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Blood studies on peoples of western Asia and north Africa.

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BLOOD S T U D I E S ON P E O P L E S O F W E S T E R N ASIA
AND KORTH AFRICA
LELAND W. PARR'
Department of Bacteriology and Hygiene, School, of Medicine, American
Unixersity of Beirut, Syria
ONE FIGURE
Within the past few years many thousand blood-typing
determinations have been made. While of most immediate
and practical service i n blood transfusion, isohemagglutination tests and studies have also been widely applied to the
study of problems of inheritance in genetics, to the solution
of medicolegal cases, to studies of possible predispositions to
diseased states, and to the study of races. This approach to
anthropology has had a mushroom-like growth since its inception i n 1919 with the war-front work of Ludvig and Hanna
Hirszfeld( 16) at Salonika, where 8000 soldiers from sixteen
nations were typed. Steffan and Wellisch(34) in 1928 listed
640 racial groups for whom such data are available. A t least
two journals in Europe, viz., Zeitschrif t fiir Rassenphysiologie (Munich) and Ukvai&sches Zentralblatt f u r B l u t g r u p penforschung ( Charkow), are practically entirely devoted to
aspects of blood typing, of which no inconsiderable portion
has to do with Tacial studies.
The inherited factors which determine one's blood type
are not coupled, as f a r as we know, with other commonly
recognized and used anthropological features (Verzar( 35) ).
There can be no possibility, therefore, of conscious effort a t
selection or change (whatever it might avail) a s regards
one's blood type, such as might be the case with kinky hair,
blongolian eyes, short stature, or other obvious features.
' Research
bacteriologist, Aiidalusia, Alabama.
15
AMERICAN J O U R N A L O F PHYSICAL AWTHROPOLOGY, VOL. S V I , 1 0 .
JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1931
1
16
LELAND W. PARH
T h e determination of the blood type to which a n individual
belongs is a laboratory procedure so simple and so well
known in these days of blood transfusion that this paper will
not consider the details of its theory and technic.
Nedical men everywhere, by their profession, have access
t o blood samples to a greater degree than any other group of
investigators. This fact has had its disadvantages, for many
practitioners and investigators of medical science are not
adequately prepared to appreciate the anthropological conclusions which they derive nor to understand the mathematical a n d genetic considerations involved.
There has been, then, a realization recently that there a r e
distinct limits to the blood-typing approach to the study of
anthropology, especially to the wholesale accumulation of
data without consideration being paid to all of the factors
which a r e involved. These limits have been emphasized by a
number of writers, among whom Grove( 15), Snyder(32,33),
Young(39), Lickint and Troltzsch(25), and HrdliEka( 17) may
be mentioned.
In Grove’s work with the Ainus it was found that these
isolated island people seem to be of several quite distinct
blood-typing groups, although physically they a r e all very
similar. Reference to figure 1, to be discussed later, will
reveal the fact that Ainus a r e found in five different squares,
viz., V I I H, VI F, I11 E, I V E, and V I C. To this criticism
of racial studies by blood typing it has been objected that
the groups2 studied in Grove’s series a r e small and represent well-isolated communities in which there may have been
a good deal of inbreeding. Our own investigations of the
Samaritans at Nablus, Palestine, i n 1928 were undertaken
with this point in mind and will be presented later in this
paper.
Snyder defends the value of blood-typing tests in the study
of anthropology, but points out their limitations and states
‘To avoid confusion in this paper, the word ‘group’ is used to refer t o a
collection of people homogeneous in one or more senses and going under one
name. The word ‘type’ refers to blood. This is purely arbitrary and is in no
sense an effort t o change the use of terms.
17
RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES
that it is to be remembered that similar blood-type racial
formulae do not prove relationship, but only express like
possession of isoagglutinative factors. This point should be
consolation f or those who may be distressed by square I V C
of figure 1, in which English, American negroes, Jamaicans,
and Madagascans a r e found together.
