BLOOD QROUPS O F T H E BEDOUIN NEAR BAGHDAD A. I. KAYSSI, WM. C. BOYD,' A N D L. G. BOYD Department of Fore& Medioisre, Baghdad, and Boston Univm8ity School or Medicine The desert Arabs form a group of considerable anthropological interest. The only studies on them which include blood group data, however, are those of Shanklin ( '35, '36), and Kennedy and MacFarlane ( '36). I n the latter paper only a few results on desert Arabs are given, and none of these studies included the M,N types. So there seemed to be room for further work in this connection. I n 'Iraq there are a number of Arab tribes which are either only recently settled down to the land, or are in the process of doing so. These afford a valuable opportunity to the physical anthropologist, which should, however, be utilized before these interesting racial groups lose their identity, due to mixture with other groups and with each other. We were able during the autumn of 1937 to study the blood groups of over 300 of these Arabs. We took specimens from four different localities near Baghdad: 1) Khan en Noqta, west of Baghdad, where members of the Zowba' tribe were examined, 2) Aqar Qiif, northwest of Baghdad, where we examined the Beni T a d , 3) Mahmfidiya, south of Baghdad, where we obtained a mixed group, mostly Dul6m and Ghrgr, and 4) Ba'qiiba, northeast of Baghdad, where the subjects were mostly Dulgm, 'Azah, and Beni Tamim. These different groups of subjects will be afterward designated as I, 11, etc. The bloods were sometimes taken in the morning and tested the same afternoon, and sometimes taken in the afternoon, kept on ice overnight, and tested the next morning. The technic of testing was as described by Landsteiner ('29). ' John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellow, 1935-1936. Renewal, 1937. 295 AMERICAN JOURNAL O I PHTSICAL ANTAROPOUKiY, VOL. XXIII, NO. 3 JANUABY-MARCH, 1938 296 A. I. KAYSSI, W. C. BOYD AND L. G. BOYD Immune sera were used for testing for A and B, as well as for M and N, as previously described by Boyd and Boyd ( ’37). These sera had been previously compared with human grouping sera, and in the course of our tests sixty bloods, mostly A’s and B’s, but including some 0’s’ were retested with human sera, with results in agreement with those of the immune sera. Fresh known bloods were included in each day’s set-up as controls. The results of our examinations are given in table 1. The A,B results are not greatly different from each other, nor from those of Kennedy and MacFarlane for Arabs of Baghdad and Kerkiik, but the M,N results divide the subjects into two TABLE 1 Percentages of Landsteinet blood groups and M,N types of Landsteiner and Levine i n Bedouin ezamined in different looalities MOALITY NWBEB _ I I1 I I1 I11 IV I11 IV + + All 46 93 139 105 94 199 338 _ 0 _ 39.2 43.0 41.7 42.9 37.2 40.2 40.8 ’ Including three bloods which -- A ~ 21.7 24.7 23.7 30.5 26.6 28.7 26.6 B -- 32.6 25.8 28.1 20.9 27.7 24.1 25.8 AB M 6.5 6.5 6.5 5.7 8.5 7.0 6.8 32.6 34.4 33.8 38.1’ 44.7 41.2 38.2 MN N --- __17.4 ‘21.5 20.1 8.6 9.6 9.1 - 13.6 50.0 44.1 46.1 53.3 45.7 49.7 48.2 gave doubtful reactions with anti-N aerum. quite different categories. The Arabs from the first two localities show percentages of N in substantial agreement with those from most of the rest of the world (Wiener, ’35), but those from the second two places have less than half this amount of N. Statistical test shows that in spite of the small size of the samples, this difference is dehitely significant. These results were all obtained with the same sera, a blood of type N being always included as a control, and the positive reactions for N were strong and definite. It may also be mentioned that these same sera had previously given normal figures for N for the Armenians of Beyrouth, but in the case of the Syrian Bedouin had given very low fi<guresfor N (Boyd and Boyd, ’38). . 