Book Review Ancient Health Skeletal Indicators of Agricultural and Economic Intensification.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 138:515–520 (2009) Book Reviews EVOLUTIONARY MEDICINE AND HEALTH: NEW PERSPECTIVES. Edited by Wenda R. Trevathan, E. O. Smith, and James J. McKenna. New York: Oxford University Press. 2007. 532 pp. ISBN 978-0-19-530706-1. $45.95 (cloth). This edited volume is a successful sequel to the ﬁrst Evolutionary Medicine and Health by the same editors (1999). That there has been sufﬁcient growth and development in the last decade to require a thoughtful new compendium testiﬁes to the vibrancy of the ﬁeld. The volume is divided into ﬁve parts, the ﬁrst being a sturdy review by the editors of the history, theoretical framework, and empirical foci of evolutionary medicine. The introduction outlines themes that recur throughout the book, e.g., the concept of an ‘‘evolved physiology’’ at odds with modern biosocial contexts, the vulnerability of early life stages, adaptation and plasticity, and the limited ability of conventional clinical perspectives to address life-course continua of health and function. A more thorough exposition of some central concepts such as life history theory would have been appropriate here and cut down the considerable overlap in subsequent chapters. The ﬁrst three chapters of Part Two, ‘‘Politics, Nutrition, and Diet,’’ deal with the health consequences of modern deviations from the ‘‘Paleolithic Diet.’’ In addition to the abundance of energy-dense foods that comprise the modern feast, Turner et al. (Chapter 2) cite ‘‘time famine’’ as a coconspirator. Encroachments on our time have led us away from traditional means of procuring and processing a great variety of plant foods and lean protein sources and toward a limited array of convenience foods (largely composed of reﬁned grains, sugars, and saturated fats) and reduced physical activity. This modern landscape causes a constellation of conditions collectively described as ‘‘diabesity’’ by Lieberman et al. (Chapter 3). As intriguing examples of how evolutionary medicine can generate explicit clinical and policy recommendations, both Turner et al. and Lieberman et al. suggest that our evolved generalist strategies may be a fundamental source of the failure of modern restrictive weight-loss programs (grapefruit diet, anyone?). A standout of this section, both in content and quality, is Wiley’s treatment of postweaning milk consumption (Chapter 5). Her review of studies demonstrating a general lack of an association between postweaning milk consumption and enhanced growth is an excellent model of science challenging accepted wisdom and policy. The next section, ‘‘Sex, Reproduction, and Health,’’ is one of the most interesting, tackling subjects as diverse as early-life impacts on reproductive function, premenstrual syndrome, and placentation. The ﬁrst two chapters highlight the central relationship between developmental experience and adult reproductive function. Chisholm and Coall (Chapter 6) integrate attachment theory with life history theory, which predicts trade-offs between reproductive maturation and mortality risk. They ﬁnd that poor parental attachment is associated with accelerated menarcheal age, suggesting that early familial instability may be a proxy for increased mortality risk. Nuñez-de la Mora and Bentley (Chapter 7) demC 2008 V WILEY-LISS, INC. onstrate that ovarian function in early-childhood migrants from Bangladesh is more similar to that of UKborn women, whether of European or Bangladeshi descent, than to that of Bangladeshi women who migrated in adulthood. Sievert (Chapter 9) addresses the question of whether there is evolutionary logic behind menstruation-suppressing oral contraceptives and summarizes cross-cultural perspectives on menstruation that may have greater bearing on menstrual suppression than an evolutionary explanation alone. Robillard et al. (Chapter 11) argue that long-term cohabitation decreases women’s antigen sensitivity to sperm, possibly preventing preeclampsia. While intriguing, epidemiological evidence supporting the cohabitation hypothesis is contradictory and conclusions about effect size are difﬁcult to draw from their summary. More compelling is their discussion of special adaptations of the hominid placenta that may relate to the developmental requirements of encephalization. Part Four, ‘‘Environments, Normality, and Lifetime Health,’’ is the most unfocused, in terms of both content and quality. Particularly strong are the chapters by Ball and Klingaman (Chapter 12) and Worthman (Chapter 16), both addressing sleep ecology in wonderfully integrative ways. Ball and Klingaman (Chapter 12) present an excellent perspective on the interconnected ecologies of co-sleeping and infant feeding and successfully critique current pediatric recommendations. Worthman’s (Chapter 16) synthesis of sleep physiology, the biocultural variability of sleep, and the sociocultural functions of late-evening activity and sleep is an outstanding contribution to the emerging scholarship on sleep that redeﬁnes sleep pathology and treatment. Flinn (Chapter 13) emphasizes the mechanisms by which psychosocial and interpersonal stress can lead to hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) dysfunction, which in turn relates to poor health outcomes, an approach that augments Coall and Chisholm’s premise that early life psychosocial stress has life history ramiﬁcations. Chapters on mountain sickness and addiction are less successfully integrated but do illustrate the great diversity of healthrelated subjects that can be framed by evolutionary theory. The ﬁnal section, ‘‘Chronic Diseases, Old Treatments, and More Misunderstanding,’’ is the volume’s theoretical capstone. Kuzawa (Chapter 18) offers a satisfying reﬁnement of his intergenerational inertia hypothesis. He proposes a series of mechanisms that link the early-life (including prenatal) effects alluded to in other chapters to developmental and health outcomes across generations and, in the process, demonstrates how a grasp of comparative literature makes an important contribution to anthropology. That this chapter is the one most referred to by other contributors speaks to its innovation and versatility. Weil’s chapter (Chapter 21) on congestive heart failure is another example of the comparative perspective put to illuminating use, and her accessible summary of the mismatch between evolutionary and modern environments is one of the most cleanly delivered in the volume. Lewis (Chapter 22) suggests an inherent antagonism between biology and medicine: whereas the former studies the phenomenon of life, the latter concerns the experience of living. Nesse (Chapter 23) offers hope that 516 BOOK REVIEWS evolutionary medicine can place the individual, lived experience within the phenomenology of biological life but cautions that the ﬁeld should not emphasize direct clinical recommendations. Rather, he proposes that evolutionary medicine’s role is to generate hypotheses and guide research programs, a point well demonstrated by this book. As the editors suggest in the preface, this chapter could be assigned as an initial reading in any evolutionary medicine course, and I think it would better contextualize the following chapters, particularly for readers who are looking for clinical relevance in evolutionary medicine. With 23 chapters and over 500 pages, the book could have beneﬁted from fewer, tighter contributions. Several chapters summarize important organizing principles (e.g., life history theory, the mismatch concept), allowing them to stand alone, but if used as a course text, this overlap would make assignment of every chapter repetitive. Conversely, there is such diversity of subjects that this single book could serve the needs of many courses across different departments. The bibliography, a compi- PRIMEVAL KINSHIP: HOW PAIR-BONDING GAVE BIRTH TO HUMAN SOCIETY. By Bernard Chapais. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2008. 349 pp. ISBN 978-0674-02782-4. $39.95 (hardcover). This is another book that, using primarily nonhuman primate data, attempts to get at the origins of human sociality or, as I prefer to express it, the Origins of Society. The shift to upper case is not just stylistic, but before I attempt to justify it, let me provide a summary of Chapais’s argument. Like present-day chimpanzees, the earliest hominids lived in promiscuous multimalemultifemale groups in which only primary kin-ties between females were behaviorally recognized and which natal females usually left in order to breed. The move to preponderant monogamy and pair-bonding was grounded in male sexual jealousy (mate-guarding) and reinforced by the development of weapons, which largely obliterated power differentials among males. Pair-bonding, in turn, encouraged the recognition of father-child links as well as further ties based on these bonds, i.e., to paternal kin. The father-child tie also strengthened the brother-sister relationship by (among other things) providing a second parental mediator. It also made possible the recognition of a female’s brother’s (or a male’s sister’s) mate and offspring, the precursors of in-law and nepotic relationships. With these relationships in place, and since females usually left their natal groups, the ground was laid for peaceful intergroup relations, which resulted in quintessentially human ‘‘tribal’’ organization. This abbreviated summary does not do justice to the cleverness and erudition Chapais displays. He would, I think, insist that his conclusions are speculative. But this implies that they are grounded in considerable evidence, and that they might be strengthened or weakened by further evidence, and I am not at all sure that this is true. Here it is necessary to invoke a distinction between two senses in which the word ‘‘evolution’’ has been employed in social theory. The ﬁrst refers to a more or less well documented sequence of events or forms such as historians, paleontologists, or comparative anatomists American Journal of Physical Anthropology lation of historical and innovative references, is an excellent resource. Future collections would do well to address such subjects as aging, sexuality and zoonoses. The volume’s somewhat uneven tone and quality could be due to a lack of clarity on the part of the editors and contributors regarding their audience, but may also be an accurate reﬂection of