Young applied mathematical formulae to blood-typing data
and showed that in many cases different sets of figures on
the same group of people were more differentiated than were
those for entirely different peoples. Lickint and Troltzsch
attempted to set a normal figure f or the blood-type race
formula of the German people and found in their survey of
existing sets of d a t a that considerable variation existed.
This variation a n d the normal figure that they assigned the
German peoples may be represented as follows :
Limits encountered, per cent,
German normal decided upon,
Type 0
Type A
Type B
TypeAB
32-47
39
39-47
42
6-18
14
2.5-7.5
5
Various sets of d a t a published for the French when collected do not show such wide divergences, as can be seen
from the following figures:
Authority
Type 0
Type A
Type B
Type A B
Xeil(37),
Hirszfeld aiid IFirszfeld( 16),
Pauchet aiid Becart (30),
Parr(28),
Kossovitch (24),
Average,
43
43.2
40
40.9
42.1
41.8
45
42.6
45
41.4
42.3
43.2
10
11.2
15
10
11.1
11.4
2
3
0.2
7.7
4.5
3.4
It may be stated that most of the subjects included in these
data a r e from Paris. It is quite conceivable that, had five
sets of d a t a for the French been gathered from five widely
separated parts of France, much greater differences would
have been noted. This is a n important consideration and
when properly borne in mind will help to minimize criticism
of the blood-typing approach to anthropology.
I n 1930, HrdliEka stated the situation in the following
terms: “Within late years there was a hope that the agglutination tests of the blood might be helpful if not decisive, in
18
LELAND W. PARR
racial classification, but that hope has in a large measure
failed. ”
Recent publication from Amsterdam of four papers by
Kappers(l9,20,21,22) on the anthropology of the Near East
makes desirable the presentation of our own data on groups
of the same area from the point of view of blood typing.
This will make possible another evaluation of the use of
blood typing in anthropological studies and, in so f a r as the
accepted an thropometrical method supports the blood-typing
findings, will strengthen the contention of those who hold
that the blood-typing approach to anthropology is worth
while.
The work here reported was begun at Beirut, Syria, in the
fall of 1923, and was continued for more than six years, till
February of 1930. During this time nearly 10,000 subjects
were typed. Data on 1197 Frenchmen have been published
elsewhere( 28) and some preliminary mention has also been
made(27,29) of the findings on the Near Eastern groups
studied. Quite 1000 English, American, Greek, Italian, and
other subjects have never been reported upon. The present
paper, however, includes several hundred subjects not included in previous summaries and has been prepared from
the anthropological standpoint, in the light of the anatomical
findings in the same area by Kappers.
The blood typings were done in triplicate by the openslide method, essentially that of Beth Vincent(36). I n the
majority of cases the subject’s citrated red blood cells were
typed by means of known sera. I n other cases the blood
serum of the subject was typed by means of known red-bloodcell suspension. I n about 10 per cent of the cases both red
blood cells and serum of the subject were typed.
The findings are summarized in table L3 I n order to present a more complete picture, the table also includes previously published data on the same groups. In addition t o
zThe terminology used is that officially adopted in America, as suggested by
Landsteiner, in whieh the blood types IV, 11, 111, arid I of v o s s ( 2 6 ) and I, 11,
111, and IV of Jansky(l8) are represented by the letters 0, A, B, and AB.
19
RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES
giving the number of persons tested and the distribution
among the four blood types, the table also includes two sets
of values commonly presented in such work, namely, the 'biochemical race index' of the Hirszfelds and Bernstein's triple
allelomorphs.
