AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 137:119–122 (2008) Book Reviews THE EVOLUTION AND HISTORY OF HUMAN POPULATIONS IN SOUTH ASIA. By Michael D. Petraglia and Bridget Allchin. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. 2007. 479 pp. ISBN 1-402-05561-7. $129.00 (hardcover). This very ambitious edited volume provides the reader an impressively broad perspective on issues relevant to the people of South Asia. Contributions concerning initial hominid migrations to the subcontinent, Acheulean archaeology, and the reconstruction of South Asian populational relationships employing genetic and craniometric data are not unexpected in such a book. Surprisingly, these chapters are joined by others focused upon historical linguistics, domestication of livestock, and the origins of caste, demonstrating a breadth of research foci, data, and approaches not normally encountered in most edited volumes. By bringing together such diverse research, the editors were successful in producing ‘‘a new ‘crossroads’ of understanding’’ (p. vii) the populational histories of South Asia. As a paleoanthropologist, however, the overriding emotion that I experienced while reading this book was frustration. This was the fault of neither the editors nor the contributors but rests squarely on the paucity of direct evidence bearing on our species’ evolution in the region. The Indian subcontinent has produced only one premodern hominid fossil: the Narmada partial cranium found in 1982 and most recently dated to *236 ka. Although this fossil was the focus of one of the volume’s 19 chapters, an excellent and compelling analysis by Sheela Athreya, I found it ironic that the book was published in Springer’s Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology Series, since it has very little paleoanthropological content. The book is divided into three parts, and for the readers of AJPA, these sections may correspond to descending levels of relevance and/or interest. Part I, ‘‘Setting Foundations,’’ includes six chapters investigating the earliest evidence of hominid presence in the region as revealed by paleontological, paleolandscape, archaeological, and paleoanthropological data. These contributions provide the primary focus of my review. The second section, ‘‘The Modern Scene,’’ comprises the next four chapters. Two of these employ modern genetic (Endicott et al.) and craniometric (Stock et al.) data in reconstructing the relationships of South Asian populations, while a third (James) attempts to track the emergence of modern human behavior in the region. Although effective, all three suffer in my opinion from their stated acceptance of the replacement model of modern human origins. Examples include James’s assumption that Neandertals were incapable of behaving in a ‘‘modern human’’ fashion (p. 202) and the omission by Stock et al. (pp. 245, 247) of alternative genetic interpretations by researchers such as Relethford and Templeton, whose work provides strong evidence against a complete replacement of ‘‘archaics’’ by ‘‘modern humans.’’ The fourth chapter in this section (Jones) provides a fascinating look at the Toba supervolcanic eruption that wreaked regional and perhaps C 2008 V WILEY-LISS, INC. global havoc 74,000 years ago. This event scarred northern Sumatra with a caldera 100 km long and 30 km wide! Part III, ‘‘New Worlds in the Holocene,’’ includes seven chapters, with the ﬁrst by John Lukacs being the most relevant to this journals’ purview. In this contribution, Lukacs uses skeletal data to show that the earliest Holocene inhabitants of the region were rather tall hunter-foragers, who were largely unafﬂicted by the health deﬁcits manifested in later groups that had transitioned to agriculture. As mentioned earlier, Indian paleoanthropology can be a lesson in frustration. The dearth of fossil evidence could be understood and accepted if the subcontinent were a geographic cul-de-sac, an evolutionary dead end. But what is maddening is the near universal consensus that although early hominids must have traveled through this region on their way to the well-documented fossil sites of East and Southeast Asia, they left virtually no sign of their passage. The ﬁrst two chapters of this book illuminate this problem and provide some possible explanations. Turner and O’Regan posit a ‘‘coastal exploiter’’ adaptation for Homo erectus dispersing out of Africa. Employing analogs of other large-bodied, terrestrial mammals that are known to utilize on- or nearshore marine resources and a number of coastal archaeological sites, the authors build a plausible scenario in which H. erectus enters Asia via coastlines. The ﬂat, linear topography of the coasts would favor relatively rapid movement, and their clear sight lines would reduce the success of predator attacks. Although occasionally bountiful, the general unpredictability of shoreline resources would serve to keep the hominids on the move. Unfortunately, the rise of sea levels during interglacial periods (such as we ﬁnd ourselves in now) has drowned these paleocoastlines, and the evidence of hominid migrations they may have contained, under hundreds of feet of seawater. In the following chapter, Robin Dennell explains why Early Pleistocene occupation of northern India and Pakistan was ephemeral, at best, and why peninsular India was not successfully inhabited by hominids until the Middle Pleistocene. Dennell suggests that the silt-laden ﬂood plains of the Indus and Ganges river systems were poor sources of lithic raw material, thus hindering early hominid exploitation of