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Blood groups of six Indian bands of north-eastern British Columbia.

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Blood Groups of Six Indian Bands of North-Eastern
British Columbia
BRAXTON M. ALFRED, T. D. STOUT, R. BRIAN LOWRY,
MELVIN LEE AND JOHN BIRKBECK
Department of Anthropology, U.B.C., Red Cross Blood Transfusion
Service, Vancouver, B.C., Division of Medical Genetics,
Department of Pediutncs, U.B.C., School of Home
Economics, U.B.C., a n d Sclzool of
Home Economics, U . B . C .
KEY WORDS
Blood Groups. Indians. Canada. Gene Frequencies.
ABSTRACT
A survey of nine blood group systems was conducted among
some northeastern British Columbia Indian bands. The sites contain Beaver,
Slave and Cree speakers. A significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the combined MNS system. No age trends by sex were
observed.
The phenotype and allele frequencies
for nine blood group systems among six
Indian bands in northeastern British Columbia are reported here. The region
under consideration lies roughly between
56" and 59" north latitude, and 120" and
123" west longitude in the Mackenzie
River and Peace River drainage systems
(fig. 1).
The local groups surveyed are: Doig
River (Beaver), Blueberry (Beaver and
Cree), and Moberly Lake (Beaver and
Cree) near Fort Saint John; Prophet River
(Beaver), Old Fort Nelson (Slave) and
Fort Nelson (Slave) near Fort Nelson. No
ethnographic literature specific to these
sites is available.
METHODS
A. Sampling and estimation
In June 1970 the Medical Services
Branch of the Department of National
Health and Welfare conducted diagnostic
clinics in each of these areas. Blood specimens were drawn from a sample of the
group at each of the six sites. An attempt
was made to sample each site proportional
to its representation in the total population of all sites being visited. However,
subjects were not randomly drawn and
no attempt was made to exclude relatives.
All allele frequencies were estimated by
maximum likelihood.
AM.
J.
PHYS.
ANTHROP., 36: 157-160.
B. Laboratory
All specimens were collected in heparin.
Most of the serum was removed for biochemical studies and ACD was then added
to the red cells within 24 hours of collection. The ACD specimens were then refrigerated and shipped to the Red Cross
Blood Transfusion Service in Vancouver
where the cells were grouped during the
next four days. There was no appreciable
hemolysis during the test period. The
anti-sera and grouping techniques may
be found in Alfred et al. ('70).
RESULTS
In table 1 are the phenotypic frequencies for the six sites. In table 2 are
presented the allele and allelic gene frequencies.
The frequency of positive reactions to
each of the anti-sera was subdivided by
sex and age category to determine if any
age trends are apparent in the data. None
of sufficient strength and reliability to
deserve mention was observed.
When the data from all six sites are
combined, the frequency of M is estimated
as 0.773 and of N as 0.227. The test for
departure from equilibrium results in
x Z c 1 , = 9.5, P < 0.005; 36% of this
value is attributed to a deficit of MN.
157
158
ALFRED ET AL.
159
BLOOD GROUPS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA INDIANS
TABLE 1
Observed p h e n o t y p i c freqitexcies
System
ABO
Phenotype
A
B
AB
0
Total
MNS
Ms
NS
MNs
MS
NS
MNS
Total
Rhesus
ccdee (rh)
c c d E e (rh"rh)
CcDee (Rhlrh)
CCDee (RhlRhl)
CcDEe (RhlRhn)
ccDEe ( R h g h )
CCDEE(RhnRhz)
CCDEe (Rh, Rhl)
Total
Lewis
L e (a - b - )
Le ( a + b - )
L e (a - b + )
L e ( a + b +)
Total
P
Total
Kell
k
Kk
Total
Duffy
Total
Diego
Di (a - )
Di ( a + )
Total
Kidd
Total
Doig
Blueberry
Prophet
River
Old Ft.
