BLOOD S T U D I E S ON P E O P L E S O F W E S T E R N ASIA AND KORTH AFRICA LELAND W. PARR' Department of Bacteriology and Hygiene, School, of Medicine, American Unixersity of Beirut, Syria ONE FIGURE Within the past few years many thousand blood-typing determinations have been made. While of most immediate and practical service i n blood transfusion, isohemagglutination tests and studies have also been widely applied to the study of problems of inheritance in genetics, to the solution of medicolegal cases, to studies of possible predispositions to diseased states, and to the study of races. This approach to anthropology has had a mushroom-like growth since its inception i n 1919 with the war-front work of Ludvig and Hanna Hirszfeld( 16) at Salonika, where 8000 soldiers from sixteen nations were typed. Steffan and Wellisch(34) in 1928 listed 640 racial groups for whom such data are available. A t least two journals in Europe, viz., Zeitschrif t fiir Rassenphysiologie (Munich) and Ukvai&sches Zentralblatt f u r B l u t g r u p penforschung ( Charkow), are practically entirely devoted to aspects of blood typing, of which no inconsiderable portion has to do with Tacial studies. The inherited factors which determine one's blood type are not coupled, as f a r as we know, with other commonly recognized and used anthropological features (Verzar( 35) ). There can be no possibility, therefore, of conscious effort a t selection or change (whatever it might avail) a s regards one's blood type, such as might be the case with kinky hair, blongolian eyes, short stature, or other obvious features. ' Research bacteriologist, Aiidalusia, Alabama. 15 AMERICAN J O U R N A L O F PHYSICAL AWTHROPOLOGY, VOL. S V I , 1 0 . JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1931 1 16 LELAND W. PARH T h e determination of the blood type to which a n individual belongs is a laboratory procedure so simple and so well known in these days of blood transfusion that this paper will not consider the details of its theory and technic. Nedical men everywhere, by their profession, have access t o blood samples to a greater degree than any other group of investigators. This fact has had its disadvantages, for many practitioners and investigators of medical science are not adequately prepared to appreciate the anthropological conclusions which they derive nor to understand the mathematical a n d genetic considerations involved. There has been, then, a realization recently that there a r e distinct limits to the blood-typing approach to the study of anthropology, especially to the wholesale accumulation of data without consideration being paid to all of the factors which a r e involved. These limits have been emphasized by a number of writers, among whom Grove( 15), Snyder(32,33), Young(39), Lickint and Troltzsch(25), and HrdliEka( 17) may be mentioned. In Grove’s work with the Ainus it was found that these isolated island people seem to be of several quite distinct blood-typing groups, although physically they a r e all very similar. Reference to figure 1, to be discussed later, will reveal the fact that Ainus a r e found in five different squares, viz., V I I H, VI F, I11 E, I V E, and V I C. To this criticism of racial studies by blood typing it has been objected that the groups2 studied in Grove’s series a r e small and represent well-isolated communities in which there may have been a good deal of inbreeding. Our own investigations of the Samaritans at Nablus, Palestine, i n 1928 were undertaken with this point in mind and will be presented later in this paper. Snyder defends the value of blood-typing tests in the study of anthropology, but points out their limitations and states ‘To avoid confusion in this paper, the word ‘group’ is used to refer t o a collection of people homogeneous in one or more senses and going under one name. The word ‘type’ refers to blood. This is purely arbitrary and is in no sense an effort t o change the use of terms. 