a young, dynamic science. On the whole, this thoughtful collection is a solid and important synthesis of an evolving discipline. JULIENNE N. RUTHERFORD Department of Anthropology Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20968 Published online 2 December 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). unearth or such as historical linguists use when they examine contemporary languages and infer from them a common ancestral language. This is real-world evolution, the quest for ‘‘small’’ origins. The second sense, by contrast, is entirely metaphorical. The forms, if not imaginary, are contemporaneous, and one of them is arbitrarily assigned archetypical status with regard to the others. Which is to say, the resulting scheme is a construction, not an observation, and the alleged ‘‘sequence’’ is tautologous. In nineteenth-century anthropology, the archetypes of choice were the Aboriginal Australians and the Hawaiians. Franz Boas and his students demolished these particular constructions, but others replaced them, positing such archetypes as the Aboriginal Australians (again), the savanna baboon, the Kung, the Yanomamo, and the chimpanzee (in both its ‘‘common’’ and bonobo forms). In the style of historical linguistics, Primeval Kinship occasionally recognizes that gorillas, chimps, and people have a common ancestor, and it occasionally infers characteristics of that ancestor from the commonalities among its descendants. But its most frequent tactic by far is to treat the common chimpanzee as if it were a living hominid fossil, something that both Exists Now and Existed in the Beginning, and this is much closer to the ‘‘big’’ origins of theology than an empirical strategy. Early hominid behavior, Chapais rightly tells us, does not fossilize, but this is no justiﬁcation for a pre-Darwinian employment of ‘‘evolution.’’ And just as he cannot distinguish the metaphor from Darwin’s precious legacy in his own analysis, he fails to see the same conﬂation in the work of others. Lewis Henry Morgan, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Elman Service, and Robin Fox are all treated as if they took Darwin seriously, whereas all expounded ‘‘evolutionary’’ schemes that involve the (imaginary) unfolding of typologies in (imagined) time. Should paleoanthropological behavioral reconstructions be abandoned? Not at all. There remains the model provided by historical linguistics. Moreover, it should be possible to resort to the fossil record to see if chimpanzees have changed much anatomically. If they have not, 517 BOOK REVIEWS it seems reasonable to infer that their behavior has gone largely unchanged, giving an empirical basis to their otherwise archetypical status. But it strikes me as telling that this last strategy occurs to Chapais not at all. Nor is his ethnographic grasp anywhere near adequate. His key error here is to take seriously LéviStrauss’s ‘‘atom of kinship,’’ which sees the relationship between brothers-in-law as somehow fundamental to human kin-reckoning, and which, since it was put forward in 1945, has been the subject of a very considerable critical literature, which Chapais plainly does not command. Nor is it anywhere close to the truth that ‘‘no anthropologist other than Lévi-Strauss has attempted to abstract mankind’s unity with regard to social organization’’ (p. 11). Thus Harold Schefﬂer, myself, and others have reached the far more empirically sustainable conclusion that human systems of kin classiﬁcation everywhere have central (or focal) and peripheral (or derived) membership; that focal members are much the same DENTAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN EVOLUTION: STATE-OF-THEART RESEARCH IN DENTAL PALEOANTHROPOLOGY. Edited by Shara E. Bailey and Jean-Jacques Hublin. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. 2007. 409 pp. ISBN 9781-4020-5844-8. $129.00 (hardcover). As the editors of this excellent volume state in their foreword, it is appropriate that the ﬁrst symposium on human evolution at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig (held in May 2005) was devoted to the analysis of teeth in a paleoanthropological context. As a result of the likelihood of mineralized teeth and dense jaw bones being preserved, the overwhelming signal in the hominin (indeed, in the vertebrate) fossil record is a dental one. In addition, the intrinsic characteristics of dental hard tissues make them extremely informative about functional, dietary, phylogenetic, and life history parameters. The resulting edited volume is a signiﬁcant contribution to the ﬁelds of dental anthropology and paleoanthropology and provides a useful glimpse of the current state-of-the-art of the scientiﬁc study and evolutionary signiﬁcance of primate and human teeth. The editors and the contributors have a broad view of the relevance of dental anthropology to the study of human evolution, and this conceptual breadth yields papers that deal with many of the areas where the study of teeth can furnish insights into the course of human evolution. In addition, some of the most interesting papers in this volume provide detailed descriptions of new imaging and analytical methods that, in some cases, have already yielded major returns