297 BLOOD GROUPS OF THE BEDOUIW NEAR BAGHDAD That these results are not affected by any serious error is also attested by the gene frequencies2 calculated from them, shown in table 2. In most cases the s u m of the gene frequencies does not differ greatly from 1.000. It has been shown by Bernstein ( '30) and by Wiener ( '35), that the consistency of blood grouping data with the known TABLE a G a l d a t e d frequencies of the genes p , q, r, m and n LOOAMTY I I1 I + I1 111 IV I11 IV + All NUYBEB P 46 93 139 105 94 199 338 0.155 0.166 0.163 0.202 0.189 0.196 0.181 p ~- 0.221 0.175 0.189 0.145 0.195 0.168 0.177 l r 0.625 0.656 0.646 0.655 0.610 0.634 0.639 p+q+r 1.001 0.997 0.998 1.002 0.994 0.998 0.997 m +n 0.571 0.588 0.581 0.619 0.669 0.641 0.618 0.417 0.464 0.448 0.293 0.310 0.300 0.369 0.988 1.052 1.029 0.912 0.979 0.941 0.987 Statistical test of the oonsistency of our data with the kninun laws of blood group inheritance LOCALTIT (p+q+r) I I1 I+11 111 IV 111 + I T All 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.006 0.002 0.003 -: UD 0.024 0.015 0.013 0.014 0.017 0.011 0.008 p+q+r) -1 UD 0.04 0.20 0.15 0.14 0.35 0.18 0.37 (m+n)-1 UD 0.012 0.052 0.029 0.088 0.021 0.059 0.013 0.074 0.050 0.043 0.049 0.052 0.036 0.027 (m+n)-1 UD 0.16 1.04 0.68 1.80 0.40 1.64 0.48 laws of inheritance, which are based on tens of thousands of reliable observations, may be tested statistically. If the difference between the sum of the genes calculated as above, and 1.000, is divided by the standard deviation3 of this - \/a, ' Calculated-from therelations, p = V-0 - V-6, q = V m O r= V%; m = V M, n = V N, where p, q, r, m and n represent the frequencies of the genes for A, B, 0, M and N, respectively, and A, B, 0, M and N represent the numerical valuea of the frequencies of these blood groups. * Q ( p + q + r ) - l = Vpq/2V(l-p)(1-qq),~(rn+n)-i =O.s/VV, wherep,q, r, m and n have the meanings previously defined, and V signifies the number examined. 298 A. I. KAYSSI, W. C. BOYD AND L. G. BOYD difference, the result, if we follow the usual convention, should not exceed 2.00. Larger values of this quotient are to be regarded as indicating lack of genetic equilibrium in the population examined, or errors in the determination, or both. Table 3 shows that our data are all consistent with the laws of inheritance, so f a r as can be judged by this test. The above results seem to us to possess some interest, and we hope other workers will be interested to add to them, especially by testing larger numbers from single tribes. Thanks are due to the police department of 'Iraq for their effective cooperation, and to Dr. W. P. Kennedy, of the Royal College of Medicine, Baghdad, for generously allowing us the use of his laboratory. 8UMMARY Results of determination of the A,B blood groups and the M,N types on 338 Bedouin Arabs near Baghdad are presented. A and B were not very different from the corresponding frequencies for the city Arabs, but some of the Bedouin examined showed a strikingly low per cent of N. LITERATURE CITED BERNSTEIN, F. 1930 fber die Erblichkeit der Blutgruppen. Zeitechr. ind. Abstammungs-u.-vererbungsl,LIV, 400. BOYD,WY. C., AND L. G. BOYD 1937 Frequency of blood g r o u p and other inherited factors in Europe and Egypt. Am. J. Phys. Authrop., XXIII, 49. 1938 The blood groups of the Rwala Bedouin. J. Immunol. ( I n preas.) KENNEDY,W. P., AND J. MACFAILLANE1936 Blood groups in Iraq. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., XXI, 87. IANDS"NEB, K. 1929 The human blood groups. In Jordan and Palk'e The Newer Knowledge of Bacteriology and Immunology, Chicago. SHA", WY. M. 1935 Blood grouping of the Rwala Bedouin. J. Immunol., XXIX, 427. 1936 Blood grouping of the Maualy and Akeydat. h J. Phys. Anthrop, XXI, 39. WIA. 8. 1935 Blood Groups and Blood Transfusion. Springfield.