17 RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES that it is to be remembered that similar blood-type racial formulae do not prove relationship, but only express like possession of isoagglutinative factors. This point should be consolation f or those who may be distressed by square I V C of figure 1, in which English, American negroes, Jamaicans, and Madagascans a r e found together. Young applied mathematical formulae to blood-typing data and showed that in many cases different sets of figures on the same group of people were more differentiated than were those for entirely different peoples. Lickint and Troltzsch attempted to set a normal figure f or the blood-type race formula of the German people and found in their survey of existing sets of d a t a that considerable variation existed. This variation a n d the normal figure that they assigned the German peoples may be represented as follows : Limits encountered, per cent, German normal decided upon, Type 0 Type A Type B TypeAB 32-47 39 39-47 42 6-18 14 2.5-7.5 5 Various sets of d a t a published for the French when collected do not show such wide divergences, as can be seen from the following figures: Authority Type 0 Type A Type B Type A B Xeil(37), Hirszfeld aiid IFirszfeld( 16), Pauchet aiid Becart (30), Parr(28), Kossovitch (24), Average, 43 43.2 40 40.9 42.1 41.8 45 42.6 45 41.4 42.3 43.2 10 11.2 15 10 11.1 11.4 2 3 0.2 7.7 4.5 3.4 It may be stated that most of the subjects included in these data a r e from Paris. It is quite conceivable that, had five sets of d a t a for the French been gathered from five widely separated parts of France, much greater differences would have been noted. This is a n important consideration and when properly borne in mind will help to minimize criticism of the blood-typing approach to anthropology. I n 1930, HrdliEka stated the situation in the following terms: “Within late years there was a hope that the agglutination tests of the blood might be helpful if not decisive, in 18 LELAND W. PARR racial classification, but that hope has in a large measure failed. ” Recent publication from Amsterdam of four papers by Kappers(l9,20,21,22) on the anthropology of the Near East makes desirable the presentation of our own data on groups of the same area from the point of view of blood typing. This will make possible another evaluation of the use of blood typing in anthropological studies and, in so f a r as the accepted an thropometrical method supports the blood-typing findings, will strengthen the contention of those who hold that the blood-typing approach to anthropology is worth while. The work here reported was begun at Beirut, Syria, in the fall of 1923, and was continued for more than six years, till February of 1930. During this time nearly 10,000 subjects were typed. Data on 1197 Frenchmen have been published elsewhere( 28) and some preliminary mention has also been made(27,29) of the findings on the Near Eastern groups studied. Quite 1000 English, American, Greek, Italian, and other subjects have never been reported upon. The present paper, however, includes several hundred subjects not included in previous summaries and has been prepared from the anthropological standpoint, in the light of the anatomical findings in the same area by Kappers. The blood typings were done in triplicate by the openslide method, essentially that of Beth Vincent(36). I n the majority of cases the subject’s citrated red blood cells were typed by means of known sera. I n other cases the blood serum of the subject was typed by means of known red-bloodcell suspension. I n about 10 per cent of the cases both red blood cells and serum of the subject were typed. The findings are summarized in table L3 I n order to present a more complete picture, the table also includes previously published data on the same groups. In addition t o zThe terminology used is that officially adopted in America, as suggested by Landsteiner, in whieh the blood types IV, 11, 111, arid I of v o s s ( 2 6 ) and I, 11, 111, and IV of Jansky(l8) are represented by the letters 0, A, B, and AB. 19 RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES giving the number of persons tested and the distribution among the four blood types, the table also includes two sets of values commonly presented in such work, namely, the 'biochemical race index' of the Hirszfelds and Bernstein's triple allelomorphs. TAELE 1 Blood-typing data for peoples of western Asia a n d north Africa __ ~ 1 RACE- __ - NUMBER I PEBSOWS GROUP TYPED -1- -4 rmeuiaiis Spriau Christiaiis Syrian Moslems Syrian Druzes 1 .4ssyriaiis j Egyptians ' Persians Samaritans Syrian Jews __ __ Aschkeiiasim' Sephardim' Aleppo Jews' Arabs' Eggp tians' A rmeniaiis' A rmeniausl Aschkciiasim4 SephardinP -~ I Data .- ' '!I i I 3080 2091 1777 229 161 130 91 83 181 011 1- PER CENT 1 3 EACH CROUP - B A _- 28.14 137.82 135.00 33.18 I 32.91 20.76 I32.96 150.60 28.72 46.20 42.37 36.57 36.24 41.61 39.23 28.57 32.53 34.25 I RACE WDEX AB 12.63 12.14 19.13 18.34 14.90 25.38 21.97 9.63 19.33 , 13.01 7.65 9.28 12.22 10.55 14.61 16.48 7.22 17.67 I -_I-P FREQUENCIES -. -- - 9 3.47 I 1.23 2.87 .98 2.60 1.49 2.71 1.52 2.99 1.27 3.20 2.25 2.34 1 1.91 2.12 0.77 1.82 2.82 2.31 2.53 1.61 1.59 2.05 1.35 1.17 2.35 1.40 1 1 1 similar groups published by other workers - _. 