Abu Dhabians
Hb
G-6-PD
AA
AS
Total
Deficient
Nondeficient
Total
Number
Frequency
Gene
Frequency
488
12
500
0.976
0.024
1.000
S
0.012
10
90
100
0.100
0.900
1.000
Gd
~
~
~~
~
0.100
484
K. KAMEL, R. CHANDY, H. MOUSA AND D. YUNIS
Dhabi have the highest N S gene combination
frequency in the Arabian Peninsula and a high
M S complex. The presence of Js;' and Hb S,
though in small numbers, and a high incidence
of Fy demonstrate the expression of previous
African links with Arabia. The incidence of
G-6-PD deficiency is elevated.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
U.A.E. Armed Forces Medical Corps supported this research. Doctors L.E. Nijenhuis of
the Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion
Service, D. Tills and A. Kopec of the British
Museum, and F. Gaballah of Cairo University
carried out various gene calculations. Doctor L.
Nijenhuis, in addition, offered valuable suggestions.
LITERATURE CITED
Abdullah, M.M. (1978) The United Arab Emirates. A Modern History. Harper and Row, New York, pp. 221-243.
Barnhart, M.I., R.L. Henry, and J.M. Lusher (1974) Sickle
Cell. Scope Publication, Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, p. 69.
Beutler, E. (1966) A series of new screening procedures for
pyruvate kinase deficiency, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and glutathione reductase deficiency.
Blood. 28:55%562.
Dacie, J.V., and S.M. Lewis 11975) Practical Haematology.
Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, London, and New
York, 5th ed., p. 240.
Gelpi, A.P. (1967) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, the sickling trait, and malaria in Saudi Arab children. J. Pedi., 71:13%146.
Heard, F. (1978) The people of the United Arab Emirates.
Emirates Natural History Group (Abu Dhabi) Bulletin,
5: 11- 15.
Kamel, K., S. Appesh, G. Worth, and S. Khalafallah (1979)
Blood levels of selected nutritional status indicators in
voune men from a raoidlv modernizine societv in Abu
D h a g Am J Clm N;tr,-32 215&2155
Kamel, K , M 'Umar, W Ibrahim, A Mansour, F Gaballah,
0 Selim, A h i m , S Hamza, F Sabry, N Moafy, and A
El-Naggar (1975) Anthropological studies amongLibyans.
Erythrocyte genetic factors, serum haptoglobin phenotypes, and anthropometry. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop.,
43:103-111.
Mourant, A.E., A.C. Kopec, and K. Domaniewska-Sobczak
(1976) The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups and
other Polymorphisms. Oxford University Press, London,
2nd edition, pp. 9, 20, 183, 195-196, 222-223, 245-312,
285-286,337- 338,364- 368,521-542,559,580,591- 593,
616, 729.
Ramahi, S.A. (1973) Economics and Political Evolution in
the Arabian Gulf States. Carlton Press Inc., New York, pp.
42, 45, 57-81, 203.
Singer, K., A. Chernoff, and L. Singer (1951) Studies on
abnormal hemoglobins. I. Their demonstration in sickle
cell anemia and other hematologic disorders by means of
alkali denaturation. Blood, 6t413-428.
United Arab Emirates. In Encyclopaedia Britannica (1976)
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 15th ed.,
18:862-863.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
3
Размер файла
261 Кб
Теги
group, deficiency, variant, arab, typed, among, emirates, hemoglobin, dhabians, united, blood, abu
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа