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ing, or smoking; and the use of certain food
additives. Apparently the source of fat in the
diet is less important than simple excess, but
(ironically?) polyunsaturated fats appear to
be more tumorigenic than saturated fats if
persons are consuming low-fat diets. The latter, of course, are now widely recommended
for weight control and protection from circulatory disease. Numerous additives have already been found to be carcinogenic and have
been banned, and more continue to be, but
the problem of avoiding carcinogenic additives is exacerbated by the fact that the rate
of introduction of new additives outstrips the
rate at which existing ones can be tested for
safety. Carcinogenic preparation techniques
tend to be localized geographically or culturally and associated with increased rates of
cancers at specific sites. Similarly, aflatoxinassociated cancers are most common in areas
where control of aflatoxin-contaminated
foodstuffs is poor.
Some dietary factors appear to be cancerprotective. These include dietary fiber, vitamins A, C , and E, selenium, beta-carotenerich vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables
(cabbage family).
In accordance with these findings, the Interim Dietary Guidelines recommend a reduction in the total fats in the U.S. diet;
increased use of fruits, vegetables, and whole
grains, especially citrus, cruciferous, and carotene-rich vegetables; decreased use of salted,
pickled, and smoked foods, and alcohol and
cigarettes; and continued efforts to identify
mutagens in foods and to avoid contamination of foods with carcinogens from any
The text is long but highly readable. This
is not only because the authors are organized, write simply, and define their terms,
but also because they exhibit a refreshing
concern with objectivity and fairness in dealing with conflicting theories or experimental
results, and because they are unusually sensitive to nuances of the English language.
For example, the writers are to be congratulated for using the term human (not “man”)
nearly throughout the text. The exception to
this sensitivity-in chapter 16-is serious
enough to merit special mention. In this
chapter race (inherited) and ethnicity
(learned) are confused; if the authors fear the
word race, they can appropriately substitute
other terms such as extraction, ancestry, or
genetic derivation. It is to be hoped that a
second edition or printing will correct this
Anthropologists of several ilks will find
much of potential research interest in this
book. For example, the cancer-protective diet
not only closely matches the improved diet
proposed a few years ago in the (controversial!) U.S. Dietary Guidelines and recommendations long made by health-foodists, but
is also the sort of diet humans have presumably consumed during most of their evolutionary history. The implication of many
studies quoted in the text is that the destructive effects of carcinogens in foodstuffs or
diets can be controlled or cancelled by the
simultaneous presence of cancer-protective
substances. Thus there is material for both
the sociohistorian and the evolutionary biologist, as in the comparative analysis of traditional dietaries, or the reconstruction of
the health quality of prehistoric diets combined with paleopathological analysis. Medical anthropoligists might find meat (pun) for
comparative research in the emically defined
cancer-preventive diets of nonorthodox medical systems,, such as macrobiotics or naturopathy. Finally, despite the simplicity of the
guidelines, their low risk, and apparent benefit, on past experience it can probably be
predicted that they will meet with resistance. The causes of this resistance, too, are
researchable, both as psychological and as
sociocultural processes.
In summary, this book is useful as a source
of factual and bibliographic materials, and
as a starting point for creative research. As
a bonus, it is also well written and highly
Ofice of Znternational Programs
University of Maryland
College Park, Maryland
Barash, DP (1983) Aging: A n Exploration.
Seattle: University of Washington Press.
240 pp. $14.95 (cloth).
Bonne-Tamir, B, Cohen, T and Goodman, RM
(eds.) (1982) Human Genetics, Part A: The
Unfolding Genome. New York: Alan R.
Liss. 560 pp. $88.00 (cloth).
Brewer, GJ, and Sing, CF (1983) Genetics.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 729 pp.
$28.95 (cloth).
Cattell, RB (1982) The Inheritance of Personality and Ability. New York: Academic
Press. 449 pp. $47.50 (cloth).
Dukelow, WR (1983) Nonhuman Primate
Models for Human Diseases. 201 pp. $65.50
(cloth; within U.S.), $75.00 (cloth: outside
Easterby, R, Kroemer, KHE and Chaffin, DB
(eds.) (1982) Anthropometry and Biome
chanics. New York: Plenum Press. 327 pp.
$42.50 (cloth).
Jennings, JD (ed.) (1983)AncientNorth Americans. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. 642
pp. $24.95 (cloth).
Ortner, D J (ed.)(1983)How Humans Adapt. A
Biocultural Odyssey. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. 560 pp. $19.95
(cloth), $9.95 (paper).
Sperber, GH (ed.) (1983) Human Evolution,
Proceedings of a Symposium. Edmonton,
Canada: Canadian Journal of Anthropology, 3(2). 121 pp. $13.95 Canadian (paper).
Speth, JD (1983)Bison Kills and Bone Counts.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
227 pp. $20.00 (cloth), $8.00 (paper).
van der Linden, PGM (ed.) (1982) Transition
of the Human Dentition. Ann Arbor, MI:
Center for Human Growth and Development. 150 pp. $29.00 (cloth).
Wachtel, SS (1983)H-Y Antigen and the Biology of Sex Determination New York:
Grune & Stratton. xvi + 302 pp. $59.50
Wait, WK, and Nelson, BA (eds.) (1983) The
Star Lake Archaeological Project. Carbondale, IL:Southern Illinois University Press.
466 pp. $18.95 (cloth).
Zimmerman, L, Emerson, T, Willey, P, Swegle, M, Gregg, JB, Gregg, P, White, E,
Smith, C, Hakerman, T, and Bumsted, MP
(eds.) (1981) The Crow Creek Site (39BFll)
Massacre. Omaha, NE: US Army Corps of
Engineers, Omaha District. Purchase Order No (DACW45-78-C-0018).329 pp. $10.00
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