animal resources and limiting their mobility and, ultimately, their capability to permanently occupy the region. Only after the geological uplifts of the Middle Pleistocene and the subsequent wider availability of stone were hominids able to sustain occupations in the subcontinent, as evidenced by the much higher density of Acheulean sites dating to this period. Was Homo heidelbergensis responsible for the Acheulean industries of India? Sheela Athreya’s innovative and sophisticated multivariate analysis of the Narmada cranium implies that it was not. Although relatively large brained and geologically young, the Narmada specimen is most comfortably accommodated in H. erectus, owing to its morphological and geographic intermediacy between the African and East/Southeast Asian demes of this broadly distributed paleospecies. Athreya’s chapter concludes with a speculation on the biological reality of 120 BOOK REVIEWS H. heidelbergensis and suggests that, like its nomenclatural predecessor archaic H. sapiens, this binomial is also deserving of the taxonomic scrap heap. I would recommend this volume for advanced students and professionals interested in South Asian prehistory. It is appropriately illustrated, competently produced, and attractively presented. My hope is that this book will stimulate current and future scholars to devote themselves to prehistoric discovery on the vast and important, yet still largely unknown, Indian subcontinent. ANTHROPOLOGICAL GENETICS: THEORY, METHODS AND APPLICATIONS. Edited by Michael Crawford. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2007. 476 pp. ISBN 0-521-54697-4. $65.00 (paper). Although not the ‘‘Father’’ of anthropological genetics, Mike Crawford has certainly earned the title ‘‘Chairman of the Board of Trustees’’ of this synthetic, academic discipline. Since 1973, he has edited (or coedited) ﬁve books and two special issues of the journal Human Biology devoted to various aspects of the history, theory, methods, application, current status, and future trajectory of this ﬁeld of inquiry. The term ‘‘anthropological genetics’’ was ﬁrst used by Derek Roberts in a lecture to the Royal Anthropological Society published in 1965. In the 1970s and 1980s the discipline was formalized as a separate entity focusing on population structure, genetic-environmental interactions in complex traits, human evolution from a broad biocultural perspective, and non-Western, reproductively isolated populations as preferred subjects. All of these core topics and more are abundantly represented in this latest volume, which, regrettably, Dr. Crawford states will be his last effort in this important series of publications that have essentially deﬁned the ﬁeld of anthropological genetics. After a historical introduction, the current compendium is divided into four major sections. Part 1, ‘‘Theory,’’ contains two chapters. The ﬁrst addresses the apportionment of genetic diversity and human racial categories, while the second explores gene mapping and genetic epidemiology. Part 2, ‘‘Methods,’’ has ﬁve chapters ranging in content from ﬁeld research to demography, evolutionary forces and molecular markers, quantitative traits, and ancient DNA. Part 3, ‘‘General Applications,’’ with three chapters, describes current technologies used in forensics, molecular ﬂuorescence studies, and the mapping of genes associated with quantitative trait variation. The ﬁnal section, Part 4, ‘‘The Human Diaspora,’’ includes ﬁve chapters, although Harpending’s ﬁnal chapter on the present and future of anthropological genetics should probably stand alone just as Crawford’s introductory historical chapter did. The other four diaspora chapters chronicle our African origin(s) and subsequent colonizations of Europe, Oceania, and the Americas. Unfortunately, the author who was to have contributed the chapter on Asia, the key migratory crossroads for the human global expansion, defaulted too late for a replacement to be found. The originally planned treatments of primate molecular genetics and behavioral genetics were omitted for the same reason. The book’s intended audience is advanced undergraduate and graduate students. As is often the case with American Journal of Physical Anthropology ANDREW KRAMER Department of Anthropology University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20843 Published online 29 April 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). edited volumes, chapters vary considerably in level of sophistication, mathematical details, depth of topical coverage, and overall quality. Especially useful information for students can be found in Crawford’s discussion of the realities of ﬁeld research in today’s increasingly politicized world (Chapter 4). This chapter also presents a concise introduction to the enormously successful and diverse ﬁeld research program carried out by Dr. Crawford and his associates, spanning both four continents and four decades. Other chapters that deserve special mention for both quality of content and execution include Chapter 3 by Terwilleger and Lee on the intersection of anthropological genetics and genetic epidemiology in the context of human gene mapping; Chapter 7 by Relethford on quantitative traits; Chapter 8 by O’Rourke on ancient DNA; Chapter 12 by Tiskoff and Gonder on human origins; Chapter 13 by Arrendi and colleagues on the peopling of Europe; and Chapter 14 by MatisooSmith on the peopling of Oceania. The statistically more demanding treatment of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, emphasizing variance component linkage methods, by