320 158 172 500 41i 653 380 .... 1 .... - 24.2 27 36.3 33.4 10.62 1.55 28.48 23.41 6.96 1.16 8 34 20 1.5 5.0 1.5 32.4 19.0 13.9 1.07 32.6 29.2 14 6 2.95 53 2.01 6.8 40.3 16.6 7.1 40.8 18.7 1.85 33.0 23.2 1.34 5.0 - ~ - ! - 2.46 1.95 2.35 2.10 2.66 3.67 2.73 2.80 2.18 . 1.45 1.64 1.48 1.30 2.43 1.13 1.25 1.41 1.58 Yui1ovitch(40). 'Altoui1yan(2,3). ' Hirszfeld and Hirszfeld(l6). (31). Kossoviteh(Z3). ' Wellisch(38). r 5.30 6.14 5.91 5.76 5.73 4.55 5.74 7.11 5.35 -_ 6.09 6.41 6.16 6.60 4.92 5.20 6.02 5.78 6.23 ' Shouslia The race index is the ratio of A to B, and is found by dividing the sum of the percentages for types A and AB by the sum for types B and AB. According to the Bernstein theory, blood groups are inherited through three factors, A, B, and R. The factor R is recessive and, to conform to present terminology, is now spoken of as 0. It is possible to calculate the frequencies of the three factors 0, A, and B by the use of the formulae of Wellisch(38), as follows : p =frequency of A = 4 (10 - r q = f r e q u e n e y of B = + ( 1 0 - r + r = frequency of R or 0 = V 0 and as a check, p + q + r =10. + V OFA-VO-+-B-- V m ) V0-4-A) 20 LELAND W. PARR Since the sum of the frequencies p, q, and r are by these formulae equal to 10, it is possible by using the values of p a n d q alone to construct a two-dimension figure which will place the various racial groups i n their proper immunological relationships. Such a representation is presented as figu r e 1. It is artificial only in that definit.e boundaries have been placed at regular intervals, but these a r c purely arbit r a r y and a r e as f a i r to one group as to another. Snyder has prepared a somewhat similar correlation chart for p and q, a n d by use of i t he derives the possibility of distinguishing seven great divisions of typed humanity which he calls European, Intermediate, Hunan, Indomanchuriaii, Af ricoMalaysian, Pacific-American, and Australian. The figure here presented makes no effort to divide off the peoples included into groups. Of the peoples studied in our Near Eastern survey, special mention will be made in this paper of only four groups in which it is thought some contribution has been made either to immunology or anthropology, namely, the Egyptians, Armenians, Samaritans, and Arabs. EGYPTIANS The Egyptians speak Arabic, and Egypt has long been one of the centers of the Mohammedan world. Physically, however, the Egyptian impresses one as different from the peoples called Arabs found in north Africa and western Asia. Blood-typing studies confirm this point of view. Our own studies were made on Egyptian students and patients in the American University Hospital f r o m Egypt. The series is not a large one, but it serves to confirm the findings of Shousha. Snyder classes the Egyptians in his Hunan group and states that there is suggested in these people the possibility of Mongolian relationships in their ancestry. Most of the Egyptians a r e Mohammedans, but there are among them considerable numbers of a Christian sect, the Copts, who lay claim t o being the purest descendants of the ancient Egyptians in the country at the present time. I n my IN F E .- D c B .-- A ' 0-0.5 i 2.6-3 .O/ i 2.1-2.5: .- -, ~. 1.6-2 .( - 1.1-1.1 - --__ _- American Indians 0-0.5 ____ - Bogobos -~ - .4mericau Indians Polar Eskimos Fillpinos-- - 0.6-1.0 I I j Fig. 1 Snlu Moros Senegalese Sumatrans Igorotes Yorubas Natives of South Africa Moroccans ~ American Indians 1.1-1.5 ~ - Ascbkenaaim J e w s Aleppo J e w s Arabs of North Africa Turks Russians Spanish J e w s Americans Slovaks - Samaritons Italians Danish Americuns Australians 2.1-2.5 ~- V I Qreenlanders BGans i ' !--- Sephardini J e w s Samoans ~Katangans A nnameso Jsyanese wnnese S u m a t r a n Cliinese Ainus Koreans Koreans Ch I nese -~ Chinese Manchus Madapscans American negro English Jamaicans Negritos Arazilians Melanesians Icelanders .. . ~ . . 2.6-3.0 ____ __ l ~ -. .. 3.1-3.5 vII .- i 3.6-4.0 I .. . -- ~ __ vIII ! -Hawaiians I ~ ,--. ~~ ~ , I '- . .- Lapps in Sweden ~- IX Christian Arabs Lapps i n i French Sweden ; Qerinans Austrians Norwegi ails Bulgars Italians Americans Armenians German J e w s Serbs Greeks Dutch Swiss - _.-~ Noslem Armenians Armenians S y r i a n Arabs Assyrians Armenians Bulgarians Ainus l'eheques Finns I Germans Roumanians Korean J a p s Polish J e w s Druzrs Persians Jews Beirut J e w s Japanese Chinese Formosans Japanese I k'oles Hungarians - -. Egyptians Egyptians--! Ukrainians Koreans -!