TAELE 1
Blood-typing data for peoples of western Asia a n d north Africa
__
~
1
RACE-
__ -
NUMBER
I PEBSOWS
GROUP
TYPED
-1-
-4 rmeuiaiis
Spriau Christiaiis
Syrian Moslems
Syrian Druzes
1
.4ssyriaiis
j
Egyptians
'
Persians
Samaritans
Syrian Jews
__
__ Aschkeiiasim'
Sephardim'
Aleppo Jews'
Arabs'
Eggp tians'
A rmeniaiis'
A rmeniausl
Aschkciiasim4
SephardinP
-~
I
Data
.-
'
'!I
i
I
3080
2091
1777
229
161
130
91
83
181
011
1-
PER CENT 1 3 EACH CROUP
-
B
A
_-
28.14
137.82
135.00
33.18
I 32.91
20.76
I32.96
150.60
28.72
46.20
42.37
36.57
36.24
41.61
39.23
28.57
32.53
34.25 I
RACE
WDEX
AB
12.63
12.14
19.13
18.34
14.90
25.38
21.97
9.63
19.33 ,
13.01
7.65
9.28
12.22
10.55
14.61
16.48
7.22
17.67
I
-_I-P
FREQUENCIES
-. --
-
9
3.47 I 1.23
2.87
.98
2.60
1.49
2.71 1.52
2.99 1.27
3.20 2.25
2.34 1 1.91
2.12 0.77
1.82
2.82
2.31
2.53
1.61
1.59
2.05
1.35
1.17
2.35
1.40
1
1
1
similar groups published by other workers
-
_.
320
158
172
500
41i
653
380
....
1 ....
-
24.2
27
36.3
33.4
10.62 1.55
28.48 23.41 6.96 1.16
8
34
20
1.5
5.0
1.5
32.4 19.0
13.9
1.07
32.6 29.2
14
6
2.95
53
2.01
6.8
40.3 16.6
7.1
40.8 18.7
1.85
33.0 23.2
1.34
5.0
-
~
-
!
-
2.46
1.95
2.35
2.10
2.66
3.67
2.73
2.80
2.18
.
1.45
1.64
1.48
1.30
2.43
1.13
1.25
1.41
1.58
Yui1ovitch(40). 'Altoui1yan(2,3). ' Hirszfeld and Hirszfeld(l6).
(31).
Kossoviteh(Z3). ' Wellisch(38).
r
5.30
6.14
5.91
5.76
5.73
4.55
5.74
7.11
5.35
-_
6.09
6.41
6.16
6.60
4.92
5.20
6.02
5.78
6.23
' Shouslia
The race index is the ratio of A to B, and is found by
dividing the sum of the percentages for types A and AB
by the sum for types B and AB.
According to the Bernstein theory, blood groups are inherited through three factors, A, B, and R. The factor R is
recessive and, to conform to present terminology, is now
spoken of as 0. It is possible to calculate the frequencies of
the three factors 0, A, and B by the use of the formulae of
Wellisch(38), as follows :
p =frequency of A = 4 (10 - r
q = f r e q u e n e y of B = + ( 1 0 - r +
r = frequency of R or 0 = V 0
and as a check, p
+ q + r =10.
+ V OFA-VO-+-B--
V m )
V0-4-A)
20
LELAND W. PARR
Since the sum of the frequencies p, q, and r are by these
formulae equal to 10, it is possible by using the values of p
a n d q alone to construct a two-dimension figure which will
place the various racial groups i n their proper immunological relationships. Such a representation is presented as figu r e 1. It is artificial only in that definit.e boundaries have
been placed at regular intervals, but these a r c purely arbit r a r y and a r e as f a i r to one group as to another. Snyder
has prepared a somewhat similar correlation chart for p and
q, a n d by use of i t he derives the possibility of distinguishing
seven great divisions of typed humanity which he calls
European, Intermediate, Hunan, Indomanchuriaii, Af ricoMalaysian, Pacific-American, and Australian. The figure
here presented makes no effort to divide off the peoples included into groups.
Of the peoples studied in our Near Eastern survey, special
mention will be made in this paper of only four groups in
which it is thought some contribution has been made either
to immunology or anthropology, namely, the Egyptians,
Armenians, Samaritans, and Arabs.
EGYPTIANS
The Egyptians speak Arabic, and Egypt has long been one
of the centers of the Mohammedan world. Physically, however, the Egyptian impresses one as different from the
peoples called Arabs found in north Africa and western Asia.
Blood-typing studies confirm this point of view. Our own
studies were made on Egyptian students and patients in the
American University Hospital f r o m Egypt. The series is
not a large one, but it serves to confirm the findings of
Shousha. Snyder classes the Egyptians in his Hunan group
and states that there is suggested in these people the possibility of Mongolian relationships in their ancestry.