Blangero and colleagues contains much useful bibliographic information on common complex diseases and will reward those who persevere. Harpending’s controversial ﬁnal chapter is vintage, provocative Henry Harpending: some readers will smile while nodding their heads in approval; others will scream and perhaps rant and rave more than a bit. In any case, his musings on the present status and future trajectory of anthropological genetics are a must-read. Some of his predictions, in his delegated capacity as an author of ‘‘science ﬁction,’’ will have profound implications for human society—if they turn out to be accurate! Many sacred cows seemingly wandered from their protective, politically correct pasturage into a bull ring. For instance: Will ‘‘the whole Boasian ediﬁce . . . soon come crashing down’’ (p. 463)? Will groups be conﬁrmed to differ in intelligence as individuals certainly do (p. 464)? And will anthropological geneticists ﬁnally stop repeating the mantra that alleged group differences in cognitive and behavioral propensities have nothing to do with gene differences (p. 463)? The recent book that most closely shares overall topical coverage with the Crawford volume is the superb 2004 textbook, Human Evolutionary Genetics: Origins, Peoples and Disease written by Jobling, Hurles, and Tyler-Smith. Although it abundantly displays the expected sophisticated color graphics of a cutting-edge textbook, there are also many informative black and white ﬁgures and tables scattered throughout the Crawford book. Unfortunately, the stylistic ﬂow and consistent 121 BOOK REVIEWS writing quality evidenced by the three-author endeavor make the edited volume with 25 contributing authors seem somewhat jarring in comparison. If I were teaching a lecture-based survey course in human evolutionary/anthropological genetics, I would prefer the textbook; however, a seminar on selected aspects of anthropological genetics could proﬁtably adopt the Crawford volume. It is customary to pick a few nits near the end of a review, but I will resist the temptation . . . a strong temptation to be sure, because there are too many distracting glitches. There are factual genetics errors, wrong dates, incorrect references, incorrect equations, misleading explanations, and important historical omissions, as well as typographic and grammatical errors scattered throughout the book. Also, there are a few weak chapters that will require substantial supplementation by an instructor. Overall, however, it is far more appropriate to end on a distinctly positive note because this is, indeed, BABOON METAPHYSICS: THE EVOLUTION OF A SOCIAL MIND. By Dorothy L. Cheney and Richard M. Seyfarth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2007. 358 pp. ISBN 0-22610243-2. $27.50 (cloth). He who understands baboon would do more towards metaphysics than Locke. Charles Darwin, Notebook M Unlike Raymond Corbey’s The Metaphysics of Apes, which came out the same year, Baboon Metaphysics responds directly to Darwin’s challenge with a focus not on the metaphysics of humans but on the metaphysics of baboons: what baboons know, what they understand, and how that knowledge and understanding position them in the natural world. Baboon Metaphysics is an enjoyable and engrossing read, and its tone is one of fascination with the social nature of baboon behavior. The intended audience is clearly broad, and the book is correspondingly heavy on references to popular culture and light on scientiﬁc jargon and statistics. Like most semipopular books, this one frequently paints baboons with an anthropomorphic brush, but this is part of its appeal. Baboons are described as being intriguingly similar to humans in all the ways that primatologists have long recognized but especially with regard to their social complexity and knowledge. The majority of the data discussed in the book derive from a troop of chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) inhabiting the Moremi Game Reserve in Botswana’s Okavango Delta. Unstated but implied is that the book is a synthesis of work at Moremi, where the authors based their research for 15 years. As such, it does for baboons what their earlier volume, How Monkeys See the World (1990), did for vervets. Like that book, this one does not simply review the literature for a species but instead uses that species as a vehicle to gain insight into the social mind. In the unlikely case that any readers of this journal are unaware of the authors’ earlier work, their methods center on carefully designed, painstakingly executed vocalization playback experiments. The knowledge and understanding of the experimental subjects are discerned by interpreting their reactions to calls played a good compilation that provides many stimulating summaries highlighting the incredibly diverse subject matter of anthropological genetics. It also represents a ﬁtting conclusion to Dr. Crawford’s editorial legacy as caretaker of this wide-ranging interdisciplinary endeavor. His colleagues and students who have learned so much from him owe him a great debt of gratitude. Thanks, Mike, for a job well done! STEPHEN L. ZEGURA Department of Anthropology University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20845 Published online 29 April 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). from a hidden speaker. This technique, previously used on birds and adapted by the authors for monkeys, has been their signature method for decades and has proven to be remarkably informative about the minds of the animals they study. Because each experiment involves the