-~ Ainus Hunearians ! -. Imppn in Swedeti b:ngliah Maltans ~. VI Chart of correlatioii f o r frequciicies '1)' and 'q.' I , Australians 1.6-2.0 IV 22 LELAND W. PARR small series I was not able t o make out any distinction between Moslem and Christian Egyptians, both of which groups were represented. The Copts are strongest in numbers in Upper Egypt, in Assiut province especially. Shousha’s series, with which my data substantially agree, was made at Cairo, where most of his subjects were undoubtedly Moslem. It would be of interest if a considerable group of Copts could be typed to see if their blood picture is different from data already a t hand on Egyptians largely Moslem. Whatever may have happened a thousand years ago, certain it is that in recent decades there have been practically no marriages between Copts and Moslems. ARMENIAh-S The second largest group typed and, a s it turns out, the largest pure group studied, was the Armenian. These people are Indo-European and in their present-day relationships seem akin to certain of the Balkan groups. Their anatomical similarity to the Hittites has been remarked by most observers and Kappers presents a reproduction of a Hittite and compares it with a portrait of a present-day Armenian. If we may assign the Armenians a place among the Balkan peoples on the basis of their blood-type picture, they would seem to be most akin to certain Bulgarians living in Roumania, as the following data make clear: PREQUEX’CIES ~ ~ Serbians Mountain Roumanian Valley Roumanian Bulgars in Bulgaria Bulgars of Roumania Armenians at Beirut ..-____..- I_--_I_- ’ 38.0 ’ 36.5 1 , 41.8 40.9 I 1 _- .- - P ~- ___ .--- . 9 r . 15.6 2.29 2.72 1.11 6.16 14.5 2.17 2.80 1.15 6.04 6.3 1.87 2.81 1.41 5.78 6.2 2.14 2.69 1.06 6.24 8.1 2.14 3.14 1.33 5.53 13.01 2.31 3.47 1.23 5.30 I 39.0 ! 28.14 i 40.6 46.20 14.2 i 12.63 - ~- RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES 23 Young( 393 has included data on Armenians as among those which he finds more highly differentiated than he thinks should be the case from the mathematical point of view. We might point out that, although Armenia was a small country, yet it had its mountains and its valleys, and in the prewar decades, with travel much more restricted than it is now, its peoples, although only about three million in number, were quite segregated. This allowed opportunity for the selective influence of inbreeding t o operate. Armenians were scattered by the war deportations, but with some regularity. Many of them went to Aleppo in north Syria, and it is this group which Altounyan typed. I have been told by Armenian doctors that the Armenians in Beirut came from different parts of Armenia than did the Aleppo refugees. My data derive from the Beirut group. Other Armenians found their way to France, and it was this colony which Kossovitch (who is associated with Dujarric de la Rivierra, of the Pasteur Institute) typed. One has only to live among the Armenians to realize that there are different physical types among them. It is only reasonable to suppose that there may similarly be slight immunological variations as well. As a whole, they possess a high degree of unity and are characterized by social and economic traits which seem more constantly typical of them than their physique o r their blood type. There is much truth in the late Doctor Draper’s contention(8) that fhe true picture of man can only be ascertained by studying his psychological, physiological, and immunological panels as well as his anatomical picture. SAMARITANS The Samaritans were the least numerous of the groups studied, but not the least interesting. The Palestinian government informed us that for the 1928 census they reckoned the Samaritans a t 150. As Rappers states, the Samaritans have been measured anthropometrically several times : Huxley measured thirty-five ; Weissenberg, twenty ; Szpidbaum, 24 LELAND W. PARR ninety-f our, and Kappers, eighty-four. This paper, however, reports the only blood-typing sukvey made of them.4 A t r i p was made to Nablus in May, 1928, and blood specimens were obtained from eighty-three Samaritans, with the aid of the Arab dispenser of the British Hospital and the cooperation of a son of the Samaritan High Priest. The samples obtained were typed i n Nablus within twelve hours. The Samaritans a r e alleged not to marry outside their own group, although at the time we visited them we