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Blood groups of the Bedouin near Baghdad.

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BLOOD QROUPS O F T H E BEDOUIN NEAR BAGHDAD
A. I. KAYSSI, WM. C. BOYD,' A N D L. G. BOYD
Department of Fore& Medioisre, Baghdad, and Boston Univm8ity
School or Medicine
The desert Arabs form a group of considerable anthropological interest. The only studies on them which include
blood group data, however, are those of Shanklin ( '35, '36),
and Kennedy and MacFarlane ( '36). I n the latter paper only
a few results on desert Arabs are given, and none of these
studies included the M,N types. So there seemed to be room
for further work in this connection.
I n 'Iraq there are a number of Arab tribes which are either
only recently settled down to the land, or are in the process of
doing so. These afford a valuable opportunity to the physical
anthropologist, which should, however, be utilized before
these interesting racial groups lose their identity, due to
mixture with other groups and with each other. We were
able during the autumn of 1937 to study the blood groups of
over 300 of these Arabs.
We took specimens from four different localities near
Baghdad: 1) Khan en Noqta, west of Baghdad, where
members of the Zowba' tribe were examined, 2) Aqar Qiif,
northwest of Baghdad, where we examined the Beni T a d ,
3) Mahmfidiya, south of Baghdad, where we obtained a mixed
group, mostly Dul6m and Ghrgr, and 4) Ba'qiiba, northeast
of Baghdad, where the subjects were mostly Dulgm, 'Azah,
and Beni Tamim. These different groups of subjects will be
afterward designated as I, 11, etc.
The bloods were sometimes taken in the morning and tested
the same afternoon, and sometimes taken in the afternoon,
kept on ice overnight, and tested the next morning. The
technic of testing was as described by Landsteiner ('29).
'
John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellow, 1935-1936. Renewal, 1937.
295
AMERICAN JOURNAL O I PHTSICAL ANTAROPOUKiY, VOL. XXIII, NO. 3
JANUABY-MARCH, 1938
296
A. I. KAYSSI, W. C. BOYD AND
L.
G. BOYD
Immune sera were used for testing for A and B, as well as
for M and N, as previously described by Boyd and Boyd ( ’37).
These sera had been previously compared with human grouping sera, and in the course of our tests sixty bloods, mostly
A’s and B’s, but including some 0’s’ were retested with
human sera, with results in agreement with those of the
immune sera. Fresh known bloods were included in each
day’s set-up as controls.
The results of our examinations are given in table 1. The
A,B results are not greatly different from each other, nor
from those of Kennedy and MacFarlane for Arabs of Baghdad
and Kerkiik, but the M,N results divide the subjects into two
TABLE 1
Percentages of Landsteinet blood groups and M,N types of Landsteiner and
Levine i n Bedouin ezamined in different looalities
MOALITY
NWBEB
_
I
I1
I I1
I11
IV
I11 IV
+
+
All
46
93
139
105
94
199
338
_
0
_
39.2
43.0
41.7
42.9
37.2
40.2
40.8
’ Including three bloods which
--
A
~
21.7
24.7
23.7
30.5
26.6
28.7
26.6
B
--
32.6
25.8
28.1
20.9
27.7
24.1
25.8
AB
M
6.5
6.5
6.5
5.7
8.5
7.0
6.8
32.6
34.4
33.8
38.1’
44.7
41.2
38.2
MN
N
--- __17.4
‘21.5
20.1
8.6
9.6
9.1
- 13.6
50.0
44.1
46.1
53.3
45.7
49.7
48.2
gave doubtful reactions with anti-N aerum.
quite different categories. The Arabs from the first two
localities show percentages of N in substantial agreement with
those from most of the rest of the world (Wiener, ’35), but
those from the second two places have less than half this
amount of N. Statistical test shows that in spite of the small
size of the samples, this difference is dehitely significant.
These results were all obtained with the same sera, a blood
of type N being always included as a control, and the positive
reactions for N were strong and definite. It may also be
mentioned that these same sera had previously given normal
figures for N for the Armenians of Beyrouth, but in the
case of the Syrian Bedouin had given very low fi<guresfor N
(Boyd and Boyd, ’38).
.
297
BLOOD GROUPS OF THE BEDOUIW NEAR BAGHDAD
That these results are not affected by any serious error
is also attested by the gene frequencies2 calculated from
them, shown in table 2. In most cases the s u m of the gene
frequencies does not differ greatly from 1.000.