recording and archiving of spontaneously given calls followed by call calibration (to match playback conditions) and playback under a variety of situations that may take weeks to materialize, one playback experiment can take over a year to execute. Had the authors done all of this work themselves, they would have been absent from their day jobs at the University of Pennsylvania for over a decade. Rather, their experiments at Moremi were all designed in collaboration with a series of postdoctoral scholars, and most of the on-the-ground work was conducted by the postdocs and their partners. The book is organized into two main sections: Chapters 1–5, which introduce metaphysics and baboons, and Chapters 6–12, which explore various aspects of cognition and communication. The book in its entirety would be excellent fodder for a graduate seminar, and Chapters 6–9 would be suitable to assign as topical reviews to students at the undergraduate or introductory graduate level. Chapter 8, ‘‘Theory of Mind,’’ is the most extensive and informative chapter; in it, the authors summarize and simplify an enormous and contentious literature. As might be expected, this chapter provides more evidence for the absence of theory of mind in baboons (and even great apes) than for its presence. Throughout the book, anecdotes complement the experimental results. Here, the most striking descriptions are those of female baboons drowning their own infants when crossing deep water because they don’t realize that the infants on their bellies cannot breathe, or ignoring the calls of their juvenile offspring stranded on a nearby island during a ﬂood. One imagines that if there were any selection for mental mechanisms such as theory of mind, it would be for the ability to attribute mental states to one’s own offspring in order to keep them alive! The culmination of the authors’ arguments comes in Chapter 11, where they tie primate cognition to the evolution of language. Here, they use research on animal communication to support the argument that social American Journal of Physical Anthropology 122 BOOK REVIEWS intelligence was the prime mover in human linguistic evolution. Although monkeys show little evidence of theory of mind, and their vocal production is limited in scope, ﬂexibility, and syntactical structure, they show remarkable perceptual abilities, particularly with regard to social knowledge and semantic representation. Using Jerry Fodor’s ‘‘language of thought’’ (The Language of Thought, 1975), the authors argue convincingly for precursors to language in nonhuman animals. The conclusion of this chapter is clear: sociality has played a key role in language evolution. Ironically, some of the most convincing evidence presented in the book is that supporting the cognitive abilities of animals other than primates. I found the ability of pinyon jays and great tits to remember and recognize ranked lists and use transitive inference to be quite humbling to my primate-centric worldview. Even more so was the revelation that domestic dogs seem to make stronger connections between seeing and knowing than do chimpanzees. As pointed out by the editors of another recent volume (Comparative Vertebrate Cognition: Are Primates Superior to Non-primates? Lesley J. Rogers and Gisela Kaplan, eds., 2003), examples such as these must play a role in any discussion of primates’ ‘‘unique abilities.’’ At the end of Chapter 7, the authors propose several cognitive abilities that may, in fact, distinguish monkeys (and apes) from other animals. However, as the authors point out, all of these purported differences are based on an absence of relevant data on nonprimates rather than any data showing that nonprimates actually lack these abilities. Many who have published on the behavioral ecology of olive, yellow, or chacma baboons will be disappointed that the literature cited in this book is heavily weighted towards Moremi and Amboseli, the two longest running American Journal of Physical Anthropology ‘‘savanna’’ baboon research sites. Chapters 2–5 also contain numerous generalities about baboon behavior that do not apply to all savanna baboons, let alone non-savanna baboons such as the hamadryas. However, only someone well versed in the baboon literature will notice these omissions, and, to be fair, distinctions among baboon subspecies and populations are not terribly relevant to the aims of the book as a whole. From a broader perspective, the fact that most of the literature cited derives from Moremi and Amboseli highlights the incredible value of these study sites to the scientiﬁc community. The authors deserve tremendous kudos for managing to keep Moremi well funded for so long and for producing such a rich, informative data set from a single study troop. Baboon Metaphysics is a focused summary and analysis of cognition in baboons and other social animals with an explicit emphasis on elegant experimental research conducted by the authors and their collaborators. It is not a book about baboons in particular, but a book about social cognition that happens to focus on baboons. What is clear from this book is that baboon cognition is richer than strict behaviorists would have us believe. What is unclear is whether baboon cognition is any more sophisticated than that of other highly social animals. LARISSA SWEDELL Queens College-City University of New York New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology New York, New York DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20861 Published online 13 June 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).