in the study of dental anthropology and human origins and, in every case, promise more insights in the near future. This volume comprises four thematic sections, each with an introductory essay and four to seven articles. The diverse list of contributors includes many leading researchers in dental anthropology and paleoanthropology, with a strong international ﬂavor resulting from the presence of authors from Spain, France, Israel, the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Australia, South Africa, and the United States. Much of the work everywhere, i.e. they are close kin; and that these often serve as the basis for the classiﬁcation of in-laws-not, as Lévi-Strauss suggests, vice versa. In other words, there really is something primary about primary kin. Chapais seems to realize this, but he needs badly to cease his ﬂirtation with alternative theories. WARREN SHAPIRO Department of Anthropology Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20969 Published online 2 December 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). presented here is new and should be of signiﬁcant interest to both students and seasoned researchers in dental anthropology and paleoanthropology. In addition, this is an attractive volume, put together with excellent production values, lovely photographs (many in full color), and well executed and informative line drawings. A few too many minor typos are only a slight annoyance in this otherwise very well-produced volume. Part I, ‘‘Dental Evolution and Dental Morphology,’’ includes two interesting applications of 3D imaging of dental structures. Olejniczak and coauthors present a superb description of their use of microcomputed tomography to (nondestructively) reveal internal structures (notably the enamel-dentine junction) of primate and human teeth. Their careful explanation of important parameters of their work, including slice thickness and image resolution, will be of great use to other researchers considering the application of similar techniques. Gantt and coauthors present the results of their study of hominoid molar enamel thickness using a related and very promising approach to nondestructive 3D imaging of internal dental structures known as high-resolution X-ray computer tomography. What both papers make very clear is that the methodological bar has been raised signiﬁcantly with respect to dental anthropological investigation of enamel thickness and related topics and that researchers would be well advised to explore these new and very rewarding imaging techniques. Part II, ‘‘Dental Microstructure and Life History,’’ includes an eclectic mixture of articles that document the important work that is being done by dental histologists interested in reconstructing primate life histories based on the analysis of incremental growth lines in dental hard tissues. Schwartz and coauthors present a fascinating account of the complex interplay between body size, phylogeny, and life history in the gorilla-sized subfossil lemur Megaladapis edwardsi. Smith and coauthors summarize their histological methods of analysis of incremental lines in enamel and follow this up with what should surely be the deﬁnitive histological compariAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology 518 BOOK REVIEWS son of human and chimpanzee patterns of molar mineralization. Their sample is extremely impressive, including 269 histological sections from 134 molars of 75 chimpanzees and 500 sections from 420 molars of 365 individual humans from four different populations. Another high point of this section is the contribution by Bromage and coauthors in which they describe a portable confocal scanning optical microscope that was used to determine cross-striation periodicity (i.e., the number of cross striations between Retzius lines) in several molars of Australopithecus africanus. Parts III and IV include a number of excellent contributions to the study of dental development and diet. On the methodological front, several articles warrant mention, including Hlusko and Mahaney’s review of the use of quantitative genetics of pedigreed baboons and mice to explore aspects of dental ﬁeld theory. Braga and Heuze present an innovative approach based on techniques derived from evolutionary developmental biology (EVO-DEVO) to explore developmental sequences (based on radiographs) among more than 2,000 children from Europe, Asia, and Africa. Monge and coauthors also use radiographs to demonstrate signiﬁcant geographic variation in molar calciﬁcation between African–American and European–American children. My personal favorite among these many interesting articles is the work of Humphrey and coauthors on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios in human deciduous molars. By looking at thin sections of human molars, they were able to identify the neonatal line using standard histological methods. Using a laser ablation approach and mass spectrometry, ANCIENT HEALTH: SKELETAL INDICATORS OF AGRICULTURAL AND ECONOMIC INTENSIFICATION. Edited by Mark Nathan Cohen and Gillian M. M. Crane-Kramer. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 2007. 