found two young men with English-speaking Jewish wives. With such small numbers this means that they a r e highly intermarried. They therefore constitute an excellent group for a study of the effect of inbreeding on such hereditary characters as the blood type. K a p p e r s classes the Samaritans as Hebrew Semites, stating t h a t they were originally probably a mixture of Jews with another race. The blood-typing findings show that they a r e immunologically unlike a n y of the existing surrounding groups whom they might reasonably be presumed to resemble -Aschkenasim, Sephardim and mixed Jews, Moslem or Christian Arabs, Persians, Egyptians, or Assyrians. They possess a n unusually high percentage of type-0 blood for any Near E a s t e r n group and their B type is unusually low. F r o m the figure showing correlation of p and q it will be seen that they fit i n square V B along with Italians, Danes, a n d Americans. This is exactly what might be expected when viewed from the point of view of the effects of inbreeding. As they have diminished and intermarried certain families have maintained themselves and the blood types of those families a r e predominatingly represented to-day. Had a n earlier ancestral family with numerous vigorous children had a father of type A and a mother of type B, a very different picture of the Samaritans would exist to-day. It would seem that the value of blood-typing tests in anthropological In the preliminary presentation of Kappers’ papers he states that Hirszfeld typed the Samaritans. There is no record of this and Professor Kappers has corrected his revised manuseript i n this regard. RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES 25 studies is very little when the group studied is highly isolated. T h a t this is so should not detract from the method as a whole if judiciously applied. ARABS The most significant finding of this project has been obtained with the Syrian Arabs, of whom more than 4000 were typed. I n the Near E a s t the Arabs of Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Transjordania a r e strictly divided, for social and political reasons, into religious groups. There have been suggestions in the past that the differences were deeper than this, but to most observers such differences as did exist were usually attributed to town dwelling or education as against the village o r iiomadic life of the little-educated. F r o m the bloodtyping point of view, however, we early discovered that the Arabs of the large a r e a known formerly as Syria were to be sharply a n d distinctly divided into two groups. One of these groups comprises the Mohammedans and such members of several post-Islamic cults as we were able to type. (The Druzes a r e the best represented of these post-Islamic cults. Data show them to be practically the same as the Mohammedans.) This group has the same blood-typing picture as the Arabs of Hirszfeld and Hirszfeld and classed by them and subsequent writers a s Intermediates. The other group comprising the Christians of the area have blood-typing features which would put them into the European group of the Hirszfelds. Of these Christians, the most numerous a r e Greek Orthodox, but other sects a r e well represented, such as the Maronites, Greek Catholic, Latin Catholic, and Protestants. (Practically all Protestants in Egypt or Syria have been recruited from the Coptic, Greek Orthodox, and other churches of the area.) Intermarriage with the Crusaders might acaccount f o r some of the observed blood picture, but i t is f a r more reasonable to suppose that the Christians of the area a r e descended from a n earlier Mediterranean race and have maintained their earlier characteristics. Superficially, both groups a r e identical, but when critically examined (Kappers 26 L E L A N D W. P A R R (22) ) fundamental anatomical differences are distinctly made out. The hdaronites are almost entirely restricted t o the Lebanon hlountains and are most typically Lebanese. At the personal suggestion of Kappers, I present the blood-typing picture of these Christians in contrast to that of all the Christian groups: _- __ - _-, FREQUENCIES PERCENTAGES I N QROUPS I -~ 0 A I B I -& RACE INDEX 2.87 2.91 I .98 1.11 G.14 I 5.95 w that there is no striking difference between them and other Christians of the area speaking Arabic. It should be stated that the hlaronites are sufficiently numerous and scattered over the area in which they live that the inbreeding factor mentioned above is not a complicating factor. SUMMKRY