Most of the Egyptians a r e Mohammedans, but there are
among them considerable numbers of a Christian sect, the
Copts, who lay claim t o being the purest descendants of the
ancient Egyptians in the country at the present time. I n my
IN
F
E
.-
D
c
B
.--
A
'
0-0.5
i
2.6-3 .O/
i
2.1-2.5:
.- -,
~.
1.6-2 .(
-
1.1-1.1
- --__
_-
American
Indians
0-0.5
____
-
Bogobos
-~
-
.4mericau
Indians
Polar
Eskimos
Fillpinos--
-
0.6-1.0
I
I
j
Fig. 1
Snlu Moros
Senegalese
Sumatrans
Igorotes
Yorubas
Natives of
South Africa
Moroccans
~
American
Indians
1.1-1.5
~
-
Ascbkenaaim J e w s
Aleppo J e w s
Arabs of
North Africa
Turks
Russians
Spanish J e w s
Americans
Slovaks
-
Samaritons
Italians
Danish
Americuns
Australians
2.1-2.5
~-
V
I Qreenlanders
BGans
i
'
!---
Sephardini J e w s
Samoans
~Katangans
A nnameso
Jsyanese
wnnese
S u m a t r a n Cliinese
Ainus
Koreans
Koreans
Ch I nese
-~
Chinese
Manchus
Madapscans
American negro
English
Jamaicans
Negritos
Arazilians
Melanesians
Icelanders
.. .
~
.
.
2.6-3.0
____
__
l
~
-.
..
3.1-3.5
vII
.-
i
3.6-4.0
I
.. .
--
~
__
vIII
! -Hawaiians
I
~
,--.
~~
~
,
I
'-
. .-
Lapps in
Sweden
~-
IX
Christian Arabs
Lapps i n
i
French
Sweden
;
Qerinans
Austrians
Norwegi ails
Bulgars
Italians
Americans
Armenians
German J e w s
Serbs
Greeks
Dutch
Swiss
- _.-~
Noslem
Armenians
Armenians
S y r i a n Arabs
Assyrians
Armenians
Bulgarians
Ainus
l'eheques
Finns
I
Germans
Roumanians
Korean J a p s
Polish J e w s
Druzrs
Persians
Jews
Beirut J e w s
Japanese
Chinese
Formosans
Japanese
I
k'oles
Hungarians
- -.
Egyptians
Egyptians--!
Ukrainians
Koreans
-!-~
Ainus
Hunearians
!
-.
Imppn in Swedeti
b:ngliah
Maltans
~.
VI
Chart of correlatioii f o r frequciicies '1)' and 'q.'
I
,
Australians
1.6-2.0
IV
22
LELAND W. PARR
small series I was not able t o make out any distinction between Moslem and Christian Egyptians, both of which groups
were represented. The Copts are strongest in numbers in
Upper Egypt, in Assiut province especially. Shousha’s
series, with which my data substantially agree, was made at
Cairo, where most of his subjects were undoubtedly Moslem.
It would be of interest if a considerable group of Copts
could be typed to see if their blood picture is different from
data already a t hand on Egyptians largely Moslem. Whatever may have happened a thousand years ago, certain it is
that in recent decades there have been practically no marriages between Copts and Moslems.
ARMENIAh-S
The second largest group typed and, a s it turns out, the
largest pure group studied, was the Armenian. These people
are Indo-European and in their present-day relationships
seem akin to certain of the Balkan groups. Their anatomical
similarity to the Hittites has been remarked by most observers and Kappers presents a reproduction of a Hittite and
compares it with a portrait of a present-day Armenian. If
we may assign the Armenians a place among the Balkan
peoples on the basis of their blood-type picture, they would
seem to be most akin to certain Bulgarians living in Roumania, as the following data make clear:
PREQUEX’CIES
~
~
Serbians
Mountain
Roumanian
Valley
Roumanian
Bulgars in
Bulgaria
Bulgars of
Roumania
Armenians
at Beirut
..-____..-
I_--_I_-
’
38.0
’
36.5
1
,
41.8
40.9
I
1
_-
.-
-
P
~-
___
.--- .