It has been shown by Bernstein ( '30) and by Wiener ( '35),
that the consistency of blood grouping data with the known
TABLE
a
G a l d a t e d frequencies of the genes p , q, r, m and n
LOOAMTY
I
I1
I + I1
111
IV
I11 IV
+
All
NUYBEB
P
46
93
139
105
94
199
338
0.155
0.166
0.163
0.202
0.189
0.196
0.181
p
~-
0.221
0.175
0.189
0.145
0.195
0.168
0.177
l
r
0.625
0.656
0.646
0.655
0.610
0.634
0.639
p+q+r
1.001
0.997
0.998
1.002
0.994
0.998
0.997
m +n
0.571
0.588
0.581
0.619
0.669
0.641
0.618
0.417
0.464
0.448
0.293
0.310
0.300
0.369
0.988
1.052
1.029
0.912
0.979
0.941
0.987
Statistical test of the oonsistency of our data with the kninun laws of blood
group inheritance
LOCALTIT
(p+q+r)
I
I1
I+11
111
IV
111 + I T
All
0.001
0.003
0.002
0.002
0.006
0.002
0.003
-:
UD
0.024
0.015
0.013
0.014
0.017
0.011
0.008
p+q+r) -1
UD
0.04
0.20
0.15
0.14
0.35
0.18
0.37
(m+n)-1
UD
0.012
0.052
0.029
0.088
0.021
0.059
0.013
0.074
0.050
0.043
0.049
0.052
0.036
0.027
(m+n)-1
UD
0.16
1.04
0.68
1.80
0.40
1.64
0.48
laws of inheritance, which are based on tens of thousands of
reliable observations, may be tested statistically. If the
difference between the sum of the genes calculated as above,
and 1.000, is divided by the standard deviation3 of this
- \/a,
' Calculated-from therelations, p = V-0
- V-6, q = V m O
r=
V%; m = V M, n = V N, where p, q, r, m and n represent the frequencies of the
genes for A, B, 0, M and N, respectively, and A, B, 0, M and N represent the
numerical valuea of the frequencies of these blood groups.
* Q ( p + q + r ) - l = Vpq/2V(l-p)(1-qq),~(rn+n)-i
=O.s/VV, wherep,q,
r, m and n have the meanings previously defined, and V signifies the number
examined.
298
A. I. KAYSSI, W. C. BOYD AND L. G. BOYD
difference, the result, if we follow the usual convention, should
not exceed 2.00. Larger values of this quotient are to be
regarded as indicating lack of genetic equilibrium in the
population examined, or errors in the determination, or both.
Table 3 shows that our data are all consistent with the laws
of inheritance, so f a r as can be judged by this test.
The above results seem to us to possess some interest, and
we hope other workers will be interested to add to them,
especially by testing larger numbers from single tribes.
Thanks are due to the police department of 'Iraq for their
effective cooperation, and to Dr. W. P. Kennedy, of the Royal
College of Medicine, Baghdad, for generously allowing us the
use of his laboratory.
8UMMARY
Results of determination of the A,B blood groups and the
M,N types on 338 Bedouin Arabs near Baghdad are presented.
A and B were not very different from the corresponding frequencies for the city Arabs, but some of the Bedouin examined
showed a strikingly low per cent of N.
LITERATURE CITED
BERNSTEIN,
F. 1930 fber die Erblichkeit der Blutgruppen. Zeitechr. ind.
Abstammungs-u.-vererbungsl,LIV, 400.
BOYD,WY. C., AND L. G. BOYD 1937 Frequency of blood g r o u p and other
inherited factors in Europe and Egypt. Am. J. Phys. Authrop., XXIII,
49.
1938 The blood groups of the Rwala Bedouin. J. Immunol. ( I n
preas.)
KENNEDY,W. P., AND J. MACFAILLANE1936 Blood groups in Iraq. Am. J.
Phys. Anthrop., XXI, 87.
IANDS"NEB,
K. 1929 The human blood groups. In Jordan and Palk'e The
Newer Knowledge of Bacteriology and Immunology, Chicago.
SHA",
WY. M. 1935 Blood grouping of the Rwala Bedouin. J. Immunol.,
XXIX, 427.
1936 Blood grouping of the Maualy and Akeydat. h J. Phys.
Anthrop, XXI, 39.
WIA. 8. 1935 Blood Groups and Blood Transfusion. Springfield.
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