Blood-typing data on an area controlled by anthropometrical measurements give evidence that the blood-typing approach to the study of anthropology has value. Discredit thrown on this method in the past has in part been due to the use of racial groups so small or isolated that the bloodtype picture was inadequate because the factor of inbreeding had rendered that picture inaccurate for racial studies. Blood-typing studies on the Egyptians suggest that these Arabic-speaking peoples are not the same as the Arabs of western Asia and other parts of north Africa and point to the present importance of the original Egyptian strain, which seems to persist physically and immunologically in spite of Arab invasion. This strain may show Mongol or Indo-Manchurian relationship. The Armenians, whose relationship to the Hittites has been suggested, are seen by their blood-typing picture to be similar to certain Balkan peoples. RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES 27 Studies 011 the Samaritans have demonstrated the effects of inbreeding on the blood-type picture. By this means alone, it is impossible to gain any idea as t o the Samaritan origin or relationship. When the Arabic-speaking peoples of Syria are studied by the blood-typing method, it is seen that they are sharply and distinctly divided into two groups. One of these, the Moslem, coincides in its blood picture with the Arabs of north Africa studied by the Hirszfelds and classed by them as Intermediates. The other group, the Christian, is unlike either the typical Moslem Arab or the Egyptian and must, because of its higher p frequency and European type of race index, be thought of as of quite dissimilar origin. BIBLIOGRAPHY E. H. R. 1 ALTOUNYAN, 1927 A note 011 blood transfusion i n Syria with analysis of 1149 blood groupiiigs. Lancet, 11, 1342. 1928 a Personal communication, dated February 9th. 1928 b Blood group percentages f o r Arabs, Armeniaus and Jews. Analysis of 1758 groupings. Brit. Med. Jour., I, 546. BAUER,K. H. 1928 Zur Losung des Problems der Blutgruppenvererbuiig. Klin. Woch., V I I , 1585-1592. 1929 .Zur Geuetik der menschlicheu Blutgruppen. Zeitsehr. f. ind. Abst. u. Vererb., L, 1-61. BERNSTEIX, F. 1924 Ergebnisse einer biochemischeii zusammeufasseiideii Betraehtuug uber die erblicheu Blutstrukturen des Menscheu. Klin. 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Anthrop., X I I I , 109-130. ail 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 28 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 LELAND W. PARR GROVE,ELLAF. 1926 On the value of the blood-group feature as a means of determining racial relationship. Jour. Immunol., V I I , 251-262. HIRSZFELD,H., A N D HIRSZFELD,L. 1919 Serological differences between the blood of different races. Lancet, 11, 675-678. HRDLICKA, ALES 1930 Chapter V I I , ‘‘Human Races,” i n Human Biology and Racial Welfare. 8”. h’ew York. JANSKY, JAN1907 Haematologicke studie u psychotiku. Sborni Klinicky, V I I I , 85-139. KAPPERS,C. U. A R I ~ N S1930 a Contributions t o the anthropology of thc Near East. I. The Armenians. Proc. Kon. Akad. van Wetenschap. te Amsterdam, X X X I I I , October 25. Ibid., 1930 b 11. Tlie spread of brachycephalic races. X X X I I I , October 25. 1931 a 111. Phoenician and Palmyrene skulls. Ibid., XXXIV, J a n u a r y 31. . 1931 b IV. The Semitic races. Ibid., XXXIV, J a n u a r y 31. 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H. 1926 Human blood groups: their inheritance and racial significance. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., I X , 233-263. 1929 Blood grouping in relation t o clinical and legal medicine. Baltimore. STEFFAN,P., U X D WELLISCH, S. 1925 Die geographische Verteilung der Rlutgruppen. Zeitschr. f. Rassenphysiologie, I, 46-60. (This compilation is revised a n d extended in subsequent numbers.) VERZAR, F. 1928 Isohemagglutination im Dienst der Anthropologie. Ukrain. Zcntralbl. f. Blutgruppenf., 11, 17-31. VINCENT,BETH 1918 A rapid macroscopic agglutination test f o r blood groups and its value in testing donors f o r transfusion. Jour. Am. Med. Assn., LXX, 1219. RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES 37 38 39 40 29 WEIL, P. E. 1923 Citation from Leone Lattes, Die Individualitat des Blutes. Berlin. WELLISCII,S. 1929 Serologisclie Uiitersuchungeii uber das Rassentum der Juden. Zeitsclir. f . Rassenphysiologie, I, 204-208. YOUNG,M. 1928 The problem of the racial significance of the blood groups. Man, XXVIII, 116 and 127. YUNOVITCH, RINA 1929 Personal communication, dated May 10th.