9
r
.
15.6
2.29
2.72
1.11
6.16
14.5
2.17
2.80
1.15
6.04
6.3
1.87
2.81
1.41
5.78
6.2
2.14
2.69
1.06
6.24
8.1
2.14
3.14
1.33
5.53
13.01
2.31
3.47
1.23
5.30
I
39.0 !
28.14
i
40.6
46.20
14.2
i
12.63
-
~-
RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES
23
Young( 393 has included data on Armenians as among those
which he finds more highly differentiated than he thinks
should be the case from the mathematical point of view. We
might point out that, although Armenia was a small country,
yet it had its mountains and its valleys, and in the prewar
decades, with travel much more restricted than it is now, its
peoples, although only about three million in number, were
quite segregated. This allowed opportunity for the selective
influence of inbreeding t o operate. Armenians were scattered by the war deportations, but with some regularity.
Many of them went to Aleppo in north Syria, and it is this
group which Altounyan typed. I have been told by Armenian
doctors that the Armenians in Beirut came from different
parts of Armenia than did the Aleppo refugees. My data
derive from the Beirut group. Other Armenians found their
way to France, and it was this colony which Kossovitch (who
is associated with Dujarric de la Rivierra, of the Pasteur
Institute) typed. One has only to live among the Armenians
to realize that there are different physical types among
them. It is only reasonable to suppose that there may similarly be slight immunological variations as well. As a whole,
they possess a high degree of unity and are characterized by
social and economic traits which seem more constantly typical of them than their physique o r their blood type. There
is much truth in the late Doctor Draper’s contention(8) that
fhe true picture of man can only be ascertained by studying
his psychological, physiological, and immunological panels as
well as his anatomical picture.
SAMARITANS
The Samaritans were the least numerous of the groups
studied, but not the least interesting. The Palestinian government informed us that for the 1928 census they reckoned
the Samaritans a t 150. As Rappers states, the Samaritans
have been measured anthropometrically several times : Huxley measured thirty-five ; Weissenberg, twenty ; Szpidbaum,
24
LELAND W. PARR
ninety-f our, and Kappers, eighty-four. This paper, however,
reports the only blood-typing sukvey made of them.4
A t r i p was made to Nablus in May, 1928, and blood specimens were obtained from eighty-three Samaritans, with the
aid of the Arab dispenser of the British Hospital and the
cooperation of a son of the Samaritan High Priest. The
samples obtained were typed i n Nablus within twelve hours.
The Samaritans a r e alleged not to marry outside their
own group, although at the time we visited them we found
two young men with English-speaking Jewish wives. With
such small numbers this means that they a r e highly intermarried. They therefore constitute an excellent group for a
study of the effect of inbreeding on such hereditary characters as the blood type.
K a p p e r s classes the Samaritans as Hebrew Semites, stating t h a t they were originally probably a mixture of Jews
with another race. The blood-typing findings show that they
a r e immunologically unlike a n y of the existing surrounding
groups whom they might reasonably be presumed to resemble
-Aschkenasim,
Sephardim and mixed Jews, Moslem or
Christian Arabs, Persians, Egyptians, or Assyrians. They
possess a n unusually high percentage of type-0 blood for any
Near E a s t e r n group and their B type is unusually low.
F r o m the figure showing correlation of p and q it will be
seen that they fit i n square V B along with Italians, Danes,
a n d Americans. This is exactly what might be expected
when viewed from the point of view of the effects of inbreeding. As they have diminished and intermarried certain
families have maintained themselves and the blood types of
those families a r e predominatingly represented to-day. Had
a n earlier ancestral family with numerous vigorous children
had a father of type A and a mother of type B, a very different picture of the Samaritans would exist to-day. It would
seem that the value of blood-typing tests in anthropological
In the preliminary presentation of Kappers’ papers he states that Hirszfeld
typed the Samaritans. There is no record of this and Professor Kappers has
corrected his revised manuseript i n this regard.
RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES
25
studies is very little when the group studied is highly isolated. T h a t this is so should not detract from the method as
a whole if judiciously applied.
ARABS
The most significant finding of this project has been obtained with the Syrian Arabs, of whom more than 4000 were
typed. I n the Near E a s t the Arabs of Palestine, Syria, Iraq,
and Transjordania a r e strictly divided, for social and political reasons, into religious groups. There have been suggestions in the past that the differences were deeper than this,
but to most observers such differences as did exist were usually attributed to town dwelling or education as against the
village o r iiomadic life of the little-educated. F r o m the bloodtyping point of view, however, we early discovered that the
Arabs of the large a r e a known formerly as Syria were to be
sharply a n d distinctly divided into two groups. One of these
groups comprises the Mohammedans and such members of
several post-Islamic cults as we were able to type. (The
Druzes a r e the best represented of these post-Islamic cults.
Data show them to be practically the same as the Mohammedans.) This group has the same blood-typing picture as
the Arabs of Hirszfeld and Hirszfeld and classed by them and
subsequent writers a s Intermediates. The other group comprising the Christians of the area have blood-typing features
which would put them into the European group of the Hirszfelds. Of these Christians, the most numerous a r e Greek
Orthodox, but other sects a r e well represented, such as the
Maronites, Greek Catholic, Latin Catholic, and Protestants.
(Practically all Protestants in Egypt or Syria have been recruited from the Coptic, Greek Orthodox, and other churches
of the area.) Intermarriage with the Crusaders might acaccount f o r some of the observed blood picture, but i t is f a r
more reasonable to suppose that the Christians of the area
a r e descended from a n earlier Mediterranean race and have
maintained their earlier characteristics. Superficially, both
groups a r e identical, but when critically examined (Kappers
26
L E L A N D W. P A R R
(22) ) fundamental anatomical differences are distinctly
made out.
The hdaronites are almost entirely restricted t o the Lebanon hlountains and are most typically Lebanese. At the
personal suggestion of Kappers, I present the blood-typing
picture of these Christians in contrast to that of all the Christian groups:
_- __
- _-,
FREQUENCIES
PERCENTAGES I N QROUPS
I
-~
0
A
I
B
I
-&
RACE
INDEX
2.87
2.91
I
.98
1.11
G.14
I
5.95
w that there is no
striking difference between them and other Christians of the
area speaking Arabic. It should be stated that the hlaronites
are sufficiently numerous and scattered over the area in
which they live that the inbreeding factor mentioned above is
not a complicating factor.
SUMMKRY
Blood-typing data on an area controlled by anthropometrical measurements give evidence that the blood-typing approach to the study of anthropology has value. Discredit
thrown on this method in the past has in part been due to
the use of racial groups so small or isolated that the bloodtype picture was inadequate because the factor of inbreeding
had rendered that picture inaccurate for racial studies.
Blood-typing studies on the Egyptians suggest that these
Arabic-speaking peoples are not the same as the Arabs of
western Asia and other parts of north Africa and point to
the present importance of the original Egyptian strain,
which seems to persist physically and immunologically in
spite of Arab invasion. This strain may show Mongol or
Indo-Manchurian relationship.
The Armenians, whose relationship to the Hittites has been
suggested, are seen by their blood-typing picture to be similar
to certain Balkan peoples.
RACIAL BLOOD STUDIES
27
Studies 011 the Samaritans have demonstrated the effects
of inbreeding on the blood-type picture. By this means
alone, it is impossible to gain any idea as t o the Samaritan
origin or relationship.
When the Arabic-speaking peoples of Syria are studied by
the blood-typing method, it is seen that they are sharply and
distinctly divided into two groups. One of these, the Moslem, coincides in its blood picture with the Arabs of north
Africa studied by the Hirszfelds and classed by them as
Intermediates. The other group, the Christian, is unlike
either the typical Moslem Arab or the Egyptian and must,
because of its higher p frequency and European type of
race index, be thought of as of quite dissimilar origin.
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E. H. R.
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