464 pp. ISBN 9780-8130-3082-1. $75.00 (cloth). Ancient Health is a follow-up volume to the groundbreaking Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture (edited by Mark Nathan Cohen and George J. Armelagos, 1984). Ancient Health continues to explore the earlier work’s theme—the health consequences arising from the transition to agriculture—and includes some limited data on general dietary transitions not speciﬁc to agriculture. The new volume updates earlier work and expands the geographic focus to include data from new geographic regions. The majority of studies in Ancient Health use traditional measures of malnutrition, pathology, and trauma, but a few include modern techniques, such as isotopic and elemental analysis of hard tissues. The major ﬁnding of the 1984 volume was that the transition to agriculture and the resulting increase in political and economic complexity had a negative impact on human health. Based on the new studies in Ancient Health, the editors conclude that declines in health were common in prehistory, except in Southeast Asia, where health was stable or improved. This volume includes some excellent examples of scholarship and valuable new data. As a whole, Ancient American Journal of Physical Anthropology they then sampled Sr/Ca ratios from enamel that was developed before birth and after birth in breast-fed and bottle-fed babies. Their results were supportive of their initial hypotheses about the effects of breast-feeding (decreased Sr/Ca ratios) and bottle-feeding (increased Sr/ Ca ratios); the implications for this approach to understand changes in infant diet (including weaning) are enormous. As should be clear from these descriptions of some of the chapters in Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution, dental anthropology has come a long way from the days of measuring lengths and breadths of teeth using calipers. The papers presented here emphatically demonstrate that the study of dental morphology, function, microwear, and microstructure have much to contribute to the study of human evolution in the 21st century. The editors and contributors have truly created a state-ofthe-art volume that will be of great interest and utility to biological anthropologists, paleoanthropologists, and vertebrate paleontologists. ROBERT L. ANEMONE Department of Anthropology Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, Michigan DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20987 Published online 12 January 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Health has several strengths. First, the presentation of data from previously underdescribed and new geographic areas (e.g., Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and Thailand) contributes signiﬁcantly to the ﬁeld of bioarchaeology. Second, the editors have included signiﬁcant updates to research presented in the 1984 volume, and some chapters report the results of comprehensive research. Among these are ‘‘Health and lifestyle in Georgia and Florida: Agricultural origins and intensiﬁcation in regional perspective’’ by Larsen et al.; ‘‘The impact of economic intensiﬁcation and social complexity on human health in Britain from 6000 BP (Neolithic) and the introduction of farming to the mid-nineteenth century AD’’ by Roberts and Cox; and ‘‘Biological consequences of sedentism: agricultural intensiﬁcation in northeastern Thailand’’ by Douglas and Pietrusewsky. Third, some studies present innovative approaches as in ‘‘Maize and Mississippians in the American Midwest: twenty years later’’ by Cook and ‘‘A brief continental view from Windover’’ by Doran. Last, some chapters engage the reader in critical discussions of methods, techniques, and analysis, e.g., ‘‘Population plasticity in southern Scandinavia: from oysters and ﬁsh to gruel and meat’’ by Bennike and Alexandersen and the above-mentioned Roberts and Cox chapter. A major weakness of the volume is inconsistency between chapters in terms of methods, data, and presentation. Cohen and Crane-Kramer address some of these 519 BOOK REVIEWS concerns in the book’s introduction. Some studies present data collected prior to standardization of methods. The editors argue that overall consistency in methods is less important than internal consistency in methods employed by the researcher (or group of researchers) working in the area. Other studies are limited because of the availability of data and/or less sophisticated collection methods. These were included because they represent pioneering research in previously underdescribed geographic regions. In some cases, the value of the contribution is questionable because of extremely narrow scope and analysis (e.g., ‘‘Iron-deﬁciency anemia in early Mongolian nomads’’ by Bazarsad). Faced with the dilemma of which studies to include, the editors seem to have taken a ‘‘kitchen-sink’’ approach, as is often the case in edited volumes. Inconsistencies in scholarship, methods, and analysis across papers may be due to the informal organization of the conference that gave rise to this volume. In the interest of brevity and an audience familiar with their techniques and methods, authors focus on reporting results rather than methods and sometimes use different descriptive statistics to report the same traits. The editors attempt to provide an overview of health trends across regions in data summary tables at the end of the volume, but they do not address how the impact of variation in data-collection methods, reporting, and analysis is factored into the summaries. For instance, does each author reporting linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) record presence based on visual inspection or palpation of enamel surface? Differ- BOOKS RECEIVED Adams BJ, and Crabtree PJ (2008) Comparative Skeletal Anatomy: A Photographic Atlas for Medical Examiners, Coroners, Forensic Anthropologists, and Archaeologists. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. 348 pp. $129.00 (hardcover). Allen NJ, Callan H, and Dunbar R (eds.) (2008) Early Human Kinship: From Sex to Social Reproduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. 336 pp. $94.95 (cloth). Bacvarov K (ed.) (2008) Babies Reborn: Infant/Child Burials in Pre- and Protohistory. Proceedings of the XV UISPP World Congress (Lisbon, September 4–9, 2006), Vol. 24, Session WS26. Oxford, England: British Archaeological Reports. 223 pp. £38.00 (paper). Bocquet-Appel J, and Bar-Yosef O (eds.) (2008) The Neolithic Demographic Transition and Its Consequences. New York: Springer. 544 pp. $319.00 (hardcover). Bowler PJ (2007) Monkey Trials and Gorilla Sermons. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 272 pp. $24.95 (cloth). Burkhardt F (ed.) (2008) Charles Darwin: The Beagle Letters. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 544 pp. $32.00 (cloth). Campbell CJ (ed.) (2008) Spider Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of the Genus Ateles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 352 pp. $140.00 (hardcover). ences in methods will yield different LEH frequencies, perhaps artiﬁcially inﬂating values for some regions relative to others. Or, if cribra orbitalia is reported as percentage of population affected in one study and elsewhere as frequency of affected elements, how is this compiled into one summary table? These issues warrant cautious use of the summary tables. Despite the introductory editorial caveats, the lack of consistency presents the reader with a challenge to navigate wildly varying chapter formats to ﬁnd comparative data derived using the same methods. An effort to standardize chapter formatting, and include in each article a reference to methods employed for data collection would have greatly improved the volume without taking up too much space. With a wealth of data, but such inconsistencies among studies, Ancient Health is most appropriate as a reference volume for established academics and advanced graduate students in the ﬁeld of bioarchaeology. KARA C. HOOVER Department of Anthropology University of Alaska-Fairbanks Fairbanks, Alaska DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20988 Published online 12 January 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Jablonski NG, and Leakey MG (eds.) (2008) Koobi Fora Research Project, Volume 6: The Fossil Monkeys. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences. 469 pp. $87.00 (cloth). Jablonski NG, and Leakey MG (eds.) (2008) Koobi Fora Research Project, Volume 6: The Fossil Monkeys. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences. $25.00 (DVD). Magilton J, Lee F, and Boylston A (eds.) (2008) ‘Lepers Outside the Gate’: Excavations at the Cemetery of the Hospital of St. James and St. Mary Magdalene, Chichester, 1986–1987 and 1993. York, UK: Council for British Archaeology. 312 pp. $80.00 (paper). Masataka N (ed.) (2008) The Origins of Language: Unraveling Evolutionary Forces. Tokyo: Springer. 157 pp. $119.00 (hardcover). Mullins PR (2008) Glazed America: A History of the Doughnut. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 224 pp. $24.95 (hardcover). Radick G (2007) The Simian Tongue: The Long Debate About Animal Language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 578 pp. $45.00 (cloth). Redmond I (2008) The Primate Family Tree: The Amazing Diversity of Our Closest Relatives. Buffalo, NY: Fireﬂy Books. 176 pp. $35.00. Sober E (2008) Evidence and Evolution: The Logic Behind the Science. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 412 pp. $29.99 (hardcover). Sommer M (2008) Bones and Ochre: The Curious Afterlife of the Red Lady of Paviland. Cambridge, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 520 BOOK REVIEWS MA: Harvard University Press. 416 pp. $39.95 (cloth). Tomasello M (2008) Origins of Human Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 400 pp. $36.00 (cloth). Uerpmann H, Uerpmann M, and Jasim SA (eds.) (2008) The Natural Environment of Jebel AlBuhais: Past and Present. Tübingen, Germany: Kerns Publishing. 152 pp. €69.95 (cloth). Warren MW, Walsh-Haney HA, and Freas LE (eds.) (2008) The Forensic Anthropology Laboratory. Boca Raton, FL: CRC. 240 pp. $119.95 (hardcover). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Wrangham R, and Ross E (eds.) (2008) Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Beneﬁts of Long-Term Research. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 280 pp. $130.00 (hardcover). DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21016 Published online 30 January 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).