Nelson
Ft.
Nelson
6
11
33
15
1
0
0
0
48
0
19
19
3
0
9
20
2
0
52
0
0
8
59
19
81
34
31
42
11
10
9
13
5
15
13
0
4
2
44
1
12
19
23
0
9
4
0
0
0
0
5
4
11
3
4
8
0
5
63
19
81
34
31
43
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
3
2
15
9
4
0
0
0
5
8
9
1
6
1
0
0
5
Moberly
Lake
1
6
1
19
10
12
0
8
2
10
10
21
9
0
11
11
6
1
0
2
0
7
8
32
14
15
3
63
19
81
34
30
43
3
0
58
2
1
0
18
0
10
0
66
5
0
1
32
1
0
1
30
0
5
37
63
19
81
34
31
43
23
40
12
7
48
33
21
13
15
16
26
17
63
19
81
34
31
43
60
3
19
0
81
0
31
3
31
0
43
0
63
19
81
34
31
43
6
57
0
19
1
80
1
33
3
28
43
63
19
81
34
31
43
61
2
19
75
6
34
28
41
0
0
0
0
63
19
81
34
28
41
18
45
5
14
8
10
-
-
-
63
19
18
-
-
-
2
9
11
16
0
1
0
0
160
ALFRED ET AL.
TABLE 2
Allele frequencies
Prophet
River
Ft.
Doig
Blueberry
Old Ft.
Lake
Nelson
Nelson
0
0.052
0.009
0.939
0.351
0.000
0.649
0.230
0.000
0.770
0.254
0.000
0.746
0.384
0.051
0.565
0.292
0.036
0.672
MS
Ms
NS
Ns
0.213
0.359
0.097
0.331
0.062
0.833
0.008
0.113
0.148
0.735
0.014
0.014
0.101
0.825
0.057
0.017
0.222
0.536
0.014
0.228
0.265
0.432
0.000
0.302
C d e (r‘)
CDE (R‘)
cDe (RO)
cDE (R*)
c d e (r)
CdE ( r y )
cdE (r”)
CDe (Rl)
0.000
0.117
0.119
0.122
0.079
0.001
0.102
0.461
0.000
0.000
0.149
0.499
0.009
0.000
0.001
0.342
0.021
0.119
0.478
0.017
0.002
0.000
0.363
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.471
0.205
0.000
0.000
0.324
0.000
0.016
0.085
0.365
0.016
0.003
0.000
0.515
0.000
0.000
0.158
0.605
0.028
0.000
0.000
0.209
Lea
Leb
0.018
0.782
0.000
0.771
0.030
0.650
0.030
0.830
0.015
0.822
0.060
0.626
System
ABO
Allele
A
B
MNS
Rhesus
Lewis
Moberly
0.001
P
P1
0.205
0.394
0.363
0.383
0.284
0.372
Kell
K
0.025
0.000
0.000
0.045
0.000
0.000
Duffy
FYa
0.692
1.000
0.988
0.828
0.689
1.ooo
Diego
Di
“
0.019
0.000
0.040
0.000
0.000
0.000
Jk”
0.466
0.490
0.300
-
-
-
Kidd
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Dr. J. F. Pyper, Area Medical
Officer of Medical Services for her cooperation. Miss Ilse Borgen did the initial
handling of the specimens; Mrs. Irene
Voigt, B.Sc., R. T. and Miss Deanna Epp,
R. T. did the red cell typing. This work
was partially supported by National Health
grant 609-7-263, Medical Research Coun-
cil of Canada grant MA 3415, and a grant
from the Department of Indian Affairs
and Northern Development.
LITERATURE CITED
Alfred, B. M., T. D. Stout, M. Lee, J. Birkbeck,
N. L. Petrakis 1970 Blood groups, phosphoglucomutase, a n d c e r u m e n types of t h e A n a h a m
(Chilcotin) Indians. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop.,
32: 329-337.
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