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Bone Fundamentals of the physiology of skeletal tissue. Third Edition. Revised and Enlarged. By Franklin C. McLean and Marshall R. Urist. xxi + 314 pp. ill. The University of Chicago Press Chicago. 1968. $8

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suitable for taxonomic grouping. This is
quite true as f a r as his sampling of geographical loca and biological criteria is
concerned, and taxonomy finer than a subspecific level is risky business. But his own
evidence also shows that Pygmies and
Bushmen are separate entities, and this
would have been made clearer if he had
been able to use skin color, hair form, external eye form, and certain osteological
details of the postcranial skeleton. I agree
with him that insofar as Hottentots differ
from Bushmen, they do so in a Nego
rather than in a “Hamitic” direction, and
that in the Ethiopian Highlands an extraAfrican element must be considered.
Everyone interested in human variability
will profit from reading Hiernaux’s book,
which took more time and thought than
its number of pages would indicate, and
those who wish to pursue his program further will do well to get out in the field
and try to fill in the gaps in his coverage.
Peabody Museum,
Harvard University
. T, Steegman Jr., and W. S . Plantar, Experimental Cold Modification of Cranio-facial Morphology,
AJPA vol. 28, No. 1, 1968, pp. 17-30.
TISSUE.Third Edition.
Revised and Enlarged. By Franklin C.
McLean and Marshall R. Urist. xxi 4314 pp., ill. The University of Chicago
Press, Chicago. 1968. $8.50.
For the physical anthropologist whose
traditional interest has been the structural
features of bone, the McLean and Urist
volume provides a concise and authoritative view of the physiological foundation
of bone. The authors have revised and enlarged the 1961 (second) edition significantly. Almost a third of the nearly 500
sources cited were published since that
date. There are 15 additional illustrations
including electron micrographs of osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclast enhancing
the presentation. In addition, a substantial
updating of information and the inclusion
of recent experimental data on such phenomena as the bioelectric effect and mineralization of bone are presented. The
authors should also be commended for the
inclusion of a chapter on the evolution of
bone which provides a perspective in our
understanding of bone physiology.
In addition to the chapter on the evolution of bone, there are 15 chapters covering such topics as bone as tissue, histogenesis and organization of bone, and
chapters on the structural and chemical
composition of bone matrix and bone mineralization. The material is well presented
with an initial discussion of structural features followed by a more thorough analysis
of underlying chemical processes.
As an example of the outstanding features of the book are the chapters on the
dynamics of bone mineral with a discussion of calcification, nucleation and crystal
growth, and chapters on enzyme and metabolic pathways and regulatory processes.
Such important mechanisms of control of
bone formation as androgens, estrogens,
adrenocortical hormones, insulin, vitamins
A and D, and the role of the parathyroids
are discussed.
Mineral metabolism (Chapter XI) with
specifics on the role of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium and fluoride
and the importance of bone as a reservoir
for these minerals is presented in a characteristic dynamic approach. Chapter XPI
on radiation, isotopes, and bone with a discussion of radioelements (i.e. strontium
90) with their specific affinity for bone,
the pathological effect of internal and external radiation, radioisotopes as tracers in
bone is especially timely.
Separate chapters on postfetal osteogenesis (XIII), bone resorption (VII), and
fracture healing (XIV) round out the book.
Postfetal osteogenesis deals not only with
tissue and organ culture in reference to
osteogenic potency, but also with respect
to bone transplant. Immune response, induction and nonspecific affinity of the host
are also discussed in relationship to successful transplant. Postfetal osteogenesis
is concluded with a discussion of extraskeletal bone.
The treatment of healing of fractures
and pathologic physiology is dealt with in
a manner which illuminates the normal
physiology of bone. By studying the disturbances in normal physiology such as os-
anthropologist, since Stevens means by
ecology man’s internal cellular environment, and by etiology lowered oxygen tension in the tissues. The latter he regards
as the major variable determining aging
and such diverse diseases as arteriosclerosis, hypertension, cancer in its various
manifest ation s, infections, and autoimmune diseases. Few will agree with his
argument in toto or with many of his specifics - for example, a treponemal origin
for multiple sclerosis - but he does offer
provocative insights drawn from a variety
of up-to-date references. He selects data
which fit his central hypothesis but points
out that his evidene is not always sufficient. For example, he recognizes that the
marked ethnic and racial differences in
breast and stomach cancer cannot be explained by his unitary hypothesis.
A microbiologist, Stevens regards bacGEORGE
teria and other infective agents as playing
Department of Anthropology,
a leading role in lowering oxygen tension
University of Massachusetts
and hence promoting cancer, since a “cancer cell is any vertebrate cell which can
OF HUMAN divide logarithmically under a wide range
DISEASE.By Kingsley M. Stevens. xii 4- of oxygen tension.” Again, “autoimmune
201 pp. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, diseases are infectious diseases for which
the responsible microbes have not yet been
Illinois. 1967. $7.50.
In Stevens’ view, culture has permitted
Abdel R. Omran, William J. McEwen, man to disregard temporarily his biological
and Mahfouz H. Zaki. xix 260 pp. Re- nature, so that we now pay the price in
search Institute for the Study of Man. disease for such self-indulgences as alco1967. Place of publication and price not hol, tobacco, excessive food, fat and salt
intake, and lack of exercise. Culture first
HEALTHAND DISEASEIN FOURPERUVIAN permitted large concentrations of persons,
VILLAGES. CONTRASTS I N EPIDEMIOLOGY.thereby increasing infectious diseases, but
By Alfred A. Buck, Tom T. Sasaki, and recent developments in public health have
Robert I. Anderson. xv $- 142 pp. Johns overcome infections and led to population
Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland. explosion. These ideas are hardly original,
1968. $5.00.
but much of Stevens’ detailed exposition of
Ecology and epidemiology are terms and disease mechanisms is.
concepts becoming increasingly familiar to
The book deserves reading as a stimubiological anthropologists. One approach is lating essay, which is the author’s intent.
the cultural-biomedical research carried It is far from established fact. There are a
out by such workers as Nee1 in Brazil, good index and bibliography, but unfortuBaker in Peru, Chai on Taiwan, and Dunn nately many misspellings.
in Malaya. Lee and DeVore among the
Epidemiological Studies in Bolivia, a
Bushmen, and Rappoport in New Guinea paperback ‘%house organ,” is a h a 1 epidemfocus on energy exchange. The three books iological report to the Peace Corps by a
under review take two different tacks.
contractor, the Research Institute for the
The Ecology a n d Etiology of H u m a n Dis- Study of Man. Presumably copies might be
ease is the least relevant to the physical available from the Institute, if one knew
teoporosis, 0s teomalacia and hyperparathyroidism we can see dramatic effects of
interference in normal bone physiology.
Each chapter is written as a unit so that
it may be read independently. Although
this is in fact the case in most instances,
there are times when the discussion is difficult to follow without reference to material in other chapters. An additional
criticism which may be offered is McLean
and Urist’s almost total reliance on explanation at the biochemical level. For example, relevant information on the structural
changes in osteopiorosis, which could provide for a better understanding of this
condition, is neglected. These criticisms are
insignificant, and the reading of the book
is an exciting and rewarding experience.
Atclean and Urist’s revision of this classic
has made a good thing better.
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urist, enlarged, university, 1968, marshal, tissue, chicago, physiology, fundamentals, third, bones, edition, franklin, mclean, skeletal, xxi, 314, revised, pres, ill
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